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Resabtors - Advanced Multi-Material Muffler Designs for Clean Air Applications

Umfotec-Ralf Buck
Umfotec GmbH-Ingo Krebs
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1554
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The development and production of resonators on the charged air side of combustion engines require profound base of knowledge in designing, simulating and the production of such parts in different materials (aluminum, copper, stainless steel and technical plastic). As combustion engines are under constant discussion, this existing knowledge base should be used for other applications within and outside the automotive industry. Very quickly it became apparent that new challenges often require completely new solutions, designs and materials to meet the requirements of flow noise reducing parts. For example, for clean air applications mufflers based on “special treated foams” and “meta-materials” can be introduced. These materials offer new potentials for tuning of the frequency range and allow improved broad banded flow noise attenuation. Such parts are named “Resabtors” in order to take respect of the different flow noise attenuation principles resonation and absorbing. Since in almost all applications the installation space is very limited, it was necessary to combine these two principles into one component. This results into significant challenges to identify the properties of the…
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Research on Joining High Pressure Die Casting Parts by Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) using Ring-Groove Die Comparing to Heat Treatment Method

Bollhoff Inc.-Xuzhe Zhao
Chang’an University-Dean Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the increasing number of structural high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum parts need to be joined with high strength steel (HSS) parts in order to reduce the weight of vehicle for fuel-economy considerations. Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) has become one of the strongest mechanical joining solutions used in automotive industry for the past several decades. Joining HPDC parts with HSS parts can potentially cause joint quality issues, such as joint button cracks, low corrosion resistance and low joint strength. The appropriate heat treatment will be suggested to improve SPR joint quality in terms of crack reduction. But the heat treatment can also result in the blister issue and extra time and cost consumption for HPDC parts. The relationship between the microstructure of HPDC material before and after heat treatment with the joint quality is going to be investigated and discussed for interpretation of cracks initiation and propagation during riveting. The SPR joint quality will be evaluated based on interlock distance, the minimum remaining thickness (Tmin), shear strength etc. Instead of using heat treatment method, the…
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Shape Optimization of Engine Block for Reducing Noise Radiation

ESI North America-Wenlong Yang, Ricardo de Alba Alvarez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0404
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reducing the noise radiated from engines has become important. Optimizing the shape of the engine block is one promising approach to achieve this goal. The objective of this paper is to perform the shape optimization of an engine block to reduce its radiated noise in a certain frequency range. Specifically investigated is a six-cylinder engine made of aluminum and steel. The investigation is performed by numerical models, which compose the finite elements for simulating the structure and boundary elements for simulating the exterior airspace. For optimization, a series of ribs are added on the surface of the engine block. The optimization variables are set up to represent the shapes of the ribs. The limits of the shape changes are defined by the optimization constraints. The radiated power and the sound pressure at certain locations are chosen as the optimization objectives. The Genetical Algorithm is taken to perform the optimization. It is found that the optimization calculation successfully converges and gives the best design. The radiated noise is reduced by certain amount. A Pareto plot with…
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Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

Argonne National Laboratory-Munidhar Biruduganti, Douglas Longman
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Brian Kaul, John Storey, Amelia Elliott, Derek Siddel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0770
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
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Design of the powder metal shift fork and sleeve

Czech Technical University-Gabriela Achtenova, Jiri Pakosta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1322
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present the design of shift fork for automotive manual gearbox dedicated for the manufacturing with help of powder metal technology. Based on limitations and requirements of new production technology of shifting sleeve, a new prototype of shifting sleeve is created, for which are new shifting forks then designed. The form of the prototype of the shift sleeve respected the requirements of the new technology, but from cost reason, it was manufactured from steel. The shift fork was changed accordingly to the new form of the shift sleeve. The functionality of several forks with different tolerances was tested. Prototypes were put through functional and durability tests on testing bench in real automotive gearbox. The test were accomplished on the inertia test stand. Drawings and CAD models of tested prototypes, custom tools and designed shift forks will be described.
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Calibration and Validation of GISSMO Damage Model for A 780-MPa Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

Ford Motor Company-Tau Tyan, Krishnakanth Aekbote
United States Steel Corporation-Guofei Chen, Lu Huang, Todd M. Link
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0198
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To accurately evaluate vehicle crash performance in the early design stages, a reliable fracture model is needed in crash simulations to predict fracture initiation and propagation. In this paper, a generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA® was calibrated and validated for a 780-MPa third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), namely 780 XG3TM steel with a superior combination of high strength and excellent ductility. The fracture locus of the 780 XG3TM steel was experimentally characterized under various stress states including uniaxial tension, shear, plane strain and equi-biaxial stretch conditions. A process to calibrate the parameters in the GISSMO model was developed and successfully applied to the 780 XG3TM steel using the fracture test data for these stress states. The calibrated GISSMO fracture card for 780 XG3TM steel was then validated in simulations of wedge-bend tests, two notched tensile tests and axial crash tests of octagonal, 12-sided and 16-sided components. The predicted fracture locations, displacement at fracture and force-displacement curves agreed well with the test results. The study also demonstrates that 780…
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Coupled Weld-Rupture Analysis of Automotive Assemblies

ESI North America-Yogendra Gooroochurn, Ramesh Dwarampudi, Vijay Tunga
ESI US R&D-Megha Seshadri, Ravi Raveendra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1076
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight driven design in the automotive industry and the push for Electric Vehicles mandate the use of innovative materials such as Steel (HSS, UHSS, AHSS) and Aluminum alloys. For steel suppliers to meet the strength requirements of high strength steels, they often alloy the steel chemistry (depending on mill capability, rolling capacity, quenching capacity, etc.). When used in welded assembly constructions, these steels, as compared to traditional steels, behave differently. Depending on the welding heat input, the material chemistry and thickness, they either harden or soften in the heat affected zone. Similar behavior is observed with the most commonly used aluminum alloys (5000 and 6000 series) in the automotive sector. For both alloy types, different strengthening mechanism are used to meet their initial strength requirements (by work hardening and by heat treating respectively) but they both undergo softening in the heat affected zone during welding. Regardless of the alloys, the material in the heat affected zone is affected and so is the performance of the weldment during service. FE analyzes of Welding and Performance have…
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Searching for Optimal Solutions for Motor Performance Design

Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.-Yuko Miyabe, Masahito Kakema, Toshihiro Saito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0460
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper relates a method for seeking Pareto solutions for strength, torque-rotational speed characteristics, losses, and exciting force in the preliminary design of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) and carrying out optimal design in an integrated manner. As to the constraint on strength, it was determined that the von Mises stress on the rotor core with respect to the load of the centrifugal force at 1.2 times the maximum rotational speed should not exceed the breaking strength of common electrical steel sheet material. As to the torque-rotational speed characteristic, this was determined to be the maximum torque for each rotational speed, taking into account the maximum voltage and current input when maximum torque per ampere control and field weakening control are applied. The maximum torque at low rotational speed and the maximum power at maximum rotational speed were taken as evaluation parameters. Losses were defined as the total value of DC copper loss occurring in the coil and iron loss occurring in the stator and rotor core. As to the exciting force, the 6th…
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Volume of Fluid vs. Cavitation CFD-Models to Calculate Drag Torque in Multi-Plate Clutches

SIMERICS GmbH-Rudi Niedenthal
Technical University of Munich-Daniel Groetsch, Katharina Voelkel, Hermann Pflaum, Karsten Stahl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0495
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wet running multi-plate clutches and brakes are important components of modern powershift gearboxes and industrial powertrains. In the open stage, drag losses occur due to fluid shear. Identification of drag losses is possible by experiment or CFD-simulation. For calculation of the complex fluid flow of an open clutch CFD-approaches such as the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method or the Singhal cavitation model are applicable. Every method has its own specific characteristics. This contribution sets up CFD-calculation models for different clutches with diverse groove designs. We present results of calculations in various operating conditions obtained from the Singhal cavitation model and the VoF-method. Despite the high spatial resolution of the calculation models the usage of a modern commercial CFD-solver and mesher (Simerics MP+) results in very short calculation times. The developed CFD-models consider the geometry of a complete clearance consisting of the friction plate, the gap between the plates, the steel plate and the flow conditions arising from the design of the inner and outer plate carrier. The full 360-degree modeling makes it possible to take…
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Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloys: A Novel Multi-Layered Steel Material for Exhaust Applications

Arcanum Alloys Inc.-Zachary Detweiler, David Keifer, Daniel Bullard
Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Tony Quan, Winston Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1051
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A novel Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloy (SODA) material has been developed and applied to exhaust systems, a very aggressive environment with high temperatures and loads, as well as excessive corrosion. Traditional stainless steels disperse chromium homogeneously throughout the material, with varying amounts ranging from 11% to 18% dependent upon its grade (e.g. 409, 436, 439, and 441). SODA steels, however, offer layered concentrations of chromium, enabling an increased amount along the outer surface for much needed corrosion resistance and aesthetics. This outer layer, approximately 70µm thick, exceeds 20% of chromium concentration locally, but is only 3% in bulk, offering selective placement of the chromium to minimize its overall usage. And, since this layer is metallurgically bonded, it cannot delaminate or separate from its core, enabling durable protection throughout manufacturing processes and full useful life. The core material may be of various grades, however, so this study employs interstitial free steel (low carbon), which offers not only commercial advantages, but also eases manufacturing operations, as it is more formable than stainless steel grades. The material and…