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Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

EllectroCrafts Aerospace-Fabio Alonso da Silva
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019012
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportations' (DOT's) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. The validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to the implementation of the correct system requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development lifecycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products. This report suggests a regulatory text and a safety and V&V approach from an aerospace engineering perspective assessing the replacement of the human driver from the decision-making role by a computational system. This article suggests an approach where aerospace guidelines can be used alongside ISO 26262 in order to define a viable and valuable framework for autonomous…
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Development of PCX HEV

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2454
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the fourth-generation model of the 2018 PCX, the basic structure of frame was reviewed to make it lighter and rigid. Weight reduction was also adapted to its wheels. These enhancements contributed to its increased dynamic performances. The engine performances were enhanced as well, and all these features made it possible to provide a high-quality riding with composure of rider’s mind. In addition, we developed hybrid model PCX HYBRID that uses an ACG starter directly connected to a crankshaft as a drive assist system and realized pleasurable ride feeling with a more direct drive response.
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Development of Idling Stop System for 125 cm3 Scooters with Fuel Injection

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2449
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The idling stop system for scooters employs an ACG-starter connected directly to the crankshaft without reduction gears; therefore, it is possible to start the engine silently. The system is designed to stop the engine automatically when the scooter stops, and the engine restarts simply by opening the throttle. Scooters with 50 cm3 engines have already been employing the idling stop system. This system for 125 cm3 engines was developed to enlarge the application range of the idling stop system. It needs a large ACG starter because the cranking torque is higher than that of 50 cm3 engines, so the cranking torque was reduced by using a decompression device. The ACG starter was designed with a thin and large diameter construction in order to minimize the increase in engine width. The new idling stop system was developed with an integrated control of the fuel injection system and the ACG starter.
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Optimal Speed Profile for Minimum Vibration during Engine Start Using Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Approach

Tsinghua University-Lei Du, Liangfei Xu, Yaodong Hu, Minggao Ouyang, Fuyuan Yang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
An imperceptible engine start is critical to the acceptance of hybrid vehicles. This paper focusses on an optimal control problem that tries to reduce vibration during engine start. Efforts are made to obtain the optimal speed trajectory that could cause minimum vibration during engine start. In the first section, the target diesel powertrain is introduced. A four cylinder diesel engine is coaxially paralleled with an ISG motor. The ISG motor serves as the engine starter and engine flywheel. Its dynamic model is established using crank-link dynamics. Secondly, an index is brought out to evaluate the severity of vibration. The cylinder pressure variation is the main cause of engine torque ripple, which in turn results in engine speed fluctuation. The square of the angular acceleration is chosen as the index of vibration. The index shows a positive relation of cylinder pressure in terms of amplitude. Then, the author models this problem as a continuous-time optimal control problem with a fixed terminal time and a partially free terminal state, then solve it by the Pontryagin’s minimum principle.…
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Tricks of the EV trade

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Bradley Berman
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_04
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Why Volvo uses starter-generators and raised tunnels for its electrified vehicles.

Volvo first demonstrated its Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) at the 2001 Frankfurt Motor Show. Replacing the starter-motor and alternator with the ISG allows a gas engine to shut off at will - mainly to prevent idling at a stop. For the company, it was a logical first step for fuel savings. But Volvo engineers at the time could hardly have predicted how useful an ISG would become, decades later, in the electric era.

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Chevy reveals 2020 Corvette Stingray convertible, C8.R racer

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_14
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Reinforcing the Corvette's long association with astronauts, Chevrolet unveiled the convertible version of its all-new, mid-engine-layout 2020 Corvette Stingray in Cape Canaveral in early October. Executive chief engineer Tadge Juechter, underscoring the car's no-compromises performance and comparatively affordable price, called it a “no-lose proposition” for enthusiasts considering the new Corvette but also desiring a more open-top experience. When it goes into production in the first quarter of 2020, the Corvette Stingray convertible will start at $67,495 - $7,500 more than the 2020 Stingray coupe, which was widely celebrated for its aggressive $59,995 base price.

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Tests for Snowmobile Switching Devices and Components

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J68_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice covers standardized basic tests, test methods, and requirements applicable to electromechanical switching devices which may be used on snowmobiles as defined in SAE J33.
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Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

ETH Zurich-Nicolò Frapolli, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Robert Bosch GmbH-Jan N. Geiler, Andreas Manz
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature. The simulation framework was developed as follows: first, the spray model was calibrated using spray morphology evolution data of the same injector, characterized in a constant volume spray chamber by high-speed shadow imaging. In a second step, the wall impingement and film models were calibrated using the reference condition. With the model constants…
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Guarding of Starter System Energization

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1493_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-08 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard describes guarding to help prevent hazardous machine movement caused by activation of the starter motor by bypassing the starter control system. This document is applicable to off-road, self-propelled work machines, as identified in SAE J1116, and agricultural tractors, as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390, which have the potential for hazardous machine movement as a result of bypassing the starter control system and powering of the starter motor.
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Manufacturers’ Identification of Aerospace Electrical and Electronic Wiring Devices and Accessories

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1351J
  • Current
Published 2019-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the general requirements for, and the listing of, manufacturers’ identification markings, names, symbols or trademarks, and CAGE codes that appear on electrical and electronic wiring devices and accessories as required by individual product specifications. Supplier markings from previous submitted listings are maintained for component traceability.
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