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Driving Cycle and Elasticity Manoeuvre Simulation of a Small SUV Featuring an Electrically Boosted 1.0 L Gasoline Engine

Politecnico di Torino-Alessandro Zanelli, Federico Millo
Röchling Automotive-Marco Barbolini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0070
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, downsizing coupled with turbocharging has been proven as an effective way in reducing CO2 emissions while maintaining and improving vehicle driveability. As the downsizing becomes widely exploited, the increased boost levels entail the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. In a context of increasing electrification, the usage of electrified boosting systems can be effective in the improvement of vehicle performances. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of different voltage (12 V or 48 V) electric superchargers (eSC) on an extremely downsized 1.0L engine on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transient manoeuvres. The virtual test rig employed for the analysis integrates a 1D CFD Fast Running Model (FRM) engine representative of a 1.0L state-of-the-art gasoline engine featuring an eSC in series with the main turbocharger, an electric network (12 V or 48 V), a six speed manual transmission and a vehicle representative of a B-SUV segment car. A preliminary assessment of the steady state performances of the…
 

Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for a Power Split Supercharger

University of Michigan-Robert Middleton, Jason Siegel, Anna Stefanopoulou
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor-Shima Nazari
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Low voltage hybridization (<60 V) supports engine start/stop, regenerative braking, and constrained torque assist/regeneration at a low cost. This work studies the potential benefits of a novel hybrid system, called a power split supercharger (PSS). A 9 kW motor is shared between boosting the engine or providing hybrid functionalities, allowing it to couple with a small engine and still support good acceleration. However, the PSS operation is limited to only one of the parallel hybrid or boosting modes at each time instance. In this work an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is developed to select the PSS mode and the motor torque during hybrid mode. The PSS operation is simulated over standard EPA drive cycles with an engine mean value model that captures detailed air path and PSS dynamics. The results show that on the combined cycle the PSS improves the vehicle fuel economy by around 20% compared to a vehicle with a turbocharged engine, which is more than 90% of the fuel economy improvement previously predicted through a dynamic programming global fuel economy optimization.
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Assessment through Numerical Simulation of the Impact of a 48 V Electric Supercharger on Performance and CO2 Emissions of a Gasoline Passenger Car

Politecnico di Torino-Alessandro Zanelli, Federico Millo
Röchling Automotive-Marco Barbolini, Luca Neri
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The demanding CO2 emission targets are fostering the development of downsized, turbocharged and electrified engines. In this context, the need for high boost level at low engine speed requires the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. At the same time, the increased electrification level of the vehicles enables the usage of electrified boosting systems aiming to exploit the opportunities of high levels of electric power and energy available on-board. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of a 48 V electric supercharger (eSC) on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transients. The virtual test rig employed for the analysis integrates a 1D CFD fast running engine model representative of a 1.5 L state-of-the-art gasoline engine featuring an eSC in series with the main turbocharger, a dual voltage electric network (12 V + 48 V), a six-speed manual transmission and a vehicle representative of a B-SUV segment car. The evaluation tests chosen for the case study were, on the one hand, vehicle elasticity manoeuvres for the performance assessment…
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Transmission Shift Strategies for Electrically Supercharged Engines

University of Alabama-Minda Joy Wagenmaker
University of Michigan-Robert Middleton
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This work investigates the potential improvements in vehicle fuel economy possible by optimizing gear shift strategies to leverage a novel boosting device, an electrically assisted variable speed supercharger (EAVS), also referred to as a power split supercharger (PSS). Realistic gear shift strategies, resembling those commercially available, have been implemented to control upshift and downshift points based on torque request and engine speed. Using a baseline strategy from a turbocharged application of a MY2015 Ford Escape, a vehicle gas mileage of 34.4 mpg was achieved for the FTP75 drive cycle before considering the best efficiency regions of the supercharged engine. Overlaying predicted speed and load visitation points from the FTP75, HWY and US06 drive cycles with the engine’s brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map, reveals how to manipulate the gear shift curves so that the visitation points concentrate at the speed and load conditions where BSFC is lowest, or where the engine runs most efficiently. The shift strategy curve was moved incrementally to test for the optimal position at which the average gas mileage would be…
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Optimizing Steady State Diesel Efficiency and Emissions Using a SuperTurboTM on an Isuzu 7.8L Engine

Isuzu Motors Ltd.-Tomoyuki Itou
SuperTurbo Technologies Inc.-Barry Suelter, Thomas Waldron, Jared Brin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A driven turbocharger offers many benefits for internal combustion engines over traditional turbochargers or superchargers. One type of driven turbocharger, a SuperTurbo, is an amalgamation of supercharger, turbocharger, and turbo-compounder all in one device. This is accomplished through the combination of a high-speed traction drive that transfers bi-directional torque between the turbo shaft and a CVT, which then allows for overall ratio control between the turbo and the crankshaft. High efficiency turbine designs become feasible through the removal of overspeed and turbo lag design restrictions. Isuzu recognized the benefits of a driven turbocharger and the two companies have worked to evaluate it against more conventional turbochargers. This paper documents years of simulation, development, and engine testing, with a focus on steady state optimization of a 7.8L diesel engine. While improved transient response and drive cycle efficiency have previously been published, this paper will explain how the driven turbocharger functions differently than a normal turbocharger and how it improved steady state performance by precisely controlling and balancing boost pressure, air fuel ratio, high pressure EGR, and…
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2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

Saudi Aramco-Robert A. Head, Junseok Chang, Nayan Engineer
University of Bath-James W. G. Turner, Roshan Wijetunge, David W. Blundell, Paul Burke
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve.For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.A new methodology for optimization was developed and the analysis process also took into account work done by the charging system, this being assumed to be a combination of supercharger and turbocharger to permit some exhaust waste heat recovery.As a result of this work it was found that the opposed-piston configuration provides the best attributes since it…
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An Investigation with Mechanical Supercharging as Boosting Solution on Less than 0.5 Liter Single Cylinder Diesel Engine towards Bharat Stage VI Emission Development

Eaton Technologies Pvt. Ltd.-Sanjay Parshuram Chopane
The Automotive Research Association of India-Prasanna Bhat, Narendra Pawar, Dadarao Narwade, Santosh Nalawade, Hirak Jyoti Gayen, Neelkanth Marathe
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Small single & two cylinder diesel engines, still have primitive technical design features and extensively used in India and various Asian countries to power small and light motor vehicles viz., three wheelers, light duty four wheelers. These vehicles have become inevitable for the transport for both urban and rural areas. Vehicles with small single & two cylinder engines have high market demand in commercial transport due to restrictions on entry of Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) in congested cities roads. Due to ever rising market demand for higher power and torque requirement along with better fuel economy, vehicle manufacturer are developing high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) engines or replacing single cylinder engine by two cylinder engine, similarly two cylinder engine by three cylinder engines. Further, these engines should meet the present and forthcoming stringent emission limits.Single cylinder and two cylinder small diesel engines are widely used in various applications like Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV), power generation, three wheelers, agricultural machines and small house-hold applications in India as well as other Asian countries. Therefore simple mechanically…
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Study of a Turbocharged Engine for Motorbike Application

Porsche Engineering Services GmbH-Vincenzo Bevilacqua, Giovanni Corvaglia, Klaus Fuoss, Matthias Penzel
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the engine charging practice is widely adopted in the automotive field in relation to the “downsizing” technology: the reduction of the displacement and the adoption of a higher boost pressure, through a charging system, allow shifting the engine operating point in a zone of higher efficiency for a given engine torque. On the other hand, given a certain displacement, a supercharger can be adopted to increase the performance of the engine.The objective of this work is to provide a detailed analysis about the feasibility of the implementation of a charged engine to a motorbike, with main focus on the possibility to achieve a challenging performance target: in a first stage, several engine architectures (In-line, V-configuration, Boxer) together with different charging concepts (centrifugal or volumetric compressor, with mechanical or fluid-dynamic connection to the engine) have been analyzed from the point of view of packaging. In a second part, a V4 engine architecture has been selected for a patrol motorcycle application: the conceptual investigation of the base engine design has been carried out with the development…
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Horsepower Correction Formulae

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP2C
  • Current
Published 2018-08-09 by SAE International in United States
This document discusses formulae considered applicable to aircraft engines having integral supercharging without aftercooling, and using gasoline introduced at the entrance to the supercharger or directly into the cylinders. Such engines are normally designated as single and two speed engines. Correction formulae for engines having two stage or exhaust turbo supercharging will not be discussed. Corrections for engines having a high degree of integral supercharging will be discussed in general terms only and no specific formulae will be presented. The correction formulae and methods listed are empirical and subject to error due to conditions beyond the scope of known corrections. Usage has indicated, however, that the correction formulae listed will provide a satisfactory approximation of power output under standard conditions.
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Definitions, Aircraft Reciprocating Engine Performance

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS20D
  • Current
Published 2018-06-20 by SAE International in United States
This document lists definitions that are commonly used in describing aircraft reciprocating engine performance.
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