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Natural and Artificial Weathering of Automotive Leather, Leatherette and Textile

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Elavarasan Palaniappan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the natural and artificial weathering behavior of different soft skin materials such as leather, leatherette and textiles used for automotive seat cover applications. The objective of this study was to understand the physical and aesthetical changes occurring at these flexible materials under sun UV light and heat exposure. The natural weathering study under glass exposure was carried out as per ASTM G 24 at natural weathering site location and artificial weathering as per SAE J2412 at lab. The material was observed for surface changes such as color, texture, crack and physical changes like flexibility and hardness during the exposure. The sample exposed at natural weathering data for every 15 days were recorded, and artificial weathering for every 100 hours were recorded. Light and dark color materials were tested to understand the effect of color and UV light resistance as well as various textures were studied to understand the effect of various texture and texture retention under UV.The study was also carried out at two different period in a year and the data…
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Modulation Strategy for Minimization of Leakage Current in Grid-Connected PV Panels

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Anitha Daniel, Uthra Rangarajan, Kalaiarasi Nallathambi
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a switching strategy for the cascaded multilevel H bridge inverter of five levels to reduce the leakage current in the grid-connected transformerless PV system. Minimization of the leakage current in solar panels is vital in transformerless grid-connected PV panels. But due to the absence of transformers which provide galvanic isolation, CMV techniques are applied to reduce leakage currents from PV panel to ground. This current causes hazards to humans and large currents above 300mA may lead to fire hazards. The proposed switching strategy reduces the continuous transients at switches, hence avoiding high frequency switching. This switching technique requires only a single modified carrier wave for all 2m+1 levels of operation. The sinusoidal carrier waveform is modified as a humped sinusoidal waveform with to reduce switching losses. In this paper, the switching strategy with the modified sinusoidal carrier has been incorporated to PV fed five level multilevel inverters connected to the grid and its effectiveness has been validated.
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Amelioration of Modular Mobility by Adopting Split Cell Solar Panel Cleaning and Cooling Thereof

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Ajith Raja, Arunpragash Mohana Sundaram, Ashwanth Pranav Selvamani
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the photovoltaic system, the efficiency of solar cells is determined by the combination of latitude and climate. The electricity generation in the photovoltaic cell is more in the morning time than in the afternoon time. This is due to the fact that an increase in solar cell temperature leads to a decrease in efficiency of the solar panel. This work aims to provide necessary cooling to the solar panel for favorable output during noon time. Normally electrical modular vehicles use non-split cell solar panels. In order to increase the efficiency, we are using a split cell solar panel as it increases the voltage by halving the size of the silicon chips. Thus, having the cells results in increasing efficiency and lowering the operation temperature. The solar panel should be maintained at a particular temperature by adopting sprinkling of water method in solar panel for hybrid vehicles. The proposed system consists of a storage tank, radiator, temperature sensor, water sprinkle jets attached to the hybrid vehicle. When the temperature increases beyond the limit, the temperature…
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Chip Converts Wasted Heat to Usable Energy

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35259
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Car engines, laptop computers, cellphones, and refrigerators all heat up with overuse. That heat can be captured and turned into energy using a method that produces electricity from heat. The technology uses a silicon chip, also known as a “device,” that converts more thermal radiation into electricity. This could lead to devices such as laptop computers and cellphones with much longer battery life and solar panels that are much more efficient at converting radiant heat to energy.

Organic Carbon-Nitride Semiconductor

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35128
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Some organic materials cannot be utilized similarly to silicon semiconductors in optoelectronics. Whether in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, or in transistors, what is important is the bandgap, i.e. the difference in energy level between electrons in the valence band (bound state) and the conduction band (mobile state). Charge carriers can be raised from the valence band into the conduction band by means of light or an electrical voltage. This is the principle behind how all electronic components operate. Bandgaps of one to two electron volts are ideal.

Organic Semiconductor Thin-Film Sensors Detect Disease Markers in Breath

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34895
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have emerged as a new class of electronic materials promising a wide range of applications including organic field-effect transistors (OFET), solar cells, thermoelectrics, electronic skins, and chemical and mechanical sensors by virtue of their chemical versatility, solution processability, and mechanical flexibility.

Revolutionary Camera Allows Scientists to Predict Evolution of Ancient Stars

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34775
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Scientists at the University of Sheffield have been working with HiPERCAM, a high-speed, multicolor camera, which is capable of taking more than 1,000 images per second, allowing experts to measure both the mass and the radius of a cool subdwarf star for the first time.

3D Printing of Flexible Circuits

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34746
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A process was developed for 3D printing that can be used to produce transparent and mechanically flexible electronic circuits. The electronics consist of a mesh of silver nanowires that can be printed in suspension and embedded in various flexible and transparent plastics (polymers). This technology can enable new applications such as printable light-emitting diodes, solar cells, or tools with integrated circuits. The approach integrates electronics into existing structural units and improves components in terms of space and weight.

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Creation of an Icephobic Coating using Graphite Powder and PTFE Nanoparticles

University of Notre Dame-Joseph Gonzales, Hirotaka Sakaue
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion can cause numerous inefficiencies, structural stresses, and failures in applications ranging from building design to power generation and aerospace applications. Currently, some of the leading de-icing technologies, such as the ICE-WIPS system, utilize a heating element coupled with a superhydrophobic surface. The high power consumption inherent in these systems can make them expensive and impractical, especially when coupled with power generating systems. Reduced power consumption in these de-icing technologies can be achieved through increased absorption of solar radiation in the visible range while maintaining hydrophobic performance of a coating. In this work, a Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and graphite-based superhydrophobic surface is proposed, which maintains similar hydrophobic performance to standard superhydrophobic surfaces. The novel coating demonstrates contact angles of upwards of 130o and sliding angles of less than 4o, while increasing solar radiation absorption in the visible range by approximately 139% over PTFE-based hydrophobic coatings. Icing wind tunnel tests where the coatings were exposed to visible light in order to simulate solar radiation were performed in a variety of different conditions in order to verify…
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Graphene-Based Technology for Wearable Health Monitoring

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34593
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Graphene Flagship partner ICFO, based in Barcelona, Spain is developing graphene-based prototypes that aim to turn mobile phones into life saving devices. The first of these will allow users to monitor their level of exposure to sunlight through a UV sensor. Designed as a flexible, transparent and disposable patch, it connects to a mobile device and alerts the user once he or she has reached a defined threshold of sun exposure.