Your Selections

Springs
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

The effects of contamination on commercial trucks rear suspension springs durability

Ford Motor Company-Milton Monteverde Belli, Amilcar Tyrrell Tavares
Suspensys-Eugenio Noro, Graebin Matheus
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0083
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
On current competitive scenario for road load transportation in Brazilian market, the operational costs should be reduced as much as possible. The suspension system commonly used on road commercial trucks is based on leaf spring use and Hotchkiss concept for axle locating devices. The use of leaf springs without bolt attachment eyelets are still common for rear suspension systems. When using the leaf spring with direct contact to the brackets, wear plates are placed between them to work as wear elements due to the friction between the parts. The friction will cause wear on the parts, and the wear plate is designed to suffer the damages of this friction instead of the leaf spring, being the cheapest element and can be easily replaced. When the system works on a severe contamination environment with high levels of grit and dirt, the degradation of the parts are accelerated. With a considerable amount of grit between the wear plate and the leaf spring, the damage caused on the leaf surface is increased and lead to a spring failure…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Three-dimensional dynamics of a three-axle vehicle considering the suspension geometry according to the kinematic transformers method

Instituto Militar de Engenharia-Gustavo Simão Rodrigues, Marcelo Andrés Acuña, Rafael Vitor Guerra Queiroz, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0237
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this work is to model the dynamics of a three-dimensional three-axle vehicle subjected to certain excitations from the ground and considering the geometry and inertia of the suspension elements according to the “kinematic transformers” method.The chassis is considered a rigid body with six degrees of freedom (three positions and rotations).The tire is a compliant element, which receives vibration from the ground and transmits to the wheel.Unlike simpler computational models, which make a direct connection between the wheel and the chassis by means of a spring and damper, the influence of the suspension geometry and inertia of its elements are considered. In this case of study, the suspension studied is the independent MacPherson in each wheel, although the methodology would be applied to other kind of suspensions, once its geometry is known.The kinematic transformers method is applied to study the cinematics of the suspension. It uses the minimum number of kinematic equations, allowing an efficient solution to describe the movement of the mechanism when implemented computationally.Combining the kinematic transformers method with the d'Alembert…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available

Modelling and Simulation of Vehicle Suspension System with Variable Stiffness Using Quasi-zero Stiffness Mechanism

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India-Mohit Saini
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0003
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
The dynamics and comfort of a vehicle closely depends on the stiffness of its suspension system. The suspension system of a vehicle always had to trade-off between comfort and performance of a vehicle; since for comfort a softer suspension is preferred which in turn decreases the aerodynamics and cornering performance and increases the ride height of the vehicle; whereas in stiffer suspension the ride height can be lowered, but forces due to bumps are transferred all the way up to the drivers cabin. This article aims to design a vehicle suspension model with variable stiffness using quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) mechanism and study its force-displacement characteristics and minimize the fundamental stiffness of the suspension system. The model developed uses the principle of negative stiffness to achieve low stiffness for the softer suspension system. The mechanism designed comprises of a pushrod suspension system with three parallel springs attached to one end of the rocker arm, one primary coil spring is mounted perpendicular to the rocker arm and the other two secondary plate springs are attached to the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Cobalt Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Round Wire 20Cr - 15Ni - 40Co - 7.0Mo - 16Fe Vacuum Induction Plus Consumable Electrode Melted Solution Heat Treated, Cold Drawn, and Aged

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5834E
  • Current
Published 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant cobalt alloy in the form of round wire 0.001 to 0.140 inch (0.025 to 3.56 mm) inclusive in nominal diameter supplied in straight lengths or coils (see 8.6).
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Cobalt Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Round Wire 20Cr - 15Ni - 40Co - 7.0Mo - 16Fe Solution Heat Treated and Cold Drawn

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5833E
  • Current
Published 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant cobalt alloy in the form of round wire 0.001 to 0.140 inch (0.025 to 3.56 mm) inclusive in nominal diameter supplied in straight lengths or coils (see 8.5).
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Spring and Damper Tuning of an ATV to Reduce Transmissibility

ARAI Academy-Rajat Girish Kanade, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2401
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The application in vehicle ride and handling has been mostly subjective or intuitive. There are several methods to improve vehicle stability and handling. One of the methods is suspension tuning. The objective of this work is to perform dynamical analysis of suspension by spring and damper tuning to reduce transmissibility for an all-terrain vehicle. A baseline spring rate data is used for tuning to provide better ride. The Fox air shock absorbers with progressive damping are used for testing. First the dynamics simulation is carried out by using ADAMS CAR tool. A detailed characteristic of the air shocks is obtained at various loading conditions by experimentation using test rig. Based on it, the simulation has been carried out for desired tuning parameters of spring and damper to improve stability. The speculated optimum setting is validated on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) using ultrasonic sensors, by varying vehicle speed and bump heights to evaluate the transmissibility of the suspension. The acquired data shows behaviour of the suspension and the influence of the main parameters in the transmissibility.…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluating Effects of Roll Stiffness Change at Front and Rear Axles on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Eric Pranesh Reuben, Raghav Budhiraja, Sreeraj N, Rakesh K, Amardeep Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2406
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To cater the push towards “Vehicle Light Weighting”, both sprung and unsprung mass are being reduced. This results in reduced stiffness and thus has a profound undesirable effect on the overall vehicle handling. To understand the effect of different reduction ratios of sprung to unsprung mass; it is desired to understand how changes in stiffness affect the overall vehicle handling characteristics. Therefore, the study was conducted to experiment with different values of roll stiffness, at both front and rear axles and comparing the frequency response and phase change of Yaw Gain observed through a Pulse Input test. The present work is further correlated with subjective feedback to predict the shift in vehicle balance and handling characteristics.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Spring Calculations Using Noonan’s XymT Method and an Eccentric Force

SAE International Journal of Engines

Private Researcher, Ireland-Michael Noonan
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0007
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The usual method of calculating spring deflection is to assume the end force acts through the central axis of the spring. The author takes a different approach where he calculates the eccentricity of the end force and from this calculates the spring deflection due to combined bending and torsion using a completely new model which he names the Noonan XymT Method. Also, the usual method widely used, where a strain energy approach is used, is proven to be in error. That statement is proven using a special example. Rough measurements have shown that the displacements calculated using the Strain Energy Method, can have errors as high as 40%, at a position up 0.6 coils from the bottom of the spring, and 10% at the top of the spring. The reason for this error has been identified, and calculations using Noonan’s XymT Method greatly reduces, if not eliminates, this error. This is particularly relevant in calculating individual coil stiffness and binding. With the displacement calculated, the combined complex stress due to bending tensile stress and torsional…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Design Optimization of Trunk Lid Torsion Bar Type Trunk Lid Pop Up Mechanism

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Sharath Chandra Kasarla, Amit Singh
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Trunk lid (TL) can be opened using hydraulic or pneumatic balancers, coil springs, torsion bars or combination of the above. TL Opening Mechanism specific to Trunk Lid Torsion Bar (TLTB) is being discussed in the paper. After de-latching, TL should open smoothly and stop at such a height that it is visible from driver seat. The system consists of a four bar linkage mechanism, in which the fixed link is formed by BIW Bracket. Connecting link, TL Hinge Arm and Torsion bar arm form the other three links. Hinge has its one end attached to TL and the other end to BIW bracket. Torsion bar arm transfers torque to TL hinge through the connecting link. Major challenges in designing TLTB mechanism are part tolerances, C.G position and Weight variations in individual parts, Torsion bar Raw Material variation, uncertain friction in the system etc. If above challenges are not addressed properly, then issues like TL not popping up to desired level consistently and smoothly and hard closing may occur. TL pops up when torque due to…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Modeling and Analysis of Helical and Wave Spring Behavior for Automobile Suspension

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Girish Vishnu Rajaram Ganesan, Jayasuriya Nandhagopal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The suspension is an indispensable element of automobiles which plays a crucial role in maintaining stability and the ride comfort. Helical springs are used in automobile suspension for many decades. The stiffness of the spring and presence of shock absorber plays a major role while negotiating a huge amount of load. Therefore, the cost of the suspension increases proportionally in commercial vehicles. In this present work, a helical and wave spring is designed and static cum dynamic analysis is done by using ANSYS 18.1 for comparing their performance and to eliminate the downside of the suspension. The geometry of the helical spring is designed using the helix curve and wave spring is designed using Sinusoidal equation. Modeling of both the springs is done using Solid works 2018. Chrome silicon and music wire are chosen as a spring material. The responses like stress and deflection of helical spring and wave spring for both the materials under static loads of 3000 N, 3500 N, 4000 N is obtained. Further, the dynamic analysis is conducted on both the…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available