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Inter-Laboratory Characterization of Biot Parameters of Poro-Elsastic Materials for Automotive Applications

Autoneum Holding AG-Francesca Ronzio, Claudio Bertolini
Faurecia S.A.-Minh Tan Hoang, Ludovic Dejaeger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1523
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Automotive suppliers provide multi-layer trims mainly made of porous materials. They have a real expertise on the characterization and the modeling of poro-elastic materials. A dozen parameters are used to characterize the acoustical and elastical behavior of such materials. The recent vibro-acoustic simulation tools enable to take into account this type of material but require the Biot parameters as input. Several characterization methods exist and the question of reproducibility and confidence in the parameters arises. A Round Robin test was conducted on three poro-elastic material with four laboratories. Compared to other Round Robin test on the characterization of acoustical and elastical parameters of porous material, this one is more specific since the four laboratories are familiar with automotive applications. Methods and results are compared and discussed in this work. Finally some guidelines are drawn to improve the confidence in the characterized parameters and to compare them under similar conditions possibly adapted to the final application.
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Innovative Acoustic Material Concept Integration Into Vehicle Design Process

Odenwald-Chemie GmbH-Michael Feist-Muench
dBVibroAcoustics-Denis Blanchet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1527
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Integration of acoustic material concepts into vehicle design process is an important part of full vehicle design. The ability to assess the acoustic performance of a particular sound package component early in the design process allows designers to test various designs concepts before selecting a final products. This paper describes an innovative acoustic material concept which is easily integrated in a design process through the use of a database of Biot parameters. Biot parameters are widely used in the automotive industry to describe the physical interactions between the acoustics waves travelling through foams, fibers or metamaterials and the solid and fluid phase of these poro-elastic materials. This new acoustic material concept provides a combination of absorption, transmission loss and added damping on the panel it is attached to. It has shown unique vibro-acoustics performance when tested on a German car manufacturer flagship vehicle and provides the ability to reduce the space needed for sound package component compared with classical solutions.
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Study of the Noise Contributors on the Interior Acoustic of a Car and Their Countermeasures

Autoneum Holding AG-Thibault Lafont, Claudio Bertolini
Saint-Gobain-Fabien Dalzin, Fabien Bouillet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1585
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper shows that the collaboration between a glass manufacturer and a passive acoustic treatment manufacturer can bring different benefits and considerably improve the interior acoustics of a vehicle. In terms of passenger safety and well-being, glazing have always played a key role by offering solutions to interior comfort, particularly when it comes to heat and acoustics. Today, cars are becoming a living space which from an acoustic point of view brings a challenge for the interior comfort. Indeed, glazing has no absorption and classically it has an acoustic insulation weakness around its coincident frequency. In most of the cases, these different aspects make glazing one of the main contributors to the sound pressure level in the passenger compartment, and the trend is not one of change. However, there are possible countermeasures. One of which is the use of laminated glazing with acoustic PVB. This solution allows to reduce the loss of insulation performance at the coincidence frequency. The other is the usage of passive interior acoustic trims. When properly positioned and optimized, the latter…
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Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High metallic silver colors using thin, smooth aluminum flake pigments are typically adopted for the luxury grades by each car manufacturer. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(N.V.) content and high aluminum flake pigment content are generally known to be necessary to achieve high metallic appearance designs. However, poor distribution of the aluminum flake pigments can cause mottling. In addition, a high concentration of aluminum flake pigments can result in a weak coating. Therefore, current paint systems are limited in the degree of high metallic appearance design that is possible. As a countermeasure to those problems, we investigated whether cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid can function as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it forms strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces when it is dispersed for waterborne paint. For example, viscosity versus shear rate testing of an aqueous solution of 0.4wt% CNF and less than N.V. 5wt% showed a response curve similar…
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Routing methods considering security and real-time of vehicle gateway system

FESCARO-Daehyun Kim
Infineon Technologies AG-Karel Heurtefeux
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, vehicle networks have increased complexity due to the demand for autonomous driving or connected devices and require high bandwidth. And vehicle manufacturers have begun applying Ethernet protocols, a new network that can replace existing vehicle network protocols. However, it is difficult to replace the entire CAN protocols with Ethernet protocols completely due to safety and reliability issues. Therefore, the vehicle manufacturer introduced a vehicle gateway system. The system uses Ethernet for the external network and the CAN network for communication between internal controllers. The vehicle gateway system provides an interface for constantly connecting and exchanging vehicle data in a heterogeneous communication environment between the existing CAN network protocol and the external Ethernet protocol. Therefore, it is necessary to design the minimum delay time considering the real time. In addition, since there is a risk of hacking due to external communication connection, a security function to ensure the integrity of the message is essential. This paper introduces routing methods considering security and real time. In the case of security, the Cipher-based message authentication code (CMAC)…
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Platooning Vehicles Control for Balancing Coupling Maintenance and Trajectory Tracking - Feasibility Study Using Scale-Model Vehicles

Kubota Corp.-Ayumi Suzuki
The University of Tokyo-Rui Fukui, Qiwei Ye, Shin’ichi Warisawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0128
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, car-sharing services using ultra-compact mobilities have been attracting attention as a means of transportation for one or two passengers in urban areas. A platooning system consisting of a manned leader vehicle and unmanned follower vehicles can reduce vehicle distributors. We have proposed a platooning system which controls vehicle motion based on the relative position and posture measured by non-contact coupling devices installed between vehicles. The feasibility of the coupling devices was validated through a HILS experiment. There are two basic requirements for realizing our platooning system; (1) all devices must remain coupled and (2) follower vehicles must be able to track the leader vehicle trajectory. Thus, this paper proposes two vehicle control method for satisfying those requirements. They are the “device coupling and trajectory tracking merging method” and the “trajectory shifting method”. The device coupling and trajectory tracking merging method consisting of a coupling keeping controller and a trajectory tracking controller. The predominant controller is chosen according to the amount of the coupling device error and the trajectory tracking error. The trajectory shifting method…
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Virtual Verification of Light Reflection for Cluster and Side Mirror in Real Time Scenario

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Manas Bhatnagar, Jyotiranjan Biswal, Saurabh Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0568
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the very automobile world trends are changing at a very fast pace, due to continuous expectation changes by user and new regulatory requirements demand from government authorities with a very stringent timeline.In the current scenario, manufacturer has to wait for mock up for concept selection and physical proto build to conclude open points of design verification. This complete process takes more than a year to enhance the design maturity for further builds.In VECV we have created Cluster design standard to meet different level of cluster illumination & reflection at virtual level. We are defining the cluster light illumination based on our rigorous study on cluster reflection impact on side glass, windscreen and mirror. Accordingly we have packaged our mirror to minimize the impact of cluster reflection on mirror visibility.With the help of virtual verification of cluster and Side mirror inter co-relation of packaging, we significantly reduced the time loss and save huge cost required for developing proto build. Different options of mirror and cluster can be verified in quick session. With the help of…
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Computation of Safety Architecture for Electric Power Steering System and Compliance with ISO 26262

Oakland University-Saif Salih, Richard Olawoyin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0649
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays and with the advancement of the automotive industry, functional safety has become one of the most significant challenges for autonomous and connected vehicles. The automotive industry is transforming from conventional driving technology where the driver or the human being is a part of the control loop to fully autonomous development and self-driving mode. The SAE levels of autonomy define level 4 by (These automated driving features will not require you to take over driving). Thus, more and more safety-related electronically controlled units ECUs are deployed in the control module of the vehicle. As a result, more complexity of system architecture, software, and hardware are interacting and interfacing which increases the risk of both systematic and random hardware failures. In order to reduce these risks and avoid any potential failure or loss of control, ISO 26262 was introduced and developed to guide the automotive original equipment manufacturer OEMs and suppliers to ensure an adequate and acceptable level of safety procedures are implemented. This study focuses on the EPS systems and their ASIL assignement. It was…
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Empirical Study of the Braking Performance of Pedestrian Autonomous Emergency Braking (P-AEB)

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Omair Siddiqui, Nicholas Famiglietti, Benjamin Nguyen, Ryan Hoang, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0878
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle manufacturers are beginning to improve existing autonomous emergency braking (AEB) algorithms by pedestrian identification and avoidance capability. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has performed tests on eleven such vehicles; data is publicly available and was analyzed for this study. The IIHS tests were divided into three scenarios- 1) An adult pedestrian crossing a street on a path perpendicular to the travel line of vehicle, with a vehicle approach speed of 20 or 40 km/h, 2) a child pedestrian crossing a street from behind an obstruction on a path perpendicular to the travel line of a vehicle (approach speeds 20, 40 km/h), and 3) an adult pedestrian near the edge of a road in a path parallel to the travel path of a vehicle (approach speeds 40, 60 kph). An analysis was performed to compare Forward Collision Warning (FCW) engagement time, brake application time, and probability of impact across different manufacturers. It was observed that FCW on time for the 2019 Volvo XC40 lasted from 0.95 sec. - 2.36 sec., whereas for the…
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Development of a novel method to simulate cavity preservation in automotive industry

ESS Engineering Software Steyr-Martin Schifko, Kevin Verma, Muraleekrishnan Menon, Vishal NAIR
ESS Gmbh-Bhargav Krishna Chitneedi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0900
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Corrosion protection is a major topic of research for automotive manufacturers and major suppliers. The most critical parts affected by corrosion are the pillars and cavities. Automotive manufacturers spend a lot of effort to improve protection layers as much as possible to increase the longevity of their products. The Electro-Coat Paint Operation (ELPO) or E-Coat process is key in achieving this goal. Unfortunately, often the electric current does not reach all the areas very well and resulting in undercoating. Also, the consequent baking process might see the ovens not achieving the desired temperatures into the cavities. As a fact it often happens that these areas are exposed by undercoating, and hence undermining the quality of corrosion protection. Some car manufacturers investigate one level more to assure a good quality of corrosion protection also within cavities, by applying wax. This wax coating process aims to cover all problematic areas in a way to make cavities more resistant to unfriendly conditions such as rain, snow, and salt. At present, waxing solves those problems quite well. However, wax…