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Modulation Strategy for Minimisation of Leakage Current in Grid-Connected PV Panels

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Anitha Daniel, Uthra Rangarajan, Kalaiarasi Nallathambi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0114
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a switching strategy for the cascaded multilevel H bridge inverter of five levels to reduce the leakage current in the grid connected transformerless PV system. Minimization of the leakage current in solar panels is vital in a transformerless grid connected PV panels. But due to the absence of transformers which provide galvanic isolation, CMV techniques are applied which results in leakage currents from PV panel to ground. This current causes hazards to humans and large currents may lead to fire hazards. The proposed switching strategy reduces the continuous transients at switches, hence avoiding high frequency switching. This switching technique requires only a single modified carrier wave for all 2m+1 levels of operation. The sinusoidal carrier waveform is modified as humped sinusoidal waveform to reduce switching losses. In this paper, the progressed switching strategy has been incorporated to PV fed five level multilevel inverter connected to grid and its effectiveness has been validated.

Amelioration of modular mobility by adopting split cell solar panel cleaning and cooling therof

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Ajith Raja, Arunpragash Mohana Sundaram, Ashwanth Pranav Selvamani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0078
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In photovoltaic system the efficiency of solar cells is determined in combination with latitude and climate. The electricity generation in photovoltaic cell is more in the morning time than in the afternoon time. This is due to the fact that an increase in solar cell temperature leads to a decrease in efficiency of the solar panel. This work aims to provide necessary cooling to the solar panel for favourable output during noon time. Normally electrical modular vehicles use non-split cell solar panels. In order to increase the efficiency, we are using split cell solar panel as it increases voltage by halving the size of the silicon chips. Thus, halving the cells results in increasing efficiency and lowering the operation temperature. The solar panel should be maintained at a particular temperature by adopting sprinkling of water method in solar panel for hybrid vehicles. The proposed system consists of storage tank, temperature sensor, water sprinkle jets attached to the hybrid vehicle. When the temperature increases beyond the limit, the temperature sensor provides signal to the water jets…

Revolutionary Camera Allows Scientists to Predict Evolution of Ancient Stars

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34775
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Scientists at the University of Sheffield have been working with HiPERCAM, a high-speed, multicolor camera, which is capable of taking more than 1,000 images per second, allowing experts to measure both the mass and the radius of a cool subdwarf star for the first time.


3D Printing of Flexible Circuits

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34746
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A process was developed for 3D printing that can be used to produce transparent and mechanically flexible electronic circuits. The electronics consist of a mesh of silver nanowires that can be printed in suspension and embedded in various flexible and transparent plastics (polymers). This technology can enable new applications such as printable light-emitting diodes, solar cells, or tools with integrated circuits. The approach integrates electronics into existing structural units and improves components in terms of space and weight.


Creation of an Icephobic Coating using Graphite Powder and PTFE Nanoparticles

University of Notre Dame-Joseph Gonzales, Hirotaka Sakaue
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion can cause numerous inefficiencies, structural stresses, and failures in applications ranging from building design to power generation and aerospace applications. Currently, some of the leading de-icing technologies, such as the ICE-WIPS system, utilize a heating element coupled with a superhydrophobic surface. The high power consumption inherent in these systems can make them expensive and impractical, especially when coupled with power generating systems. Reduced power consumption in these de-icing technologies can be achieved through increased absorption of solar radiation in the visible range while maintaining hydrophobic performance of a coating. In this work, a Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and graphite-based superhydrophobic surface is proposed, which maintains similar hydrophobic performance to standard superhydrophobic surfaces. The novel coating demonstrates contact angles of upwards of 130o and sliding angles of less than 4o, while increasing solar radiation absorption in the visible range by approximately 139% over PTFE-based hydrophobic coatings. Icing wind tunnel tests where the coatings were exposed to visible light in order to simulate solar radiation were performed in a variety of different conditions in order to verify…
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Graphene-Based Technology for Wearable Health Monitoring

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34593
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Graphene Flagship partner ICFO, based in Barcelona, Spain is developing graphene-based prototypes that aim to turn mobile phones into life saving devices. The first of these will allow users to monitor their level of exposure to sunlight through a UV sensor. Designed as a flexible, transparent and disposable patch, it connects to a mobile device and alerts the user once he or she has reached a defined threshold of sun exposure.


Generating Electrical Power from Waste Heat

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34611
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Directly converting electrical power to heat is easy; however, converting heat into electrical power is not as easy. To address this issue, a tiny silicon-based device was developed that can harness what was previously called waste heat and turn it into DC power. The device could be used as a compact infrared power supply that could replace radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that are used for such tasks as powering sensors for space missions that don’t get enough direct sunlight to power solar panels. The device is made of common and abundant materials such as aluminum, silicon, and silicon dioxide — or glass — combined in uncommon ways.


Bendable Electronic Paper Displays a Range of Colors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34382
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The combination of conductive polymers on nanostructures was demonstrated as suited to creating electronic displays as thin as paper. The “paper” is similar to the Kindle tablet. It does not light up like a standard display, but rather reflects the external light that illuminates it; therefore, it works very well where there is bright light such as sunlight, in contrast to standard LED displays that work best in darkness. At the same time, it needs only a tenth of the energy that a Kindle tablet uses, which itself uses much less energy than a tablet LED display.


Test Procedure for Determining the Resistance of Safety-Glazing Materials, of which One Surface is Plastic, to Simulated Weathering

Glazing Materials Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2081_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice determines whether plastic and glass-plastic safety glazing materials will successfully withstand exposure to simulated weathering conditions.
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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced. The most advantageous point is that this mesh-free simulation method satisfies the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The cabin thermal environment and…
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