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Usage of Telematics Data in Advance Powertrain Development

Honda Cars India Pvt Ltd-Anurag Anurag, Mohit Singhal, Isao Chiba, Kouji Okayasu
Honda Cars India Pvt, Ltd.-Shubham Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2438
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To achieve accuracy in model development with large scale customer actual data in low cost and limited time usage of telematics system was adopted. Honda’s OBD II diagnostic connecting device Honda Connect was used as transceiver for this telematics system which was used as an accessory in Honda vehicles. Data collected with this device with large sample size and regional diversity across India was used in product development for Honda System. Control system development for BSVI vehicles, Idle start stop hardware specificaton selection and Battery electric vehicle target range study was done with Honda Connect Data.
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Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

European Commission Joint Research-Biagio Ciuffo, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Giuseppe DiPierro, Federico Millo, Claudio Cubito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0240
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Until 2017, the pollutant emissions and fuel consumption Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles in Europe was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the actual test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyse the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars. The study also considers the effect of the engine warm-up and the impact of the start-stop technology in this new TA scenario. It was found that, although the higher test mass and Road Loads (RLs), as well as the higher driving cycle dynamics…
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Optimal Engine Re-Start Strategy on a Mild Hybrid Powertrain by Means of Up-Front Modelling

Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels, Shan-An Kao, Michael Frenken
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The ability to switch off the internal combustion engine (ICE) during vehicle operation is a key functionality in hybrid powertrains to achieve low fuel economy. However, this can affect driveability, namely acceleration response when an ICE re-engagement due to a driver initiated torque demand is required. The ICE re-start as well as the speed and load synchronisation with the driveline and corresponding vehicle speed can lead to high response times. To avoid this issue, the operational range where the ICE can be switched off is often compromised, in turn sacrificing fuel economy. Based on a 48V off-axis P2 hybrid powertrain comprising a lay-shaft transmission we present an up-front simulation methodology that considers the relevant parameters of the ICE like air-path, turbocharger, friction, as well as the relevant mechanical and electrical parameters on the hybrid drive side, including a simplified multi-body approach to reflect the relevant vehicle and powertrain dynamics. Applying different ICE re-start strategies at different speeds and gears, the driveability of the ICE re-engagement was evaluated using a commercialized driveability evaluation tool. Subjective ratings,…
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Modeling and Validation of a Transmission E-Pump for Application in Hybrid Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Kaushik Kannan, Gangarjun Veeramurthy, Mark Yamazaki
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Electric Pump (E-Pump) is a critical component in the hybrid transmission system. The E-Pump provides flow to maintain a stable line pressure when the engine is in an off state. The main applications of the E-Pump are Park Pawl engagement and disengagement, engine start-stop operation and shadow shifting. A Systems Engineering Approach was followed to develop a medium fidelity plant model for the E-Pump. The developed model was initially tested and validated in the Model in-the loop (MIL) environment. After initial validation, the model was integrated into the overall vehicle model which was then tested on the Software in-the loop (SIL) and Hardware in-the loop (HIL) environments. The model was validated across different platforms and several operating conditions. The basic applications of the E-Pump such as park pawl actuation, engine starting and shadow shifting were validated. The model was later validated using the data, which was acquired on a prototype vehicle run on a dynamometer. The goal was to develop a common model, which could be used across different simulation platforms such as MIL,…
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Soot in the Lubricating Oil: An Overlooked Concern for the Gasoline Direct Injection Engine?

University of Nottingham-Sebastian A. Pfau, Antonino La Rocca, Ephraim Haffner-Staton, Graham A. Rance, Michael W. Fay, Michael McGhee
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Formation of soot is a known phenomenon for diesel engines, however, only recently emerged for gasoline engines with the introduction of direct injection systems. Soot-in-oil samples from a three-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine have been analysed. The samples were collected from the oil sump after periods of use in predominantly urban driving conditions with start-stop mode activated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to measure the soot content in the drained oils. Soot deposition rates were similar to previously reported rates for diesel engines, i.e. 1 wt% per 15,000 km, thus indicating a similar importance. Morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Images showed fractal agglomerates comprising multiple primary particles with characteristic core-shell nanostructure. Furthermore, large amorphous structures were observed. Primary particle sizes ranged from 12 to 55 nm, with a mean diameter of 30 nm and mode at 31 nm. Particle agglomerates were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The agglomerates were found to range between 42 and 475 nm, with a mean size of 132 nm and mode at 100 nm.…
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WHAT WE'RE DRIVING

Automotive Engineering: February 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP02_09
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States

As this month's cover story makes clear, the 2019 Audi e-tron is not an electric screamer. It doesn't redefine ludicrous 0-60-mph acceleration times every time you step on the accelerator. In fact, if you're used to a high-performance Tesla Model X, the e-tron feels decidedly neutered.

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Characterization of GDI PM during Vehicle Start-Stop Operation

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John M. Storey, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Shean Huff, John Thomas, Mary Eibl, Faustine Li
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
As the fuel economy regulations increase in stringency, many manufacturers are implementing start-stop operation to enhance vehicle fuel economy. During start-stop operation, the engine shuts off when the vehicle is stationary for more than a few seconds. When the brake is released by the driver, the engine restarts. Depending on traffic conditions, start-stop operation can result in fuel savings from a few percent to close to 10%. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are also increasingly available on light-duty vehicles. While GDI engines offer fuel economy advantages over port fuel injected (PFI) engines, they also tend to have higher PM emissions, particularly during start-up transients. Thus, there is interest in evaluating the effect of start-stop operation on PM emissions. In this study, a 2.5L GDI vehicle was operated over the FTP75 drive cycle. Runs containing cold starts (FTP-75 cycle Phases 1 & 2) and multiple runs containing hot starts (FTP-75 cycle Phases 3 & 4) were performed each day. Note that the FTP-75 Phases 3 & 4 are identical to Phases 1 & 2 except that…
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48 V Diesel Hybrid - Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

FEV Europe GmbH-Markus Ehrly
FEV Group GmbH-Thomas Körfer
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved.The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future. An existing SUV from the Indian market has been selected as a target base vehicle for this study. The base SUV…
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Optimized Exhaust After-Treatment System Solution for Indian Heavy Duty City Bus Application - The Challenges Involved and the Right Approach to Meet Future BS VI Emission Legislations and Real World Driving Emissions

FEV Europe GmbH-Markus Ehrly
FEV India Pvt, Ltd.-Ashraf Emran, Rouble Sandhu, Rajesh Santhoji Kale, Vijay Sharma, Devising Rathod
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The vehicular pollution and emission levels are alarmingly increasing in India. The metro and urban cities are worst hit by the gaseous and particulate emissions produced by internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Following the trend from other developed countries, Government of India (GOI) has decided to migrate from existing BS IV legislation directly to BS VI legislation from April 2020 all across India. This migration in emission legislation took almost 10 years to be implemented in European Union (EU) countries. However, for India, the targeted implementation time is just 3 years, making it an uphill challenge for all the vehicle manufacturers. City bus is one such applications, which run mostly within the city and currently are powered by conventional Diesel engines. The vehicle manufacturers should focus on finding an optimized solution for meeting the future emission legislation in true sense. This calls for meeting the emission limits with not only the legislative engine dynamometer cycles but also considering the real world driving cycle (RDE) in their solution.The study presented here involves finding the optimized solution…
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Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP85F
  • Current
Published 2018-08-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendations for subsonic airplane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a A supply of outside air with independent control valve(s). b A means for heating c A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) d A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply e A ventilation subsystem f A temperature control subsystem g A pressure control subsystem Other system components for treating cabin air such as filtration and humidification are included, as are the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning. The interface with the major associated system, the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100) is at the inlet of the air conditioning shutoff valves. This boundary definition aligns with that in the…
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