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The In-Depth PHEV Driveline Torsional Vibration Induced Vehicle NVH Response Study by Integrated CAE/Testing Methodology

BAIC Motor Powertrain Co Ltd-Hongzhi Yu, Shouwei lu
BAIC Motor corporation.Ltd.-Qian zhao, Li zhang, Jianning jia, LIE WU, Huimin zhuang, honghui zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1507
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper,an amesim 1-d refined driveline model, including detailed engine, damper, dual clutch, transmission, differential, motor, halfshaft, wheel, body, suspension, powertrain mounting and powertrain rigid body, was built up, off a p2.5 topology phev,to predict torsional vibration induced vehicle NVH response addressing differing driving scenarios,like WOT rampup,parking engine start/stop,ev driving to tipnin(engine start) then to tipout(engine stop).firstly,the torsional vibration modes were predicted,addressing differing transmission gear steps of hev/ev driving mode,and the critical modes could be detected,as such, caveats/measures could be applied to setup the modal alignment chart/warn other engineering section from the very start of vehicle development; secondly,secondly,the holistic operational testing,which defined plenty measurement points including rpm fluctuation at differing location of engine/transmission,spark angle,crank position,injection angle,valve timing,MAP/MAF,etc, partly for later model calibration,partly for extract mandatory excitation input,like cylinder pressure trace/mount and suspension force,and partly for the reference of next optimization stage, was implemented on vehicle chassis dyno in a hemi-anechoic chamber.as it was merely centered on torsional vibration induced scenarios,the intake system/exhaust system /engine radiation noise contribution was excluded by specific measures,like BAM,etc, during…
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A Development and Evaluation of Optimal Fingerprint Authentication Algorithm in Vehicle Use Environment

Hyundai Motor Co & KIA Motors Corp.-Dae Sung Jin, Jungduck Son, Sangwoo Jeon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0723
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai Motor Company mass-produced the world's first fingerprint entry and start system. This paper is a study on the evaluation method to develop and verify the optimal fingerprint authentication algorithm for vehicle usage conditions. Currently, fingerprint sensors and algorithms in the IT industry have been developed for the electronic devices, and are not suitable for the harsh environment of the vehicle and the vehicle life cycle for more than 10 years. In order to optimize the fingerprint sensor and algorithm for the vehicle, this study consisted of 3way test methods. As a result, the fingerprint system could be optimized for the vehicle and the recognition rate and security could be optimized according to the sensor authentication level. Through this study, the fingerprint entry and start system achieved the recognition rate development goal (door handle sensor recognition rate: 85% or more, start button sensor recognition rate: 90% or more) and achieved security that meets European immobilizer regulation
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Evaluating the Performance of a Conventional and Hybrid Bus Operating on Diesel and B20 Fuel for Emissions and Fuel Economy

US Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew Brusstar, Scott Ludlam
University of Michigan-Rinav Pillai, Andre Boehman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1351
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With ongoing concerns about the elevated levels of ambient air pollution in urban areas and the contribution from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles are considered as a potential solution as they are perceived to be more fuel efficient and less polluting than their conventional engine counterparts. However, recent studies have shown that real-world emissions may be substantially higher than those measured in the laboratory, mainly due to operating conditions that are not fully accounted for in dynamometer test cycles. At the U.S. EPA National Fuel and Vehicle Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) the in-use criteria emissions and energy efficiency of heavy-duty class 8 vehicles (up to 36280 kg) can be evaluated under controlled conditions in the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer test. The present study evaluated the performance of a conventional bus and a hybrid bus for emissions and fuel economy under representative test cycles (including cold start and hot start conditions) with Diesel (#2) and Biodiesel (B20) fuel. The conventional bus was equipped with a Cummins ISL 8.3L engine and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel…
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A Progress Review on Heating Methods and Influence Factors of Cold Start for Automotive PEMFC System

Tongji University-Pengcheng Liu, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0852
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have become a promising transportation tool because of their high efficiency, fast response and zero-emission. However, the cold start problem is one of the main obstacles to limit the further commercialization of FCV in cold weather countries. Many efforts have made to improve the cold start ability. This review presents comprehensive heating methods and influence factors of the research progress in solving the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) system cold start problems with more than 100 patents, papers and reports, which may do some help for PEMFC system cold start from the point of practical utilization. Firstly, recent achievements and goals will be summarized in the introduction part. Then, regarding the heating strategies for the PEMFC system cold start, different heating solutions are classified into self-heating strategies and auxiliary-heating heating depending on their heating sources providing approach. Then, the next part will review the main influence factors for PEMFC system cold start, including the fuel cell stack, PEMFC system integration and design, cold start control strategies. Shutdown purge and heating…
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An Efficient Path Planning Methodology Based on the Starting Region Selection

Hunan University-Xin Chen, Zhaobo Qin, Liang Chen
North China University of Technology-Jingjing Fan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0118
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated parking is an efficient way to solve parking difficulties and path planning is of great concern for parking maneuvers [1]. Meanwhile, the starting region of path planning greatly affects the parking process and efficiency. The present research of the starting region are mostly determined based on a single algorithm, which limits the flexibility and efficiency of planning feasible paths. This paper, taking parallel parking and vertical parking for example, proposes a method to calculate the starting region and select the most suitable path planning algorithm for parking, which can improve the parking efficiency and reduce the complexity. The collision situations of each path planning algorithm are analyzed under collision-free conditions based on parallel and vertical parking. The starting region for each algorithm can then be calculated under collision-free conditions. After that, applicable starting regions for parking can be obtained, and each of those regions corresponds to a parking path planning algorithm. However, there always exists overlapped starting regions, which can be applied to multiple parking path planning algorithms. In order to select the most…
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Effects of Using an Electrically Heated Catalyst on the State of Charge of the Battery Pack for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles at Cold Start

NE Chemcat Corp.-Makoto Nagata
Waseda University-Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Xieyang Yan, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0444
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery models are being developed as a component of the powertrain systems of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to predict the state of charge (SOC) accurately. Electrically heated catalysts (EHCs) can be employed in the powertrains of HEVs to reach the catalyst light off temperature in advance. However, EHCs draw power from the battery pack and hence sufficient energy needs to be stored to power auxiliary components. In series HEVs, the engine is primarily used to charge the battery pack. Therefore, it is important to develop a control strategy that triggers engine start/stop conditions and reduces the frequency of engine operation to minimize the equivalent fuel consumption. In this study, a battery pack model was constructed in MATLAB-Simulink to investigate the SOC variation of a high-power lithium ion battery during extreme engine cold start conditions (-7°C) with/without application of an EHC. The EHC was simulated in MATLAB to determine the energy required to heat the catalyst during cold start conditions. The effect of the EHC in emissions purification at -7°C was studied using a three-way catalyst…
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Optimization of Diesel Engine and After-treatment Systems for a Series Hybrid Forklift Application

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Yinyan Huang, Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Rico Möllmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0658
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates an optimal design of a diesel engine and after-treatment systems for a series hybrid electric forklift application. A holistic modeling approach is developed in GT-Suite® to establish a model-based hardware definition for a diesel engine and an after-treatment system to accurately predict engine performance and emissions. The used engine model is validated with the experimental data. The engine design parameters including compression ratio, boost level, air-fuel ratio (AFR), injection timing, and injection pressure are optimized at a single operating point for the series hybrid electric vehicle, together with the performance of the after-treatment components. The engine and after-treatment models are then coupled with a series hybrid electric powertrain to evaluate the performance of the forklift in the standard VDI 2198 drive cycle. In addition, the thermal management strategies like retarding injection timing and late post-injection of fuel during cold start are analyzed in this work. The results show the reduction of tailpipe- NOx emission is possible by properly retarding the injection timing without a significant effect on unburned hydrocarbon emissions.The designed series…
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RDE-Compliant PEMS Testing of a Gasoline Euro 6d-TEMP Passenger Car at Two Ambient Temperatures with a Focus on the Cold Start Effect

BOSMAL / Poznan University of Technology-Jerzy Merkisz
BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute, Ltd.-Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0379
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
European Union RDE (real driving emissions) legislation requires that new vehicles be subjected to emissions tests on public roads. Performing emissions testing outside a laboratory setting immediately raises the question of the impact of ambient conditions - especially temperature - on the results. In the spirit of RDE legislation, a wide range of ambient temperatures are permissible, with mathematical moderation (correction) of the results only permissible for ambient temperatures <0°C and >+30°C. Within the standard range of temperatures (0°C to +30°C), no correction for temperature is applied to emissions results and the applicable emissions limits have to be met. Given the well-known link between the thermal state of an engine and its emissions following cold start, ambient temperature can be of great importance in determining whether a vehicle meets emissions requirements during an RDE test. This paper reports the results of full RDE-compliant on-road emissions tests performed on a Euro 6d-TEMP passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition engine and a gasoline particle filter. Testing was performed at two temperatures, both lying within the…
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Experimental-numerical correlation of a multi-body model for comfort analysis of an heavy truck

CNH Industrial-Andrea Morello, Vladi Nosenzo, Enrica Capitelli
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Michele Galfrè, Mauro Velardocchia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0768
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In automotive market, today more than in the past, it is very important to reduce time to market and, mostly, developing costs before the final production start. Ideally, bench and the on-road tests can be replaced by multi-body studies because virtual approach guarantees test conditions very close to reality and it is able to exactly replicate the standard procedures. Approval authorities are starting to look at simulations to release homologation certificates. Therefore, today, it is essential to create very reliable models, able to forecast the vehicle behavior on every road condition (including uneven surfaces). The aim of this study is to build a reliable multi-body model of a heavy commercial vehicle and to correlate experimental and numerical data related to comfort analysis for validation purposes. Experimental results are recorded during tests carried out at different speeds and loading conditions on a Belgian blocks track. Simulation data are obtained reproducing the on-road test conditions in multi-body environment. The virtual vehicle is characterized by rigid and flexible bodies, the tire model used is FTire (Flexible Structure Tire…
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A Study of Mechanism of Engine Idling Rattle Noise in Hybrid Transaxles

Toyota Motor Corporation-Tomoya Takeuchi, Kenji Miyasaka, Masatoshi Ito, Shingo Nakamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0421
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Quietness is one of the most important characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle quality. Reduction of the rattle noise caused by the torque fluctuation of an internal combustion engine can contribute to get a customer satisfaction. Toyota Hybrid System(THS) also has same requirement. Especially, the rattle noise during idling may happen discontinuously despite of periodical engine combustion excitation. It is necessary to study the mechanism and reduce the rattle noise. At lower engine torque range, decreasing the torsional damper’s stiffness can improve this condition as the manual transaxle done. However, the rattle noise can occur easily in conditions of relatively large torque spike inputs to the torsional system, such as the engine start/stop function of THS using the motor/generator in the transaxle. It is necessary to analyze the dynamics of all related components in lower engine torque range and need to find the new technique satisfying in both the idling and engine start/stop condition. This paper presents one method to clarify the mechanism of rattle noise occurring during engine idling through the measurement of shafts torque,…