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Creation of an Icephobic Coating using Graphite Powder and PTFE Nanoparticles

University of Notre Dame-Joseph Gonzales, Hirotaka Sakaue
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion can cause numerous inefficiencies, structural stresses, and failures in applications ranging from building design to power generation and aerospace applications. Currently, some of the leading de-icing technologies, such as the ICE-WIPS system, utilize a heating element coupled with a superhydrophobic surface. The high power consumption inherent in these systems can make them expensive and impractical, especially when coupled with power generating systems. Reduced power consumption in these de-icing technologies can be achieved through increased absorption of solar radiation in the visible range while maintaining hydrophobic performance of a coating. In this work, a Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and graphite-based superhydrophobic surface is proposed, which maintains similar hydrophobic performance to standard superhydrophobic surfaces. The novel coating demonstrates contact angles of upwards of 130o and sliding angles of less than 4o, while increasing solar radiation absorption in the visible range by approximately 139% over PTFE-based hydrophobic coatings. Icing wind tunnel tests where the coatings were exposed to visible light in order to simulate solar radiation were performed in a variety of different conditions in order to verify…
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Generating Electrical Power from Waste Heat

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34611
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Directly converting electrical power to heat is easy; however, converting heat into electrical power is not as easy. To address this issue, a tiny silicon-based device was developed that can harness what was previously called waste heat and turn it into DC power. The device could be used as a compact infrared power supply that could replace radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that are used for such tasks as powering sensors for space missions that don’t get enough direct sunlight to power solar panels. The device is made of common and abundant materials such as aluminum, silicon, and silicon dioxide — or glass — combined in uncommon ways.

 

Bendable Electronic Paper Displays a Range of Colors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34382
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The combination of conductive polymers on nanostructures was demonstrated as suited to creating electronic displays as thin as paper. The “paper” is similar to the Kindle tablet. It does not light up like a standard display, but rather reflects the external light that illuminates it; therefore, it works very well where there is bright light such as sunlight, in contrast to standard LED displays that work best in darkness. At the same time, it needs only a tenth of the energy that a Kindle tablet uses, which itself uses much less energy than a tablet LED display.

 

Test Procedure for Determining the Resistance of Safety-Glazing Materials, of which One Surface is Plastic, to Simulated Weathering

Glazing Materials Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2081_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice determines whether plastic and glass-plastic safety glazing materials will successfully withstand exposure to simulated weathering conditions.
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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced. The most advantageous point is that this mesh-free simulation method satisfies the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The cabin thermal environment and…
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Passenger Cabin’s Parking Cooling System Based on TEC and Air Conditioning Condensate Water

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Xiaofei Ma, Shuai Wang, Daolin Zhou, Yiran Ding, Zebiao Ma, Ming Li
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the passenger cabin of the parking under the summer sun, the air’s average temperature will reach about 60°C. Such temperature can cause discomfort to the person who has just entered the passenger cabin, also can damage components of the passenger cabin. The reason for this phenomenon is because it is not convective with the outside air. Some vehicles use the electric power to drive the blower in order to ventilate, but the air’s temperature of cabin is so high that the blower’s effect of ventilation is limited. The system proposes to use solar energy to drive the automobile blower and the thermoelectric cooler(TEC) in order to cool the cabin’s air, and use the air-conditioning condensate water collected during the driving process to cool the TEC’s hot end to improve the cooling efficiency. Establish a model of TEC, a mathematical model of the relationship between the condensate water cooling at the TEC’s hot end and the temperature of the hot end, and a mathematical model of the hot end temperature’s influence on the TEC’s cooling…
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GNSS Based Lane Keeping Assist System via Model Predictive Control

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation-Kenta Tominaga, Yu Takeuchi, Uno Tomoki, Shota Kameoka, Hiroaki Kitano
Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratorie-Rien Quirynen, Karl Berntorp, Stefano Cairano
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recently, the field of autonomous driving has been dramatically expanding, and some of the key technologies like the Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) system have begun to be applied to mass production vehicles. In general, mass-produced LKA systems use a lane detection camera as a means of keeping the lane. One of the common limitations of camera-based LKA systems is that the lane keeping performance significantly decreases when the camera cannot detect lane markings for various reasons such as snow coverage and sunlight. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based LKA system, which is not affected by the surrounding environment such as weather and lighting. Our LKA system uses centimeter-level augmentation service and high-definition maps, whereby the LKA system can accurately estimate its own position. This feature potentially enables our LKA system to show higher lane-keeping performance than camera-based LKA systems even when lane markings are undetectable. In our previous study, we proposed a GNSS based LKA system in which the target steering angle was calculated by means of…
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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto, Fusaaki Takeo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation. The results showed that teq, including the effects of the air temperature, air velocity and thermal radiation, was measured properly. Subsequently, a numerical thermal manikin…
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See-Through Film Rejects 70 Percent of Incoming Solar Heat

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34166
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A heat-rejecting film was developed that could be applied to a building’s windows to reflect up to 70 percent of the Sun’s incoming heat. The film remains highly transparent below 32 °C (89 °F). Above that temperature, the film acts as an “autonomous system” to reject heat. If every exterior-facing window in a building were covered in this film, air conditioning and energy costs could drop by 10 percent.

 

Crew Rest Facilities

S-7 Flight Deck Handling Qualities Stds for Trans Aircraft
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4101/3A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This document recommends criteria for the design and installation of flight crew rest facilities (FCRF) on transport category aircraft when operations with an augmented flight crew are performed. NOTE: Within this ARP, the term “must” will indicate items required for compliance with outside known government regulations, especially 14 CFR Part 117. “Shall” describes sections which are required if this ARP is used as a means of compliance. The term “should” will indicate optional requirements, preferences, and recommendations of the approving SAE committee. Wherever noted and bracketed as [FAA] or [EASA], this document includes agency regulations for reference that are not otherwise evaluated herein.
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