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Advancements of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys for Heat Critical Aerospace Applications

The Boeing Company-Eve Taylor Burkhart, Larry Hefti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0033
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Titanium’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance makes it ideal for many aerospace applications, especially in heat critical zones. Superplastic Forming (SPF) can be used to form titanium into near-net, complex shapes without springback. The process uses a machined die where inert gas is applied uniformly to the metal sheet, forming the part into the die cavity. Standard titanium alpha-beta alloys, such as 6Al-4V, form at temperatures between 900 and 925ºC (1650-1700ºF). Recent efforts have demonstrated alloys that form at lower temperatures ranging between 760 and 790ºC (1400-1450ºF). Lowering the forming temperature reduces the amount of alpha case that forms on the part, which must be removed. This provides an opportunity of starting with a lower gauge material. Lower forming temperatures also limit the amount of oxidation and wear on the tool and increase the life of certain press components, such as heaters and platens. A variation of this process is SPF combined with Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB) of two or more titanium sheets to produce integrally stiffened structures with limited fasteners and less weight than…
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Development of Laser Welding Pressed-frame for Small Scooters Considering High Production Efficiency

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Sunao Kawano, Takeru Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0544
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The laser-welded pressed-steel frame made of the high-tensile-strength steel sheet and suitable for high efficiency production has been developed for small scooters. In majority of the conventional designs, the frame of small scooters is composed of a large number of steel pipes and stamped parts complexly welded together, requiring a number of welded joints. As a result, since the welding length increase and the dimensional error of the frame body after welding tends to be large, a correction operation in a post process is required. This has been one of the factors preventing further enhancement of production efficiency. In an attempt to cope with this issue, we have chosen to apply the pressed-steel frame construction using the high-tensile-strength steel sheet, which has been applied to small motorcycles, to small scooters. In addition, we replaced the spot welding with more efficient laser welding to further enhance productivity. The optimum cross section design taking advantages of the pressed-steel frame construction permits more gradual changes of cross sectional area than the conventional steel pipe frame, allowing dispersing of…
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Microstructural Characterization of Hot Stamped Parts After Partial Hardening

BENTELER Automotive-Tiago Santos Pinheiro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0113
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Hot forming is a process that has been on the spotlight of body-in-white recent developments, globally it was estimated that around 500 million parts would be produced in 2018. During the process, a blank of a 22MnB5 steel is heated, above 900 °C, in the austenite field, formed and quenched in the pressing machine, with the goal of producing a part with ultimate tensile strength (UTS) around 1500 MPa, achieved by a fully martensitic microstructure. However, from the point of view of crashworthiness, not all body in white components benefit from a fully martensitic microstructure. Alternative process routes have been proposed to achieve properties that are tailored to the part’s final application. In one of these process variants, known as partial hardening, the blank is heated in a furnace that operates with two parallel zones, each at a different temperature (one zone between 650 and 750 °C and one between 900 and 930°C), resulting in the blank having two main zones with different final temperatures, and a transition zone between them. This difference in temperature…
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Optimization and Numerical Simulation Applied to Design of Stamping Dies

Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei – UFSJ-Otavio Andrade, Marcio Eduardo Silveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0142
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The stamping process is commonly used, it is easily found in vehicles manufacturing. The stamping tool is composed by elements such as: die, punch, drawbeads and blankholder. The objective of this paper is to improve the structural stiffness and to reduce the weight of die through numerical optimization. Usually are used standardized stamping tool's parts that follows standard guidelines. The only part of stamping tool considered in the methodology was the die, other parts like punch and blankholder can also be optimized. A vehicle hood was designed in CAD and after that it was exported to CAE to start the simulations, the first step was the die generation. After that, a stamping process was simulated and the contact forces in the die were extracted and then applied in the control volume designed in CAD. Finally, the constraints, objectives and parameters were changed, so the topological optimization was generated. The results were interpreted and a layout were design in CAD following the pattern given by the optimization. Two different load cases are applied to the die…
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EDITORIAL: Hop on the hydrogen highway

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_06
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Two years ago at the inaugural North American Commercial Vehicle (NACV) Show in Atlanta, a recurring theme from nearly every truck manufacturer and supplier press conference was vehicle uptime, along with the various telematics and connectivity solutions that enable fleet managers to keep their trucks on the road. While these certainly were important topics at this year's NACV Show, the dominant takeaway from the Georgia World Congress Center was that alternative propulsion is top of mind for many industry players.

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Caterpillar launches next-gen mini hydraulic excavator, skid steer and compact track loaders

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Jennifer Shuttleworth
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_12
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Covering about 2.5 million ft2 and including roughly 2,800 exhibitors, the triennial ConExpo-Con/Agg event boasts an evenlarger footprint for 2020 with the addition of the Festival Grounds. As one of the major exhibitors at North America's largest construction tradeshow, taking place March 10-14 in Las Vegas, Caterpillar will have a fairly significant footprint of its own, filled with new equipment featuring the company's latest technology developments. A few of the machines likely to be on display were revealed at an October 2019 press event in Clayton, NC.

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Heavy-duty engine design

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Jennifer Shuttleworth, Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_01
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

What are the most significant factors influencing the way engine developers approach near-term design and development cycles? Two experts provide their insights from recent programs.

Engine developers face numerous challenges in their work. When building the new clean-sheet design C3.6 engine, Caterpillar Industrial Power Systems considered several factors including customer feedback and lower owning and operating costs. The result of this development process is a compact 134-hp (100-kW) engine that provides a 5% increase in power density and 12% increase in torque compared to its predecessor engine, the C3.4B.

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Rolling Circumference Index Groups for Agricultural Tractor Drive Tires

MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2523_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard is established for the following purpose: a Simplify the application of drive wheel tires to agricultural vehicles especially those with multiple drive axles having tires of different sizes. b Provide a pattern to combine similar sized tires into Rolling Circumference Index groups with uniform spacing between groups.
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Fiberboard Crease Bending Test

Textile and Flexible Plastics Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J119_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-31 by SAE International in United States
This test method is designed to determine the suitability of a painted or unpainted fiberboard for application involving creasing and bending. The specific purpose of the test is to determine whether a given material, properly creased, can be bent along the impressed crease without objectionable failure on the surface of the bend.
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Aluminum Alloy, Extrusions 1.0Mg - 0.60Si - 0.30Cu - 0.20Cr (6061-T6511 or T6510) Solution Heat Treated, Stress Relieved by Stretching, Straightened, and Precipitation Heat Treated

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4173G
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubing.
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