Your Selections

Show Only


File Formats

Content Types










   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

N&V Component Structural Integration and Mounted Component Durability Implications

General Motors LLC-Mark Stebbins, Joseph Schudt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1396
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exterior component integration presents competing performance challenges for balanced exterior styling, safety, ‘structural feel’ [1] and durability. Industry standard practices utilize noise and vibration mode maps and source-path-receiver [2] considerations for component mode frequency placement. This modal frequency placement has an influence on ‘structural feel’ and durability performance. Challenges have increased with additional styling content, geometric overhang from attachment points, component size and mass, and sensor modules. Base excitation at component attachment interfaces are increase due to relative positioning of the suspension and propulsion vehicle source inputs. These components might include headlamps, side mirrors, end gates, bumpers and fascia assemblies. Here, we establish basic expectations for the behavior of these systems, and ultimately consolidate existing rationales that are applied to these systems. We consider a simple two degree-of-freedom system subject to a base excitation consisting of masses attached via springs and dampers. Component mode decoupling, vibration amplification and basic design guidance relationships are suggested.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Robust Design Optimization of Electronic Shifting Mechanism Considering Manipulation Comfort

Nanjing University of Science & Technology-Jipeng Xie, Guolai Yang, Quanzhao Sun, Jianli Ge, Xinghao Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0605
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Since the electronic shift lever detent system is used in vehicles on a large scale, it is urgent to solve the problem of robustness parameter design of the shift quality of SLDS under the uncertain dynamic parameters and manufacturing tolerances. We Build the MBD model of shift lever detent system, selecte the evaluation indicator for shifting quality and propose a two-stage method which associates the deterministic optimization of grey relational grade with the robustness parameter optimization of six sigma, in the early stage of product quality design. We use the grey relational grade to take the place of SNR in deterministic optimization, and compute the the optimal combination of controllable factors and their levels. The controllable parameters of shift lever detent system include three parameters that determine the detent profile structure parameters, spring parameters and contact pair parameters. The deterministic optimization of grey relational grade provides initial values for the six sigma optimization, and the six sigma optimization solves the problem of tolerance design of controllable factors under the uncertainty of noise factors in further.…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Experimentation for Design Improvements for Coil Spring in the Independent Suspension

Automann Inc.-Viraj Dave
Kettering University-Yaomin Dong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0503
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this project is to analyze potential design changes that can improve the performance of helical spring in an independent suspension. The performance of the helical spring was based upon the result measure of maximum value of stress acting on it and the amount displacement caused when the spring undergoes loading. The design changes in the spring were limited to coil cross section, spring diameter (constant & variable), pitch and length of the spring. The project was divided into Stage I & Stage II. For Stage I, using all the possible combinations of these design parameters, linear stress analysis was performed on different spring designs and their Stress and displacement results were evaluated. Based on the results, the spring designs were classified as over designed or under designed springs. Then in Stage II, it was checked if the under designed springs can be optimized and classified according to a relevant application of the vehicles (racing cars or luxurious cars).The driving factor for this project was the amount of research that has taken place…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Study on the Influence of Nonlinearity of Bushing and Air Spring Stiffness in Truck Suspension System on Joint Forces and Moments Calculation

South China University of Technology-Zhuo-Hui Guan, Zhengjun Wei, Wen-Bin Shangguan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1395
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The joint forces and moments applied to the joints in an air suspension system in truck are important input loads for lightweight and fatigue analysis of bushings, air spring brackets, torque arms and trailing arms. In order to derive a reliable solution of joint forces and moments, engineers will generally use Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation software, like ADAMS, which can save time in product development cycle. Taking an air suspension in truck as a study example, a 2-dimensional quasi-static model of an air suspension, whose stiffness of air spring and bushing is nonlinear, is established in ADAMS environment. After that, simulations are performed at the typical and extreme working condition respectively, and the results are compared with another three cases. Case I assumes that the stiffness of air spring is linear but the stiffness of bushings, including torsion and radial stiffness, are nonlinear. Case II assumes that radial stiffness of bushings is linear, but torsion stiffness of bushings and the stiffness of air spring are nonlinear. Case III assumes that torsion stiffness of bushings…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Parametric Study of Spring-Back Effects in Deep Drawing by Design of Experiment

University of Detroit Mercy-Ramzi S. Youssif, Mostafa Mehrabi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0750
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of the punch. Dimensional tolerances and their variations are important aspects of quality control issues in this forming operation. In this regard, the spring-back effect is an inherent phenomenon that directly affects the final dimensions of the part produced. This research work is focused on analysis and control of spring-back in deep drawing processes. It is mainly focused on design and implementation/simulation of control strategies to minimize that. In this regard, the impact of various process parameters such as lubrication, punch speed, punch and die nose radius, and blank holding force is studied through design of experiment methodology. In particular, this study is focused on the design and development of various control strategies to minimize spring back in this process. An experimental set up is designed and developed to facilitate this research. This paper presents some of the experimental results obtained from this study.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Advanced Novel Method to Simplify the Detailed Half-Shaft Model and Rapid Model Development

FCA US LLC-Francisco Antonio Sturla, Ahmad Abbas, Alexandre Opeiko, Syed Haider
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1274
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In previous work [Novel CAE CV Joint Modeling Method for Driveline Half-Shaft at Idle condition - WCX SAE World Congress Experience 2020- Paper Offer Number: 20M-0008] it was shown that the detailed half-shaft method has produced excellent correlation with test data. The developed detailed half-shaft models shown tremendous improvement in capturing the half-shaft path at vehicle idle condition. Since the detailed half-shaft model needs to capture many components and requires detailed solid geometry for each component represented, full CAD model from half-shaft supplier or part scanning will be needed to develop the detailed half-shaft model. Furthermore, despite the CAD geometry availability the detailed half-shaft will require solid meshing of the CV joints, the shaft, linearized springs and manual creation of the complex coordinate systems for orientation of contact points. This paper proposes a method to reduce the half-shaft model to semi-elastic rigid body elements with linearized spring components. The simplified model reduces the modeling time by eliminating solid meshing of components and automating complex coordinate system development. Typically the vehicle idle is in low frequencies…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Composite Suspension Leaf Springs: The Smart Solution

SGL Technologies GmbH-Peter Kuhn
SGL Technologies LLC-William Pinch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0991
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
2020 SAE Congress - Technical Paper Abstract "Smart Solutions for Electric Vehicle Suspensions" Session: Steering, Chassis and Suspension Authors: Peter Kuhn, SGL Technologies GmbH, Meitingen, Germany William D. Pinch, SGL Technologies LLC, Charlotte, NC USA Abstract: Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) Programs are becoming the vehicle of choice globally. This is driven by heightened vehicle emissions requirements and improved fuel economy performance. Vehicle requirements will be rolled down to Subsystems and Components. Subsystem requirements will be divided into upper and lower control planes with Kinematic performance targets discussed. Various types of front and rear suspensions will be identified and analyzed including MacPherson & Chapman Strut, Short-Long Arm (SLA), and various Multi-link arrangements. At the component level the use of innovative, lightweight composite materials provides a significant advantage. Besides ensuring technical feasibility, implementation on high volume production vehicles is essential for competing with aluminum and steel materials. Within suspension, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) suspension links as well as lateral and longitudinal leaf springs made from Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) materials are capable solutions. In addition,…

Spring Drive Fitting

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36183
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Valve and tube manufacturers continue to battle the problem of fitting pipes and tubing together quickly and reliably. The spring drive fitting addresses this challenge, bridging the gap between solutions for small-diameter tube fittings commonly seen in high-pressure, low-flow-area pneumatic systems and solutions for large flanges used in low-pressure, high-flow-area hydraulic systems.

Open Access

Control Performance of Damping and Air Spring of Heavy Truck Air Suspension System with Optimal Fuzzy Control

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Hubei Polytechnic University, China-Vanliem Nguyen, Renqiang Jiao
Southeast University, China-Jianrun Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-02-0013
Published 2020-02-28 by SAE International in United States
The air suspension system of heavy trucks not only improves the vehicle’s ride comfort but also reduces the negative impact on the road surface. In order to evaluate the performance of the control damping (CD) and the control air spring (CAS) of the vehicle air suspension system on the ride comfort and the road friendliness, a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear dynamic model with 14 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the heavy trucks and optimal fuzzy control (OFC) with control rules optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed in this study. The root mean square (RMS) acceleration response of the tractor and the dynamic load coefficient (DLC) at the wheel axles are chosen as objective functions under the various operating conditions. Contrastive analysis of the RMS and DLC values with the passive (P), CD, and CAS methods of the air suspension system is carried out respectively. The research result shows that both the CD and CAS methods remarkably improve the ride comfort and road friendliness of the heavy trucks in comparison with P, especially the CAS…

Better Solutions for Testing and Measuring Compression and Extension Springs

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35956
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The design, manufacture, and use of springs can be traced back in time to The Bronze Age. Spring design is a science based on complex arithmetic calculations combined with material science. Springs are used in everyday consumer devices including cellular phones and computers, in industrial applications including automotive and aerospace, and in precision medical devices where a spring with a diameter of .0036” (about equal to the size of a human hair) is used in catheters and endoscopic instruments.