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N&V Component Structural Integration and Mounted Component Durability Implications

General Motors LLC-Mark Stebbins, Joseph Schudt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1396
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exterior component integration has presented competing integration challenges for suitable exterior styling, safety, N&V structural feel and component durability balanced performances. Industry standard practice of N&V vehicle mode mapping uses vehicle source, path and receiver considerations for component mode frequency placement. Mounted component mode frequency performance can have an influence on structural feel and durability performances. Component integration headwinds have increased with additional nonstructural component styling content, component size, component mass and added sensor modules. Based on first principles, the effective mass of exterior mounted components are increased due to the geometric overhang from structure. Component input vibration levels are compounded due to the cantilevered nature as well as relative positioning to the suspension and propulsion vehicle source inputs locations. Examples of vehicle end mounted components include but are not limited to headlamps, side mirrors, end gates, bumpers and fascia. Our goal is to establish basic expectations for the behavior of these systems, and ultimately to consolidate our existing rational and approaches that can be applied to such integrated systems. The focus of this paper…
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Robust Design Optimization of Electronic Shifting Mechanism Considering Manipulation Comfort

Nanjing University of Science & Technology-Jipeng Xie, Guolai Yang, Quanzhao Sun, Jianli Ge, Xinghao Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0605
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Since the electronic shift lever detent system is used in vehicles on a large scale, it is urgent to solve the problem of robustness parameter design of the shift quality of SLDS under the uncertain dynamic parameters and manufacturing tolerances. We Build the MBD model of shift lever detent system, selecte the evaluation indicator for shifting quality and propose a two-stage method which associates the deterministic optimization of grey relational grade with the robustness parameter optimization of six sigma, in the early stage of product quality design. We use the grey relational grade to take the place of SNR in deterministic optimization, and compute the the optimal combination of controllable factors and their levels. The controllable parameters of shift lever detent system include three parameters that determine the detent profile structure parameters, spring parameters and contact pair parameters. The deterministic optimization of grey relational grade provides initial values for the six sigma optimization, and the six sigma optimization solves the problem of tolerance design of controllable factors under the uncertainty of noise factors in further.…
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Experimentation for design improvements for coil spring in the independent suspension

Automann Inc.-Viraj Dave
Kettering University-Yaomin Dong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0503
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this project is to analyze potential design changes that can improve the performance of helical spring in an independent suspension. The performance of the helical spring was based upon the result measure of maximum value of stress acting on it and the amount displacement caused when the spring undergoes loading. The design changes in the spring were limited to coil cross section, spring diameter (constant & variable), pitch and length of the spring. Using all the possible combinations of these design parameters linear stress analysis was performed on different spring designs and their Stress and displacement results were evaluated. Based on the results, the spring designs were classified as over designed or under designed springs. Next in this process, it was checked if the under designed springs can be optimized and classified according to a relevant application of the vehicles (racing cars or luxurious cars) and can they satisfy the requirements of fatigue life and vibration that helical spring suspension should under normal working conditions. The driving factor for this project was…
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Predication & Correlation of Bearing Preload With Rotational Torque In Wheel End Bearing System

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Suchit Sharma, Prasad S. Warwandkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0951
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wheel end bearing is one of the critical components of the vehicle as it shares the loads & wheels rotate on it.In wheel end ,taper roller bearings are used .This would help to withstand both vertical & lateral loads imparted during cornering. Also taper roller bearings are used in pair of two so that overall impact of lateral forces during straight running would be nullified. In wheel end bearing systems, 02 bearings are kept at distance w.r.t to each other based on position of load line & would share the total portion of load accordingly. Also life of bearings is dependent on whether the bearings are packaged & operating in play or preload. This paper focuses on various aspects of bearings life & how it vary with respect to Play & Preload. Also a methodology is developed to measure the overall preload of bearing system. Two different bearing systems one with distance piece & second without distance piece is considered. Stiffness of bearings & distance piece are measured out at different loads. Considering these stiffness,…
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DFD Stratagem Investigation on Suspension Subframe Durability Test with Spindle Coupled Road Test Simulator

F.tech R&D North America Inc.-Jianghua Gao, Matt Guo, Xin Zhang, Xiao Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0992
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to replicate the vehicle chassis proving ground (PG) durability test on the laboratory half vehicle spindle coupled Road Test Simulator (RTS), a drive file which can excite the actuators of the RTS to duplicate the chassis component stress state need to be developed. Traditionally the Drive File Development (DFD) aims to match the spindle forces and moments in addition with some supplement channels such as the tierod axial forces and the spring travels. However the suspension subframe which was connected to the vehicle body may particularly experience a different stress state on the RTS due to the boundary condition discrepancy between the vehicle PG test and the laboratory RTS test. In this paper, the investigation of the different boundary conditions impact on the chassis structures’ stress state is conducted both physically and virtually. It’s proved that the subframe stress state has a non-negligible difference from full vehicle PG test to the half vehicle spindle coupled RTS test using the conventional DFD stratagem. Thus, a special DFD stratagem which employees the subframe strain road…
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Study on the Influence of Nonlinearity of Bushing and Air Spring Stiffness in Truck Suspension System on Joint Forces and Moments Calculation

South China University of Technology-Zhuo-Hui Guan, Zhengjun Wei, Wen-Bin Shangguan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1395
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The joint forces and moments applied to the joints in an air suspension system in truck are important input loads for lightweight and fatigue analysis of bushings, air spring brackets, torque arms and trailing arms. In order to derive a reliable solution of joint forces and moments, engineers will generally use Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation software, like ADAMS, which can save time in product development cycle. Taking an air suspension in truck as a study example, a 2-dimensional quasi-static model of an air suspension, whose stiffness of air spring and bushing is nonlinear, is established in ADAMS environment. After that, simulations are performed at the typical and extreme working condition respectively, and the results are compared with another three cases. Case I assumes that the stiffness of air spring is linear but the stiffness of bushings, including torsion and radial stiffness, are nonlinear. Case II assumes that radial stiffness of bushings is linear, but torsion stiffness of bushings and the stiffness of air spring are nonlinear. Case III assumes that torsion stiffness of bushings…
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Parametric Study of Spring-Back Effects in Deep Drawing by Design of Experiment

University of Detroit Mercy-Ramzi S. Youssif, Mostafa Mehrabi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0750
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of the punch. Dimensional tolerances and their variations are important aspects of quality control issues in this forming operation. In this regard, the spring-back effect is an inherent phenomenon that directly affects the final dimensions of the part produced. This research work is focused on analysis and control of spring-back in deep drawing processes. It is mainly focused on design and implementation/simulation of control strategies to minimize that. In this regard, the impact of various process parameters such as lubrication, punch speed, punch and die nose radius, and blank holding force is studied through design of experiment methodology. In particular, this study is focused on the design and development of various control strategies to minimize spring back in this process. An experimental set up is designed and developed to facilitate this research. This paper presents some of the experimental results obtained from this study.
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Dynamic Characterization and Modeling of Wet Clutch Actuator for High-Fidelity Propulsion System Simulations

FCC Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Tsuchiya, Masatoshi Miyagawa, Shinji Nakamura, Matthew Wendel
Ford Motor Company-Hiral Haria, James McCallum, Yuji Fujii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1414
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Innovations in mobility are built upon a management of complex interactions between sub-systems and components. A need of CAE tools that are capable of system simulations is well recognized, as evidenced by a growing number of commercial packages. However impressive they are, the predictability of such simulations still rests on the representation of base components. Among them, a wet clutch actuator continues to play a critical role in next generation propulsion systems. It converts hydraulic pressure to mechanical force to control torque transmitted through a clutch pack. The actuator is typically modeled as a hydraulic piston opposed by a mechanical spring. Because the piston slides over a seal, some models have a framework to account for seal friction. However, there are few literatures to describe the effects of seals on clutch actuator dynamics. In practice during a routine simulation, a spring constant is tuned to match vehicle data, assuming that it captures the effects of seal friction. The validity of this approach is not well established. This article describes the dynamic characterization of wet clutch…
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Advanced Novel Method to Simplify the Detailed Half-Shaft Model and Rapid Model Development

FCA US LLC-Francisco Antonio Sturla, Ahmad Abbas, Alexandre Opeiko, Syed Haider
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1274
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In previous work [Novel CAE CV Joint Modeling Method for Driveline Half-Shaft at Idle condition - WCX SAE World Congress Experience 2020- Paper Offer Number: 20M-0008] it was shown that the detailed half-shaft method has produced excellent correlation with test data. The developed detailed half-shaft models shown tremendous improvement in capturing the half-shaft path at vehicle idle condition. Since the detailed half-shaft model needs to capture many components and requires detailed solid geometry for each component represented, full CAD model from half-shaft supplier or part scanning will be needed to develop the detailed half-shaft model. Furthermore, despite the CAD geometry availability the detailed half-shaft will require solid meshing of the CV joints, the shaft, linearized springs and manual creation of the complex coordinate systems for orientation of contact points. This paper proposes a method to reduce the half-shaft model to semi-elastic rigid body elements with linearized spring components. The simplified model reduces the modeling time by eliminating solid meshing of components and automating complex coordinate system development. Typically the vehicle idle is in low frequencies…
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Composite Suspension Leaf Springs: The Smart Solution

SGL Technologies GmbH-Peter Kuhn
SGL Technologies LLC-William Pinch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0991
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
2020 SAE Congress - Technical Paper Abstract "Smart Solutions for Electric Vehicle Suspensions" Session: Steering, Chassis and Suspension Authors: Peter Kuhn, SGL Technologies GmbH, Meitingen, Germany William D. Pinch, SGL Technologies LLC, Charlotte, NC USA Abstract: Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) Programs are becoming the vehicle of choice globally. This is driven by heightened vehicle emissions requirements and improved fuel economy performance. Vehicle requirements will be rolled down to Subsystems and Components. Subsystem requirements will be divided into upper and lower control planes with Kinematic performance targets discussed. Various types of front and rear suspensions will be identified and analyzed including MacPherson & Chapman Strut, Short-Long Arm (SLA), and various Multi-link arrangements. At the component level the use of innovative, lightweight composite materials provides a significant advantage. Besides ensuring technical feasibility, implementation on high volume production vehicles is essential for competing with aluminum and steel materials. Within suspension, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) suspension links as well as lateral and longitudinal leaf springs made from Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) materials are capable solutions. In addition,…