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Design and Analysis of De-Lavel Restrictor with Throttle Body for Formula Vehicle

Force Motors Limited-Pradeep Chandrasakaran
Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Aswin Sriram Thiyagarajan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The restrictor is a component which controls the mass flow of air passing to the engine. The proposed work focuses on design and analysis of air intake restrictor of Duke 390cc engine which is used in formula vehicles. As an constrain of this system, the air flows through a single circular throat of diameter 20mm. In past decades conventional venture nozzles were used as a restrictor but it leads to nominal press drop. A de lavel nozzle is a tube pinched in the middle, making an asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a higher supersonic speed in the axial direction. The main objective is to utilize De-Laval Nozzle for the minimal pressure drop. The change in pressure will increases the engine power output. The analysis is done by varying design conditions such as three levels of convergent (12,14 and 16 degrees) and three levels of divergent angles (4, 6 and 8 degrees) are taken into consideration. After numerous CFD Simulations, it is inferred that the optimal angles of 14 and 4 degrees for…
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Metal Stamping: Converting Parts for Cost Savings

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35372
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In today’s world of medical device manufacturing, cost pressures are very real. At the same time, cost savings can be just as real, especially when companies examine their manufacturing processes for greater efficiencies. One area that is gaining particular attention is metal stamping of previously machined, metal injection-molded, or laser-cut parts.

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Installation Procedures - Pin/Plug Expansion Type

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR3277
  • Current
Published 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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SKF employs digital tools to enhance bearing design, performance

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Jennifer Shuttleworth
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP08_11
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

It began with spherical roller bearings more than 100 years ago and now SKF finds itself amid a digital transformation. Over the years the bearing company has expanded beyond life modeling and bearings into condition modeling, John Schmidt, president, SKF USA Inc. and president industrial sales Americas, told media attending a recent Technical Press Day in Philadelphia, near the company's U.S. headquarters. Now data analytics and connected devices are helping to drive SKF's digitalization efforts.

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Insert - Thin Wall, Self-Locking Short and Long Length Installation and Removal of

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3507C
  • Current
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides minimum design, installation (by manual and power methods) and removal requirements for AS3504 and AS3505 thin wall inserts and is applicable when specified on engineering drawings or in procurement documents.
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Study of Wrenching Engagement on AS870C Double Hexagon (12 Point) Fasteners

EG-1B Hand Tools Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1936A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
This study addresses the adequacy of sockets, wrenches, and torque adapters conforming to AS954 to wrench 12 point fasteners with wrenching configurations conforming to AS870C. Reported wrenching problems with smaller sizes are investigated through examining the combined tolerances on the fasteners and wrenches, conducting torque testing on typical high strength lock nuts. Possible solutions to correct these wrenching problems are presented.
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Experimental Drawbeads Design Research

Oakland University-Boyang Zhang, Wan Xu, Zhenpu Zhang, Rong Wang, Lianxiang Yang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In order to constrain the restraining force and control the speed of metal flow, drawbeads are widely used in industry. They prevent wrinkling or necking in formed panels, reduce the binder force, and minimize the usage of sheet metal to make a part. Different drawbead configurations can satisfy various stamping production. Besides local design of drawbeads, other factors like pulling directions, binder angles and single or multiple beads play an important role too. Moreover, it was found that the same beads configuration can own a different rate of change of pulling force on different gaps by experience. In this paper, to study the effect of each factor, the Aluminum and Steel sheet metals were tested to obtain the pulling force as they passed through a draw bead. Three gap cases between a male and a female beads are set to figure out the trend of pulling force. Drawbeads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device while a tensile machine was used to record the pulling force. The results validate that the sensitivity of drawbeads…
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Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

Clemson University-Rakan Alturk
General Motors LLC-Charles Enloe, Vesna Savic, Whitney Poling, Louis Hector
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens. Specifically, the potentially competing effects of strain rate on austenite transformation to martensite were investigated to determine which predominate at nominal strain rates of 0.5 s-1, 5 s-1, 50 s-1 and 500 s-1. A corresponding decrease in austenite volume fraction at a fixed true strain with strain rate suggests that austenite transformation to…
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Effects of Nitrided and Chrome Plated Die Surface Roughness on Friction in Bending Under Tension

United States Steel Corporation-Hua-Chu Shih
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Different die surface polish conditions result in a noticeable effect on material flow in stamping, which can lead to splitting, wrinkling, or other surface stretching issues associated with different friction conditions. These occurrences are not only limited to the non-coated dies, but also nitrided and chrome plated dies. To ensure quality control of the stamped parts, the die conditions corresponding to different polishing procedures need to be developed based on measurable parameters such as surface roughness (Ra). The intent of this study is to investigate the effects of nitrided and chrome plated die surface roughness on friction. The Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) test was conducted to simulate the stamping process due to the test’s versatility and flexibility in changing test parameters. The test involves moving sheet metal across a 3/8-inch diameter pin, which substitutes for a die surface. The pin can be modified by material, heat treatment, coating, and surface roughness. Pins were made of D6510 steel and heat treated to 54-58 HRC. Two different die polishing procedures were developed. The first is the progressive polishing procedure,…
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New High-Pressure Hydroform Tool Design Reduces Springback in Ultra-High Strength Steels

Quintus Technologies LLC-Björn Carlsson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Flexform™ is a high-pressure hydroforming technique using a flexible rubber diaphragm between the liquid pressure medium and the sheet metal. No seal is thus needed between the metal sheet and the pressure medium. Only a lower tool half is required, as the diaphragm will act as a flexible upper tool half. Further, the flexible diaphragm allows for several tools to be used in one and the same forming operation. All kinds of sheet metal and thicknesses may be formed using the technique. Perforated sheets, pre-coated sheets or sheets with sensitive surface are in addition to more traditional materials also suitable for Flexform pressing. Likewise, it is known that the Flexform technique works well with such difficult-to-form sheet materials as ultra-high strength steel, titanium and aluminum. Further, the process may also be simulated with good accuracy using FEM. However, as with any other cold forming method, springback is obtained after forming. Even if high-pressure forming often leads to less springback than conventional stamping, material springback is still a factor to take into consideration and needs to…
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