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The In-Depth PHEV Driveline Torsional Vibration Induced Vehicle NVH Response Study by Integrated CAE/Testing Methodology

BAIC Motor Powertrain Co Ltd-Hongzhi Yu, Shouwei lu
BAIC Motor corporation.Ltd.-Qian zhao, Li zhang, Jianning jia, LIE WU, Huimin zhuang, honghui zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1507
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper,an amesim 1-d refined driveline model, including detailed engine, damper, dual clutch, transmission, differential, motor, halfshaft, wheel, body, suspension, powertrain mounting and powertrain rigid body, was built up, off a p2.5 topology phev,to predict torsional vibration induced vehicle NVH response addressing differing driving scenarios,like WOT rampup,parking engine start/stop,ev driving to tipnin(engine start) then to tipout(engine stop).firstly,the torsional vibration modes were predicted,addressing differing transmission gear steps of hev/ev driving mode,and the critical modes could be detected,as such, caveats/measures could be applied to setup the modal alignment chart/warn other engineering section from the very start of vehicle development; secondly,secondly,the holistic operational testing,which defined plenty measurement points including rpm fluctuation at differing location of engine/transmission,spark angle,crank position,injection angle,valve timing,MAP/MAF,etc, partly for later model calibration,partly for extract mandatory excitation input,like cylinder pressure trace/mount and suspension force,and partly for the reference of next optimization stage, was implemented on vehicle chassis dyno in a hemi-anechoic chamber.as it was merely centered on torsional vibration induced scenarios,the intake system/exhaust system /engine radiation noise contribution was excluded by specific measures,like BAM,etc, during…
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A Development and Evaluation of Optimal Fingerprint Authentication Algorithm in Vehicle Use Environment

Hyundai Motor Co & KIA Motors Corp.-Dae Sung Jin, Jungduck Son, Sangwoo Jeon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0723
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai Motor Company mass-produced the world's first fingerprint entry and start system. This paper is a study on the evaluation method to develop and verify the optimal fingerprint authentication algorithm for vehicle usage conditions. Currently, fingerprint sensors and algorithms in the IT industry have been developed for the electronic devices, and are not suitable for the harsh environment of the vehicle and the vehicle life cycle for more than 10 years. In order to optimize the fingerprint sensor and algorithm for the vehicle, this study consisted of 3way test methods. As a result, the fingerprint system could be optimized for the vehicle and the recognition rate and security could be optimized according to the sensor authentication level. Through this study, the fingerprint entry and start system achieved the recognition rate development goal (door handle sensor recognition rate: 85% or more, start button sensor recognition rate: 90% or more) and achieved security that meets European immobilizer regulation
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A Progress Review on Heating Methods and Influence Factors of Cold Start for Automotive PEMFC System

Tongji University-Pengcheng Liu, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0852
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have become a promising transportation tool because of their high efficiency, fast response and zero-emission. However, the cold start problem is one of the main obstacles to limit the further commercialization of FCV in cold weather countries. Many efforts have made to improve the cold start ability. This review presents comprehensive heating methods and influence factors of the research progress in solving the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) system cold start problems with more than 100 patents, papers and reports, which may do some help for PEMFC system cold start from the point of practical utilization. Firstly, recent achievements and goals will be summarized in the introduction part. Then, regarding the heating strategies for the PEMFC system cold start, different heating solutions are classified into self-heating strategies and auxiliary-heating heating depending on their heating sources providing approach. Then, the next part will review the main influence factors for PEMFC system cold start, including the fuel cell stack, PEMFC system integration and design, cold start control strategies. Shutdown purge and heating…
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An Efficient Path Planning Methodology Based on the Starting Region Selection

Hunan University-Xin Chen, Zhaobo Qin, Liang Chen
North China University of Technology-Jingjing Fan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0118
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated parking is an efficient way to solve parking difficulties and path planning is of great concern for parking maneuvers [1]. Meanwhile, the starting region of path planning greatly affects the parking process and efficiency. The present research of the starting region are mostly determined based on a single algorithm, which limits the flexibility and efficiency of planning feasible paths. This paper, taking parallel parking and vertical parking for example, proposes a method to calculate the starting region and select the most suitable path planning algorithm for parking, which can improve the parking efficiency and reduce the complexity. The collision situations of each path planning algorithm are analyzed under collision-free conditions based on parallel and vertical parking. The starting region for each algorithm can then be calculated under collision-free conditions. After that, applicable starting regions for parking can be obtained, and each of those regions corresponds to a parking path planning algorithm. However, there always exists overlapped starting regions, which can be applied to multiple parking path planning algorithms. In order to select the most…
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RDE-Compliant PEMS Testing of a Gasoline Euro 6d-TEMP Passenger Car at Two Ambient Temperatures with a Focus on the Cold Start Effect

BOSMAL / Poznan University of Technology-Jerzy Merkisz
BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute, Ltd.-Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0379
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
European Union RDE (real driving emissions) legislation requires that new vehicles be subjected to emissions tests on public roads. Performing emissions testing outside a laboratory setting immediately raises the question of the impact of ambient conditions - especially temperature - on the results. In the spirit of RDE legislation, a wide range of ambient temperatures are permissible, with mathematical moderation (correction) of the results only permissible for ambient temperatures <0°C and >+30°C. Within the standard range of temperatures (0°C to +30°C), no correction for temperature is applied to emissions results and the applicable emissions limits have to be met. Given the well-known link between the thermal state of an engine and its emissions following cold start, ambient temperature can be of great importance in determining whether a vehicle meets emissions requirements during an RDE test. This paper reports the results of full RDE-compliant on-road emissions tests performed on a Euro 6d-TEMP passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition engine and a gasoline particle filter. Testing was performed at two temperatures, both lying within the…
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Experimental-numerical correlation of a multi-body model for comfort analysis of an heavy truck

CNH Industrial-Andrea Morello, Vladi Nosenzo, Enrica Capitelli
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Michele Galfrè, Mauro Velardocchia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0768
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In automotive market, today more than in the past, it is very important to reduce time to market and, mostly, developing costs before the final production start. Ideally, bench and the on-road tests can be replaced by multi-body studies because virtual approach guarantees test conditions very close to reality and it is able to exactly replicate the standard procedures. Approval authorities are starting to look at simulations to release homologation certificates. Therefore, today, it is essential to create very reliable models, able to forecast the vehicle behavior on every road condition (including uneven surfaces). The aim of this study is to build a reliable multi-body model of a heavy commercial vehicle and to correlate experimental and numerical data related to comfort analysis for validation purposes. Experimental results are recorded during tests carried out at different speeds and loading conditions on a Belgian blocks track. Simulation data are obtained reproducing the on-road test conditions in multi-body environment. The virtual vehicle is characterized by rigid and flexible bodies, the tire model used is FTire (Flexible Structure Tire…
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Starting Process Control of a 2-Cylinder PFI Gasoline Engine for Range Extender

Tongji University-Minglong Li, Ran Zhang, Xingyu Zeng, Weiqi Ding, Weiang Mao, Shaoye Jin, Rufeng Xu, Dengke Yuan, Zongjie Hu, Zaimin Zhong, Liguang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0315
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing worldwide concern on environmental pollution, battery electrical vehicles (BEV) have attracted a lot attention. However, it still couldn’t satisfy the market requirements because of the low battery power density, high cost and long charging time. The range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the BEVs with lower cost and potentially higher efficiency. When internal combustion engine (ICE) works as the power source of range extender (RE) for REEV, its NVH, emissions in starting process need to be optimized.In this paper, a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially connected. Meanwhile, batteries and load systems were equipped. The RE co-control system was developed based on Compact RIO (Compact Reconfigurable IO), Labview and motor control unit (MCU). Focused on the starting process, the effects of first firing speeds, throttle control strategies and coolant temperatures were tested.The results show that the higher first firing speed is preferred without obvious torque fluctuation, and longer throttle switching duration to high load results in…
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A Development of Battery Aging Prediction Model Based on Actual Vechile Driving Pattern

Hyundai & Kia Corp.-YOUNGCHUL LIM
ThermoAnalytics Inc.-Zachary Edel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1059
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The battery of the real vehicle accelerates the battery aging due to the dark current of the black box, the high ambient temperature, the shortage of the battery charge rate and the customer complaints such as intermittent occurrence of ISG intermittently entering the vehicle and bad start. In addition, the existing battery durability verification requires a long period of more than 4 months through the deep discharge and it has not secured the advance verification technology through battery durability verification and battery aging simulation that reflect the various actual vehicle driving conditions of the customer. In order to improve this, it is aimed to develop a battery aging prediction model that reflects various operating conditions of actual vehicle driving pattern based customer. The NREL battery lifetime model has been adapted for AGM lead-acid batteries using experimental test data. Battery stress statistics are created with a battery thermal/electric simulation and then applied to the aging model to predict resistance growth and capacity fade over the expected life of the battery. The thermal/electric simulations are performed incrementally,…
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An Intuitive Derivation of the Dual-Clutch Model for Clutch Shift Dynamics

FCA US LLC-Pradeep Attibele
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0433
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are several commercial off-the-shelf software available to study transmission and driveline dynamics. Many of these software require a faithful representation of the transmission topology in order to carry out the analyses. This approach utilizes several redundant degrees of freedom which may not be necessary for studying low frequency (<~30 Hz) dynamics and may be computationally inefficient. The dual-clutch model has been proposed as a generic 2-DOF model that overcomes some of these drawbacks. In this paper, the dual-clutch model is initially derived from first principles, starting with the equations of motion for a planetary automatic transmission. The model coefficients - the inertia matrix and the matrix of clutch gains - are then derived using a more intuitive approach and compared to the model derived from first principles.
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Fuel Properties and their Impact on Stochastic Pre-Ignition Occurrence and Mega Knock Severity in Turbocharged Direct Injection Engines

FEV North America Inc.-Patrick Haenel, Dean Tomazic, Henning Kleeberg, Joseph Ciaravino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0614
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) is an abnormal combustion event that can occur during the operation of modern, highly boosted direct-injection gasoline engines. This abnormal combustion event is characterized by an undesired and early start of combustion that is not initiated by the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock in literature and have the potential to severely damage engines in the field. Numerous studies to analyze impact factors on SPI occurrence and severity have been conducted in recent years. While initial studies have focused strongly on engine oil formulation, calibration and engine design and their respective impact on SPI initiation, the impact of physical and chemical properties of the fuel have also become of interest in recent years. There is still significant uncertainty about the best way to characterize a fuels impact on SPI occurrence and severity though. We therefore performed an experimental study that attempts to link fuel characteristics to SPI event occurrence as well as assesses their…