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An Evaluation of Future Topologies and Architectures for Highly Reliable Electrical Distribution Systems

University of Kassel-Ludwig Brabetz, Mohamed Ayeb, Janis Lehmann, Benjamin Löwer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1296
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Within the scope of the development of autonomous vehicles, the continuous introduction of automated driving functions considerably increases the mandatory reliability requirements of the electrical power supply, and consequently of the electrical distribution system (EDS). In addition, the overall rising number of electrical functions in future vehicles leads to significantly higher electrical power demands, while strict cost, weight and packaging constraints must be upheld. Current developments focus mostly on the improvement of the conventional EDS, e.g. by adding redundancies, enhancing physical robustness, or redimensioning critical components. New approaches address predictive power management, better diagnostic capabilities, and, the subject of this paper, new topologies and architectures. Alternative topologies are derivations of the conventional tree structure, as well as ring- or linear-bus-based zonal architectures, which feature in part distributed storage devices or semiconductor switches that rearrange the power paths in case of a fault. The presented approach is a method for both the systematical description of EDS topologies and architectures, and the assessment of their reliability. It is based on a data model designed for a simple…
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Extended Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle via Structural Electrical Power Storage and Energy Generation Devices

Geoffrey Smith Oetting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0041
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
As the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have increased in the military, commercial and private sectors, special attention has been focused on improving upon high altitude long endurance (HALE) performance. Therefore, under a multi-year, multi-discipline senior project team comprised of Aerospace Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical engineering, and Chemical Engineering undergraduate teams, investigative and experimental research has begun into the substitution of various aircraft structural components with power storage and power generation devices used also as structure to improve flight endurance and performance capabilities of solar powered UAVs. One viable solution may be found in the reduction of the amount of parasitic weight due to the required power systems on board these types of aircraft. These power systems are usually found in the form of energy storage devices such as lithium polymer batteries and energy generation devices such as solar cells. This path led to the innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’. The ‘Flying Battery’ integrates various free energy generating devices such as structural solar cells, structural energy storage devices, thermo-electric generators, and vibration…
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Application of Porous Material as Heat Storage Medium to a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

Chiba University, Chiba, Japan-Dongsheng Dong, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Fuchao Shen, Naohiro Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0541
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Porous materials, which have large surface areas, have been used for heat storage. However, porous Si-SiC material, as heat storage medium to be applied to a turbocharged gasoline engine has not been investigated extensively. In this study, porous Si-SiC material was used in the upstream of the turbine as heat storage medium and a model was thereby developed for further study. Substrate surface area and substrate volume of Si-SiC were calculated for structure model calibration. Following these calculations and test results, the pressure loss and thermal model were validated. Results show that the weaken exhaust gas pulsation amplitude by porous Si-SiC leads to better turbine performance and BSFC in steady engine condition for a turbocharged gasoline engine. In addition, its transient operation response needs to be improved under transient engine conditions. Hence the possibility of improving the transient response is investigated with characteristics of porous Si-SiC material. It was observed that less time was required for the engine to reach the target torque in transient conditions.
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Catalyst Design Study of Detailed Reaction Model including Gas Diffusivity into the Washcoat

Honda R&D Co. Ltd., Automobile R&D Center-Osami Yamamoto, Yuichi Matsuo, Shinichi Tosa, Tatsuya Okayama
RES Group Inc.-John Tolsma, Zhiwei Zhang, Bradley Niesner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2327
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To understand the effect of diffusion into catalyst washcoat pores on the NOx purification performance, the pseudo-2D model was developed, combining diffusion theory and the elementary reaction model. Using a Pt/Al2O3 + CeO2 catalyst, the rate coefficients for NOx storage and reduction reactions were determined with a plug flow reactor. As utilization, the sensitivity analysis on the performance showed that meso pore properties, particle size, and washcoat thickness were found to have large influences. Moreover, by the combination of machine learning as material informatics approach, it was possible to comprehensively calculate the performance under various washcoat properties.
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Sensor Perception and Motion Planning for an Autonomous Material Handling Vehicle

Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)-Sanjay A Patil
Vellore Institute of Technology-Sahil Prabhakar, Dani Priyanka, Ankit Ghosh
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor Perception and Motion Planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of the environment relative to vehicle's frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analyzing the sensor's information while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local map and global map. The LiDAR’s output is further transformed into an Occupancy grid for the comprehension of the Motion planning module to process the path. Probabilistic Roadmap and Vector Field Histogram are two methods used for Motion Planning.…
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Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of an Intercity Bus through Surface Modifications - A Numerical Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Mathialagan Velshankar
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundararaj Senthilkumar, Budda Thiagarajan Kannan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses, the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions. As city buses won’t have cargo storage constraints roof optimization can be done to reduce the drag coefficient value. A base model of the…
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Effect of Inventory Storage on Automotive Flooded Lead-Acid Batteries

American Automobile Association Inc.-Matthew Garrett Lum
University of Central Florida-Matthew W. Logan, Arturo D. Annese, Fernando J. Uribe-Romo
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States
The battery is a central part of the vehicle’s electrical system and has to undergo cycling in a wide variety of conditions while providing an acceptable service life. Within a typical distribution chain, automotive lead-acid batteries can sit in storage for months before delivery to the consumer. During storage, batteries are subjected to a wide variety of temperature profiles depending on facility-specific characteristics. Additionally, batteries typically do not receive any type of maintenance charge before delivery. Effects of storage time, temperature, and maintenance charging are explored. Flooded lead-acid batteries were examined immediately after storage and after installation in vehicles subjected to normal drive patterns. While phase composition is a major consideration, additional differences in positive active material (PAM) were observed with respect to storage parameters. Batteries stored in a hot environment and kept at constant float voltage for a significant duration exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to other storage environments. In all cases, batteries kept on float charge throughout storage exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to batteries stored under equivalent conditions on open-circuit charge.
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Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

Corning GmbH-Dominik Rose, Thorsten Boger
FEV Europe GmbH-Christof Schernus, Michael Görgen, Jim Cox, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations. In the second part, a relevant share of ash deposits inside three-way catalysts (TWC) is depicted. In an experiment, the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of a three-way catalyst was significantly lowered by ash, while a coated GPF showed little effects. A subsequent OSC regeneration…
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Development of an Accelerated Test for Tire Flat-Spotting

NissanTechnical Center North America-Farokh Kavarana, Scott Fritz
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Tire flat-spotting occurs when tires remain in a loaded condition without rolling for an extended period of time, and can be temporary or permanent depending on the length of storage, vehicle loading and environmental factors. Tire non-uniformity caused from flat-spots often induce shake and shimmy vibration in vehicles due to increased tire-wheel force variation input into the chassis. This results in increased warranty costs for OEMs and tire suppliers and customer dis-satisfaction in third-party quality surveys such as J. D. Power IQS. Flat-spotting is of particular concern for slow-moving vehicle inventory parked for long periods at plants and/or dealership lots.OEMs often stipulate or recommend inventory storage practices for dealers that require physical movement of vehicles at some set duration to reduce the risk of tires developing permanent flat-spots. OEMs also provide component level flat-spotting requirements to tire manufacturers during sourcing and specification timing to secure their internal requirements and targets. The study in this paper initially determined real-world flat-spotting levels on an actual vehicle during the adverse summer months of Arizona. Tire uniformity measured on…
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The Adaptive Cycle Engine on Standard Duty Cycles

Illinois Institute of Technology-Francisco Ruiz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Continuing research introduced at the 2018 WCX conference, this paper shows the result of simulations where a midsize sedan (1700 kg) fitted with an adaptive cycle engine and a CVT is operated over three standard duty cycles: US06, UDDS, and HWFET, and compared with the results obtained from other engine cycles installed on the same vehicle. Four different engine cycles are compared: conventional 4-stroke, 6-stroke cycle with no air storage, 6-stroke cycle with air storage, and fully adaptive cycle with air storage and a number of strokes determined by instantaneous demand and state of charge of the storage tank. Results show that the fully adaptive engine achieves a better mileage in all scenarios, closely followed by the partially adaptive 6-stroke cycle with storage. Gains over a conventional 4-stroke powerplant range from 3.4 mpg on the HWFET cycle, to 7.6 mpg on the UDDS cycle. Furthermore, air storage allows the adaptive cycle engine to be considerably downsized while still being able to supply sufficient power even on the demanding US06 cycle, resulting in mileage figures over…
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