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Study of Wrenching Engagement on AS870C Double Hexagon (12 Point) Fasteners

EG-1B Hand Tools Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1936A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
This study addresses the adequacy of sockets, wrenches, and torque adapters conforming to AS954 to wrench 12 point fasteners with wrenching configurations conforming to AS870C. Reported wrenching problems with smaller sizes are investigated through examining the combined tolerances on the fasteners and wrenches, conducting torque testing on typical high strength lock nuts. Possible solutions to correct these wrenching problems are presented.
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Experimental Drawbeads Design Research

Oakland University-Boyang Zhang, Wan Xu, Zhenpu Zhang, Rong Wang, Lianxiang Yang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In order to constrain the restraining force and control the speed of metal flow, drawbeads are widely used in industry. They prevent wrinkling or necking in formed panels, reduce the binder force, and minimize the usage of sheet metal to make a part. Different drawbead configurations can satisfy various stamping production. Besides local design of drawbeads, other factors like pulling directions, binder angles and single or multiple beads play an important role too. Moreover, it was found that the same beads configuration can own a different rate of change of pulling force on different gaps by experience. In this paper, to study the effect of each factor, the Aluminum and Steel sheet metals were tested to obtain the pulling force as they passed through a draw bead. Three gap cases between a male and a female beads are set to figure out the trend of pulling force. Drawbeads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device while a tensile machine was used to record the pulling force. The results validate that the sensitivity of drawbeads…
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Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

Clemson University-Rakan Alturk
General Motors LLC-Charles Enloe, Vesna Savic, Whitney Poling, Louis Hector
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens. Specifically, the potentially competing effects of strain rate on austenite transformation to martensite were investigated to determine which predominate at nominal strain rates of 0.5 s-1, 5 s-1, 50 s-1 and 500 s-1. A corresponding decrease in austenite volume fraction at a fixed true strain with strain rate suggests that austenite transformation to…
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Effects of Nitrided and Chrome Plated Die Surface Roughness on Friction in Bending Under Tension

United States Steel Corporation-Hua-Chu Shih
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Different die surface polish conditions result in a noticeable effect on material flow in stamping, which can lead to splitting, wrinkling, or other surface stretching issues associated with different friction conditions. These occurrences are not only limited to the non-coated dies, but also nitrided and chrome plated dies. To ensure quality control of the stamped parts, the die conditions corresponding to different polishing procedures need to be developed based on measurable parameters such as surface roughness (Ra). The intent of this study is to investigate the effects of nitrided and chrome plated die surface roughness on friction. The Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) test was conducted to simulate the stamping process due to the test’s versatility and flexibility in changing test parameters. The test involves moving sheet metal across a 3/8-inch diameter pin, which substitutes for a die surface. The pin can be modified by material, heat treatment, coating, and surface roughness. Pins were made of D6510 steel and heat treated to 54-58 HRC. Two different die polishing procedures were developed. The first is the progressive polishing procedure,…
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New High-Pressure Hydroform Tool Design Reduces Springback in Ultra-High Strength Steels

Quintus Technologies LLC-Björn Carlsson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Flexform™ is a high-pressure hydroforming technique using a flexible rubber diaphragm between the liquid pressure medium and the sheet metal. No seal is thus needed between the metal sheet and the pressure medium. Only a lower tool half is required, as the diaphragm will act as a flexible upper tool half. Further, the flexible diaphragm allows for several tools to be used in one and the same forming operation. All kinds of sheet metal and thicknesses may be formed using the technique. Perforated sheets, pre-coated sheets or sheets with sensitive surface are in addition to more traditional materials also suitable for Flexform pressing. Likewise, it is known that the Flexform technique works well with such difficult-to-form sheet materials as ultra-high strength steel, titanium and aluminum. Further, the process may also be simulated with good accuracy using FEM. However, as with any other cold forming method, springback is obtained after forming. Even if high-pressure forming often leads to less springback than conventional stamping, material springback is still a factor to take into consideration and needs to…
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Automotive Gigabit Ethernet Press-Fit Header Design and Performance

TE Connectivity Corporation-Guadalupe Chalas
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As the demand for Gigabit Automotive Ethernet based on single unshielded twisted pair continues to increase, there is a need to expand the market to include robust automotive grade solderless technology. The new Automotive Ethernet solution features Automotive press fit contacts that can both handle the harsh environments of the application and be applied to the PCB without the need for a soldering process. The solution at hand performs up to 1Gbps speeds without the need for current product plastic header housing redesign, which makes the solution compatible with its through-hole counterpart. Other advantages of a solderless solution include the increase in the amount of materials that can suit the application once the temperature requirements of the system decrease. Also, the smaller diameter PCB vias required for press fit applications and lack of variability in solder amounts, yield a connector whose differential impedance is better matched and can potentially achieve higher data rates. This paper explores the design advantages of switching to a solderless approach for twisted pair ethernet as well as the challenges of…
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Experimental Study of Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) of Sheet Metal based on the DBS System

Oakland University-Wan Xu, Boyang Zhang, Zhenpu Zhang, Lianxiang Yang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Springback is a common phenomenon in automotive manufacturing processes, caused by the elastic recovery of the internal stresses during unloading. A thorough understanding of springback is essential for the design of tools used in sheet metal forming operations. A DBS (Draw-bead Simulator) has been used to simulate the forming process for two different sheet metals: aluminum and steel. Two levels of pulling force and two die radii have been enforced to the experimental process to get different springback. Also, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system has been adopted to capture the sheet contour and measure the amount of side-wall-curl (sheet springback) after deformation. This paper presents the influence of the material properties, force, and die radius on the deformation and springback after forming. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon is essential, seeing that any curvature in the part wall can affect quality and sustainability. The data collected during this experimental procedure, in addition, to evaluate the springback characteristic of different sheet metals and is crucial for simulation validation within the automotive stamping industry. Moreover, it…
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Aluminum Alloy, Extrusions 1.0Mg - 0.60Si - 0.28Cu - 0.20Cr (6061-T4511 or T4510) Solution Heat Treated and Stress Relieved by Stretching

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4172G
  • Current
Published 2019-03-26 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubing.
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CRIMPING TOOLS, TERMINAL, HAND, WIRE TERMINATION; IN-SERVICE INSPECTION GAGES FOR TYPE II AS22520/5, /10, AND MIL-T-22520/32 (CANCEL) CRIMP TOOLS

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS22520/6B
  • Current
Published 2019-01-16 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Compression Molding Press

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33363
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Beckwood Press Company Fenton, MO 636-343-4100