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Effects of Using an Electrically Heated Catalyst on the State of Charge of the Battery Pack for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles at Cold Start

NE Chemcat Corp.-Makoto Nagata
Waseda University-Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Xieyang Yan, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0444
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery models are being developed as a component of the powertrain systems of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to predict the state of charge (SOC) accurately. Electrically heated catalysts (EHCs) can be employed in the powertrains of HEVs to reach the catalyst light off temperature in advance. However, EHCs draw power from the battery pack and hence sufficient energy needs to be stored to power auxiliary components. In series HEVs, the engine is primarily used to charge the battery pack. Therefore, it is important to develop a control strategy that triggers engine start/stop conditions and reduces the frequency of engine operation to minimize the equivalent fuel consumption. In this study, a battery pack model was constructed in MATLAB-Simulink to investigate the SOC variation of a high-power lithium ion battery during extreme engine cold start conditions (-7°C) with/without application of an EHC. The EHC was simulated in MATLAB to determine the energy required to heat the catalyst during cold start conditions. The effect of the EHC in emissions purification at -7°C was studied using a three-way catalyst…
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A Study of Mechanism of Engine Idling Rattle Noise in Hybrid Transaxles

Toyota Motor Corporation-Tomoya Takeuchi, Kenji Miyasaka, Masatoshi Ito, Shingo Nakamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0421
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Quietness is one of the most important characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle quality. Reduction of the rattle noise caused by the torque fluctuation of an internal combustion engine can contribute to get a customer satisfaction. Toyota Hybrid System(THS) also has same requirement. Especially, the rattle noise during idling may happen discontinuously despite of periodical engine combustion excitation. It is necessary to study the mechanism and reduce the rattle noise. At lower engine torque range, decreasing the torsional damper’s stiffness can improve this condition as the manual transaxle done. However, the rattle noise can occur easily in conditions of relatively large torque spike inputs to the torsional system, such as the engine start/stop function of THS using the motor/generator in the transaxle. It is necessary to analyze the dynamics of all related components in lower engine torque range and need to find the new technique satisfying in both the idling and engine start/stop condition. This paper presents one method to clarify the mechanism of rattle noise occurring during engine idling through the measurement of shafts torque,…
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Enhancing Engine Starting Performance Using High-Power Density Brushless Starter

General Motors LLC-Lei Hao, Chandra Namuduri, Suresh Gopalakrishnan, Chunhao Lee, Neeraj Shidore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0459
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Modern hybrid technologies, especially mild and micro-hybrids with auto start/stop feature, demand a starter with higher power, better performance and longer life than conventional brush-type starters. In this paper, a new starter design using a brushless motor is proposed. This improves the engine crank performance during autostarts due to lower inertia, higher torque and wider power band capability of the brushless motor, especially at higher speeds. The overall integrated system includes the motor, inverter and controller all packaged in the same form factor of the original starter housing as a “drop-in replacement”. The prototype starter motor is designed to operate at 48V with a peak power of 4kW but can be designed to operate at the standard 12V. This paper will describe in detail the functionalities of the overall system and the simulation and experimental results of the prototype that was tested on a 4-cylinder engine in a production crossover vehicle.
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VIRTUAL METHOD FOR ELECTRONIC STOP-START SIMULATION & VDV PREDICTION USING MODIFIED DISCRETE SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR SHORT TIME SIGNALS

FCA US LLC-Abhishek Paul, Jaspreet Kukreja, Syed Haider
HBM Prenscia-Joe Spadola
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1270
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electronic Stop-Start (ESS) system automatically stops and restarts the engine to save energy, improve fuel consumption and reduce emissions when the vehicle is stationary during traffic lights, traffic jams etc. The start and stop events cause unwanted vibrations at the seat track which induce discomfort to the drivers and passengers in the vehicle. These events are very short duration events, usually taking less than a second. Time domain analysis can help in simulating this event but it is difficult to see modal interactions and root cause issues. Modal transient analysis also poses a limitation on defining frequency dependent stiffness and damping for multiple mounts. This leads to inaccuracy in capturing mount behavior at different frequencies. Most efficient way to simulate this event would be by frequency response analysis using modal superposition method. In order to do the same there is a major hurdle which is due to the nature of the signal being highly transient and of short duration, this event is difficult to be captured in frequency domain. Traditional FFT techniques used for domain…
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Mitigating Wire Insulation Damage During Processing and Handling

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5717
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States
Wire and cable products progress through a series of handling or operational steps from the time they leave the manufacturer, and until a finished harness or assembly is ready for installation on a vehicle. Throughout these many steps, environmental or processing conditions may be present which can generate damage detrimental to the wire or cable and/or its intended application.
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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures Using 1-D Simulation Technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization of off road vehicles is in its early phase but it is likely to increase in coming years. In order to improve fuel economy and overall emission of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict vehicle fuel consumption and emission using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Initially, An acceptable agreement within 5% deviation between simulation and experimental is established for engine steady state points, both for engine performance and NOx emission parameters. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE model. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE model for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying idle start stop and fully hybrid P0 type hybrid architecture. The hybrid P0 type involves idle start stop, e-boost and regeneration. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and NOx, HC and CO emission.
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Usage of Telematics Data in Advance Powertrain Development

Honda Cars India Pvt Ltd.-Shubham Garg, Anurag Anurag, Mohit Singhal, Isao Chiba, Kouji Okayasu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2438
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To achieve accuracy in model development with large-scale actual customer data in low cost and limited time usage of telematics system was adopted. Honda’s OBD II diagnostic connecting device Honda Connect was used as transceiver for this telematics system, which was used as an accessory in Honda vehicles. Data collected with this device with large sample size and regional diversity across India was used in product development for Honda System. Control system development for BSVI vehicles, Idle start stop hardware specification selection and Battery electric vehicle target range study was done with Honda Connect Data.
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Study on Engine Start Vibration Index in a Hybrid Powertrain Using Torque Sensor and Cylinder Pressure Sensor

Tsinghua University-Fuyuan Yang, Lei Du, Yaodong Hu
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an investigation of drivability issue of engine start-stop. Hybrid vehicles provide excellent benefits regarding fuel efficiency and emission. However, vibration results from constant engine start and stop events generate drivability issues, thus compromising driving comfort. This paper has designed a high speed torque sensor to capture instantaneous torque at the engine shaft. Its consequences help to find out the most suitable index of vibration severity. This paper is organized in four sections. The first section introduces the powertrain to be studied. The second section introduces development of a specially designed torque sensor. The torque sensor is installed between the engine and ISG (Integrated Starter Generator), alongside with an encoder. The torque sensor is utilized to collect the instantaneous shaft torque on occasion of engine start. In the third section, this paper has performed two experiments. Firstly, a typical engine start process (from 0 to 650 rpm) is studied. Instantaneous shaft torque, encoder signal and cylinder pressure signals are gathered and synchronized. Cranking phase and initial combustion phase is observed. It is concluded…
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Tricks of the EV trade

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Bradley Berman
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_04
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Why Volvo uses starter-generators and raised tunnels for its electrified vehicles.

Volvo first demonstrated its Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) at the 2001 Frankfurt Motor Show. Replacing the starter-motor and alternator with the ISG allows a gas engine to shut off at will - mainly to prevent idling at a stop. For the company, it was a logical first step for fuel savings. But Volvo engineers at the time could hardly have predicted how useful an ISG would become, decades later, in the electric era.

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Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

European Commission Joint Research-Biagio Ciuffo, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Giuseppe DiPierro, Federico Millo, Claudio Cubito
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Until 2017 in Europe the Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles for the determination of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyze the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars. The study also considers the effect of the engine warm-up and the impact of the start-stop technology in this new TA scenario. Since the WLTP imposes higher test mass and Road Loads (RLs), as well as higher driving cycle dynamics,…
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