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Development of PCX HEV

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2454
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the fourth-generation model of the 2018 PCX, the basic structure of frame was reviewed to make it lighter and rigid. Weight reduction was also adapted to its wheels. These enhancements contributed to its increased dynamic performances. The engine performances were enhanced as well, and all these features made it possible to provide a high-quality riding with composure of rider’s mind. In addition, we developed hybrid model PCX HYBRID that uses an ACG starter directly connected to a crankshaft as a drive assist system and realized pleasurable ride feeling with a more direct drive response.
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Development of Idling Stop System for 125 cm3 Scooters with Fuel Injection

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2449
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The idling stop system for scooters employs an ACG-starter connected directly to the crankshaft without reduction gears; therefore, it is possible to start the engine silently. The system is designed to stop the engine automatically when the scooter stops, and the engine restarts simply by opening the throttle. Scooters with 50 cm3 engines have already been employing the idling stop system. This system for 125 cm3 engines was developed to enlarge the application range of the idling stop system. It needs a large ACG starter because the cranking torque is higher than that of 50 cm3 engines, so the cranking torque was reduced by using a decompression device. The ACG starter was designed with a thin and large diameter construction in order to minimize the increase in engine width. The new idling stop system was developed with an integrated control of the fuel injection system and the ACG starter.
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Development and Influence of Setting Process Variables in Single Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming of AA 8011 Using Complex Proportional Assessment and ANOVA

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Durai Kumaran, Krishnaswamy Saravanan, Raj Rajendran, Harish Sriram
Tishk International University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0064
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Single point Incremental forming (SPIF) is a metal forming process that has achieved impeccable quality since the early 1990s. ISF is a very limited twisting process in which an improved device that must be used after a particular direction travels on a metal sheet to form the desired shape. Process parameters such as axial feed (mm), feed (mm / min), tool diameter (mm) and depth (mm) at the interface between samples during SPIF greatly affect the quality of the cone. Maximum thinning (mm), cone height (mm), wall angle (mm), formation time (minutes), etc. The purpose of this study was to study these parameters by improving the cone mass formed by VMC. For a detailed study of these parameters, experiments were performed using the orthogonal array L9. Output parameters such as mechanical quality effects were analysed using COPRAS (Complex Proportional Assessment of alternatives) and ANOVA.
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Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

ETH Zurich-Nicolò Frapolli, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Robert Bosch GmbH-Jan N. Geiler, Andreas Manz
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature. The simulation framework was developed as follows: first, the spray model was calibrated using spray morphology evolution data of the same injector, characterized in a constant volume spray chamber by high-speed shadow imaging. In a second step, the wall impingement and film models were calibrated using the reference condition. With the model constants…
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Guarding of Starter System Energization

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1493_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-08 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Standard describes guarding to help prevent hazardous machine movement caused by activation of the starter motor by bypassing the starter control system.

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Manufacturers’ Identification of Aerospace Electrical and Electronic Wiring Devices and Accessories

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1351J
  • Current
Published 2019-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the general requirements for, and the listing of, manufacturers’ identification markings, names, symbols or trademarks, and CAGE codes that appear on electrical and electronic wiring devices and accessories as required by individual product specifications. Supplier markings from previous submitted listings are maintained for component traceability.
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Simulations of Thin Film Dynamics on a Flat Plate and an Airfoil

Baylor University-Jordan Sakakeeny, Stephen T. McClain, Yue Ling
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the present study is to investigate the dynamics of a thin water film on a flat plate and an airfoil using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The first case for a wetted flat plate is used to model former experiments and investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film. The second case for a thin film on a NACA 0012 airfoil of chord length 0.5 m is used to investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film on a curved surface. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the liquid film and the air shear-layer above the film. As the incoming airflow moves over the thin water film, instability is triggered at the gas-liquid interface. Interfacial waves develop and are advected downstream. The interaction between the air flow and the interfacial waves induces shedding vortices near the interface, which in turn perturb the liquid film farther downstream. Simulations are performed using the open source multiphase flow solvers, Gerris and Basilisk. Both solvers employ a finite-volume approach and the interface is captured using…
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Separating-Reattaching Flows Over an Iced Airfoil

Diakon Solutions LLC-Ezgi Oztekin
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-James Riley
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) of separating-reattaching flows on the suction side of an ice-contaminated airfoil were conducted. A single-section straight-wing NACA23012 airfoil with leading-edge ice was studied. The geometry represents a realistic glaze horn-ice contamination obtained during the icing test campaigns described in [1], which has aerodynamic data for comparison. The three-dimensional transient flow behavior was simulated using the open-source flow solver OVERFLOW, version 2.2l [2] developed by NASA Langley Research Center. Configurations at three angles of attack that exhibit unsteady flow behavior starting with the bursting angle were examined at Mach number of 0.18 and Reynolds number of 1.8x106. As the stall angle was approached the aerodynamic performance parameters displayed large-scale unsteadiness where periods of attached and separated flows were observed. The time-averaged results show good agreement with the aerodynamic test data. The calculated Strouhal number for the self-sustained low-frequency oscillations is consistent with the previous experimental research.
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Extension of a 2D Algorithm for Catch Efficiency Calculation to Three Dimensions

Airbus-Christian Bartels
FH Joanneum GmbH-Thomas Neubauer, Wolfgang Hassler
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Accurate calculation of the catch efficiency β is of paramount importance for any ice accretion calculation since β is the most important factor in determining the mass of ice accretion. A new scheme has been proposed recently in [1] for accurately calculating β on a discretized two-dimensional geometry based on the results of a Lagrangian droplet trajectory integrator (start and impact conditions).This paper proposes an extension to the algorithm in Ref. [1], which is applicable to three-dimensional surfaces with arbitrary surface discretization. The 3D algorithm maintains the positive attributes of the original 2D algorithm, namely mass conservation of the impinging water, capability to deal with overlapping impingement regions and with crossing trajectories, computational efficiency of the algorithm, and low number of trajectories required to reach good accuracy in catch efficiency. At the same time, the new 3D algorithm avoids typical difficulties of other approaches to determine the catch efficiency β, like noisy β (results varying significantly between neighboring surface cells), catch efficiency of zero for surface cells surrounded by other cells with β > 0,…
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A Study of Droplet Breakup in the Vicinity of an Airfoil

INTA-Suthyvann Sor, Adelaida Garcia-Magariño
UPM-Angel Velazquez
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Supercooled large droplets can breakup before imping on aerodynamic surfaces and this should be taken into account in the icing codes. A study of droplets breakup in the vicinity of an airfoil has been conducted. Experiments for streams of droplets that were allowed to fall in the path of an incoming airfoil attached to a rotatory arm were conducted at the INTA facility. Droplets diameters ranged from 500 μm to 3 mm and two airfoils models of leading edge radius of 70 mm and 103 mm moving at velocities of 70 m/s, 80 m/s and 90 m/s were tested. Two subsets of experimental data for both bag and stamen breakup and shear breakup modes were used in this investigation. For these cases a numerical trajectory and deformation model was applied to obtain the evolution of the horizontal position, and the droplet maximum and minimum diameter. Breakup onset was determined from experimental data. Though previous works considered that breakup starts when there is a minimum in the minimum diameter, such minimum was not found in the…
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