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A Development and Evaluation of Optimal Fingerprint Authentication Algorithm in Vehicle Use Environment

Hyundai Motor Co & KIA Motors Corp.-Dae Sung Jin, Jungduck Son, Sangwoo Jeon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0723
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai Motor Company mass-produced the world's first fingerprint entry and start system. This paper is a study on the evaluation method to develop and verify the optimal fingerprint authentication algorithm for vehicle usage conditions. Currently, fingerprint sensors and algorithms in the IT industry have been developed for the electronic devices, and are not suitable for the harsh environment of the vehicle and the vehicle life cycle for more than 10 years. In order to optimize the fingerprint sensor and algorithm for the vehicle, this study consisted of 3way test methods. As a result, the fingerprint system could be optimized for the vehicle and the recognition rate and security could be optimized according to the sensor authentication level. Through this study, the fingerprint entry and start system achieved the recognition rate development goal (door handle sensor recognition rate: 85% or more, start button sensor recognition rate: 90% or more) and achieved security that meets European immobilizer regulation
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An efficient path planning methodology based on the starting region selection

Hunan University-Xin Chen, Zhaobo Qin, Liang Chen
North China University of Technology-Jingjing Fan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0118
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated parking is an efficient way to solve parking difficulties. Path planning is of great concern for parking maneuvers. Meanwhile, the starting points of path planning greatly affect the process and efficiency of parking. The present research of the region of the starting points are mostly determined based on a single algorithm, which limits the flexibility and efficiency of planning feasible paths. This paper, taking parallel parking and vertical parking for example, proposes a method to calculate the region of the starting points and select the most suitable path planning algorithm for parking, which can improve the parking efficiency and reduce the complexity. The collision situations of each path planning algorithm are analyzed under collision-free conditions based on parallel and vertical parking. The region of the starting points for each algorithm can then be calculated under collision-free conditions. After that, applicable starting regions for parking can be obtained, and each of those regions corresponds to a parking path planning algorithm. However, there always exists overlapping starting regions, which can be applied to multiple parking path…
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Experimental-numerical correlation of a multi-body model for comfort analysis of an heavy truck

CNH Industrial-Andrea Morello, Vladi Nosenzo, Enrica Capitelli
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Michele Galfrè, Mauro Velardocchia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0768
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In automotive market, today more than in the past, it is very important to reduce time to market and, mostly, developing costs before the final production start. Ideally, bench and the on-road tests can be replaced by multi-body studies because virtual approach guarantees test conditions very close to reality and it is able to exactly replicate the standard procedures. Approval authorities are starting to look at simulations to release homologation certificates. Therefore, today, it is essential to create very reliable models, able to forecast the vehicle behavior on every road condition (including uneven surfaces). The aim of this study is to build a reliable multi-body model of a heavy commercial vehicle and to correlate experimental and numerical data related to comfort analysis for validation purposes. Experimental results are recorded during tests carried out at different speeds and loading conditions on a Belgian blocks track. Simulation data are obtained reproducing the on-road test conditions in multi-body environment. The virtual vehicle is characterized by rigid and flexible bodies, the tire model used is FTire (Flexible Structure Tire…
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Starting process control of a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine for range extender

Tongji University-Minglong Li, Ran Zhang, Xingyu Zeng, Weiqi Ding, Weiang Mao, Shaoye Jin, Rufeng Xu, Dengke Yuan, Zongjie Hu, Zaimin Zhong, Liguang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0315
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing worldwide concern on environmental pollution, blade electrical vehicles (BEV) have attracted a lot attention. However, it still couldn’t satisfy the market requirements because of the low battery power density, high cost and long charging time. The range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the BEVs with lower cost and potentially higher efficiency. When internal combustion engine (ICE) works as the power source of range extender (RE) for REEV, its NVH, emissions in starting process need to be optimized. In this paper, a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially connected. Meanwhile, batteries and load systems were equipped. The RE co-control system was developed based on Compact RIO, Labview and motor control unit (MCU). Focused on the starting process, the effects of first firing speeds, throttle control strategies and coolant temperatures were tested. The results show that the higher first firing speed is preferred without obvious torque fluctuation, and longer throttle switching duration to high load results in lower…
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A Development of Battery Aging Prediction Model Based on Actual Vechile Driving Pattern

Hyundai & Kia Corp.-YOUNGCHUL LIM
ThermoAnalytics Inc.-Zachary Edel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1059
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The battery of the real vehicle accelerates the battery aging due to the dark current of the black box, the high ambient temperature, the shortage of the battery charge rate and the customer complaints such as intermittent occurrence of ISG intermittently entering the vehicle and bad start. In addition, the existing battery durability verification requires a long period of more than 4 months through the deep discharge and it has not secured the advance verification technology through battery durability verification and battery aging simulation that reflect the various actual vehicle driving conditions of the customer. In order to improve this, it is aimed to develop a battery aging prediction model that reflects various operating conditions of actual vehicle driving pattern based customer. The NREL battery lifetime model has been adapted for AGM lead-acid batteries using experimental test data. Battery stress statistics are created with a battery thermal/electric simulation and then applied to the aging model to predict resistance growth and capacity fade over the expected life of the battery. The thermal/electric simulations are performed incrementally,…
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An Intuitive Derivation of the Dual-Clutch Model for Clutch Shift Dynamics

FCA US LLC-Pradeep Attibele
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0433
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are several commercial off-the-shelf software available to study transmission and driveline dynamics. Many of these software require a faithful representation of the transmission topology in order to carry out the analyses. This approach utilizes several redundant degrees of freedom which may not be necessary for studying low frequency (<~30 Hz) dynamics and may be computationally inefficient. The dual-clutch model has been proposed as a generic 2-DOF model that overcomes some of these drawbacks. In this paper, the dual-clutch model is initially derived from first principles, starting with the equations of motion for a planetary automatic transmission. The model coefficients - the inertia matrix and the matrix of clutch gains - are then derived using a more intuitive approach and compared to the model derived from first principles.
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Fuel Properties and their Impact on Stochastic Pre-Ignition Occurrence and Mega Knock Severity in Turbocharged Direct Injection Engines

FEV North America Inc.-Patrick Haenel, Dean Tomazic, Henning Kleeberg, Joseph Ciaravino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0614
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) is an abnormal combustion event that can occur during the operation of modern, highly boosted direct-injection gasoline engines. This abnormal combustion event is characterized by an undesired and early start of combustion that is not initiated by the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock in literature and have the potential to severely damage engines in the field. Numerous studies to analyze impact factors on SPI occurrence and severity have been conducted in recent years. While initial studies have focused strongly on engine oil formulation, calibration and engine design and their respective impact on SPI initiation, the impact of physical and chemical properties of the fuel have also become of interest in recent years. There is still significant uncertainty about the best way to characterize a fuels impact on SPI occurrence and severity though. We therefore performed an experimental study that attempts to link fuel characteristics to SPI event occurrence as well as assesses their…
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Driver response to left incurring path intrusions at sign-controlled intersections

Kodsi Engineering-Shady Attalla, Sam Kodsi
University of Guelph-Erika Ziraldo, Michele Oliver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0886
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Straight intersecting path or “side” collisions account for 12% of all motor vehicle crashes and 24% of fatalities. While previous research has examined driver responses to hazards striking from the right (near side), no research has quantified driver responses to hazards striking from the left (far side) of an intersection. The purpose of this study was to measure driver response time (DRT) and response choice for two versions of this scenario. In one condition, the hazard vehicle was initially stopped at the intersection before accelerating into the path of the participant driver. In the other condition, the hazard vehicle approached and entered the intersection while moving at a constant speed of 50km/h. Testing was conducted using an Oktal full car driving simulator. 107 licenced drivers (NFemale=57, NMale=50) completed a short familiarization drive followed by the experimental drive in which they encountered both the initially stopped and moving conditions of the straight path hazard, in a counterbalanced order. DRT was defined as the time between when the hazard vehicle crossed a trigger located two meters from…
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Influence of micro geometry modification on gear dynamics

Politecnico di Torino-Carlo Rosso
Politecnico di Torino / GeDy TrAss-Fabio Bruzzone, Tommaso Maggi, Claudio Marcellini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1323
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gearbox behaviour is strictly affected by gears, shaft, bearings and casing stiffnesses. As a matter of fact, their contribution to gear dynamics is fundamental for mechanical transmissions design. In this paper a semi-analytical model developed for the estimation of the dynamic behaviour of two mating gears is presented and tested on two case studies. Starting with the estimation of the Static Transmission Error, intended as the difference between the theoretical and actual angular position between the two mating gears, the dynamic behaviour of the mating elements is estimated by means of a Dynamic Model. The Dynamic Model takes into account the gears, the contact between teeth exchanging loads and the other mechanical elements reduced by means of a DOF reduction technique. Based on the block-oriented approach, Dynamic Model allows the user to easily manage the complexity of the system with further or less elements by adding or removing DOFs. The outputs of the Dynamic Model are the Dynamic Transmission Error and the actual dynamic overload due to teeth mating. Main outputs of that model are…
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Electric Vehicle Cold Start Range Estimation through Battery-in-the-Loop Simulations within a Virtual Driving Environment

IPG Automotive GmbH-Pascal Piecha
Loughborough University, UK-Maria Sarmiento-Carnevali, Ashley Fly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0453
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have become a research focus in the field of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to key advantages such as high specific energy, high energy density and low self-discharge rate in comparison with other battery technologies. Nevertheless, key issues involving safety, performance, cost, charging time and durability restrict the mass market adoption of electric vehicles. Cold-temperature operation of Li-ion batteries is currently a subject of major research efforts in industry and academia. The effects of low temperature reduce the available energy of the battery and increase its internal impedance. Moreover, Li-ion batteries experience serious degradation mechanisms at low temperatures, strongly affecting performance, which poses difficulties for cold-climate countries. In this work, a battery-in-the-loop experiment has been set up to estimate and analyze Li-ion battery cold start range at temperatures down to -40°C. This experimental setup is connected to the open integration and test platform CarMaker from IPG Automotive to evaluate cold start range both through standardized automotive duty cycles and within a virtual test environment designed to replicate real-world test driving. In…