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Design and Development of a High-Efficiency Single Cylinder Natural Gas-Fueled Jet Ignition Engine

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), United St-David Tew
Booz Allen Hamilton-Gokul Vishwanathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0565
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The current energy climate has created a push toward reducing consumption of fossil fuels and lowering emissions output in power generation applications. Combined with the desire for a more distributed energy grid, there is currently a need for small displacement, high efficiency engines for use in stationary power generation. An enabling technology for achieving high efficiencies with spark ignited engines for such applications is the use of jet ignition which enables ultra-lean (λ > ~1.6) combustion via air dilution.This paper provides a comprehensive review of the development of a 390cc, high efficiency single cylinder natural gas-fueled jet ignition engine operating ultra-lean. The engine was developed as part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (DOE ARPA-E) GENSETS program. Design choices for minimizing friction are highlighted as well as test results showing further friction reduction through downspeeding. Extensive hardware optimization of the combustion system has been performed and results are presented for air-flow path optimization and the jet igniter. The efficiency benefits related to enleanment and downspeeding are analyzed using an efficiency loss breakdown…
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Effects of shape of ion probe on flame detecting characteristics in 2-stroke gasoline engine

Hiroshima Institute of Technology-Tomoaki Yatsufusa, Rio Kamei, Hu Wentao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0571
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Multiple-ion probe method is one of the beneficial method to obtain the detailed information about explosive combustion such as knocking. Our group has been trying to expand the measurement ability on multiple ion probe method from highly-controlled combustion in combustion test tube studied by previous studies to highly-unstable combustion such in spark ignition engines. The previous studies showed that multiple-ion probe method was able to capture the movement of propagating flame in 2-stroke gasoline engine in limited conditions. It requires that more reliable detection of propagating flame in the engine to capture the flame movement more stably.In the present study, the effects of the shape of the ion probe on flame detection characteristics in 2-stroke gasoline engine was investigated. Tested parameters of the shape in the ion probe were projection length and diameter of an ion probe wire. Projection length was changed as 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5mm. Test results say that the projection length has positive effects for flame detection. Longer projection length has a higher sensitivity for flame detection. Diameter of ion probe wire…
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Energy Release Characteristics inside a Spark-Ignition Engine with a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5003
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of compression ignition (CI) internal combustion engines to spark-ignition (SI) operation by adding a spark plug to ignite the mixture and fumigating the fuel inside the intake manifold can increase the use of alternative gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas) in heavy-duty applications. This study proposed a novel, less-complex methodology based on the inflection points in the apparent rate of heat release (ROHR) that can identify and separate the fast-burning stage inside the piston bowl from the slower combustion stage inside the squish region (a characteristic of premixed combustion inside a diesel geometry). A single-cylinder 2L CI research engine converted to natural gas SI operation provided the experimental data needed to evaluate the methodology, at several spark timings, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The results indicated that the end of the bulk combustion traditionally defined as the location of 90% energy release was not greatly affected by the change in operating conditions. Moreover, the actual duration of the rapid-burning stage was 60-80% shorter than the crank angle interval between 10% and 90% energy release.…
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Exhaust Emission Analysis of a Spark Ignition Engine Operating with Hydrogen Injection in a Pre-Combustion Chamber

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais-Fausto Torres Magalhães Avelar
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Vinícius Faria Duarte, Carlos Eduardo Castilla Alvarez, Marcelo Augusto Maia Pires, Nathália Duarte Souza Alvarenga Santos, Ramon Molina Valle, Vinícius Rückert Roso
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0121
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Due to the large negative impact of combustion gas emissions on air quality and the more stringent environmental legislation, research on internal combustion engines (ICE) are being developed to reduce emissions of pollutant gases to the atmosphere. One of the research fronts is the use of lean mixtures with the pre-chamber ignition system (PCIS). This system consists of a pre-chamber (PC) connected to the main chamber by one or more interconnecting holes. A spark plug initiates combustion of the mixture present in the pre-chamber, which is propagated as gas jet into the main chamber, igniting the lean mixture present therein. The gas jets have high thermal and kinetic energy, which promote faster combustion duration, making the system less prone to knock and with lower cyclic variability of the IMEP, enabling the lean limit extension. The pre-chamber system can be assisted with a supplementary liquid or gaseous fuel injection, enabling the charge stratification. In this context, this paper aims to evaluate the reduction in exhaust emissions from an ICE adapted with a stratified PCIS operating with…
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NUMERICAL MODEL OF SI ENGINE USING GT-POWER CODE

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais – CEF-Fausto Torres Magalhães Avelar, Fernando Antonio Rodrigues Filho
Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais –CEFE-Heitor Belfort de Sousa Gama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0170
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The growing global need for energy and the aggravation of vehicular pollution, associated with a highly competitive market, demand fast and less expensive solutions to develop engine technologies. Numerical simulation has been an effective tool to help meet these needs, as it shortens the time and cost of current engine research. In this scenario, 1-D numerical model has been widely and successful used, presenting excellent results generally with errors around 5% in comparison with experimental data. In this work, the main performance parameters of an in-line four-cylinder SI engine is analyzed through a 1-D simulation using the GT-Power code. A full-scale engine model is set up, which is later calibrated by comparing with experimental data. The numerical methodology is carefully discussed and the methods regarding engine valve diagram and geometrical boundary conditions are also presented. Numerical results of engine power, torque, volumetric efficiency and specific fuel consumption are presented with maximum errors no greater than 7%
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Detection of engine knock using speed oscillations in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Kiran Bhaskar, Jubin V Jose, Mayank Mittal, A Ramesh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2206
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, the possibility of engine knock detection is investigated based on in-cycle speed data, which is readily available to the ECU. Experiments were conducted at 3000 rpm with wide-open throttle condition in a single-cylinder, air-cooled, port-fuel-injection spark-ignition engine at different levels of knocking. It was found that amplitude of speed oscillations increased with the knock intensity for considered window with the size of 100 crank angle degree, starting from the top dead center of compression. The proposed knock indicators based on in-cycle speed oscillations were found to be able to identify the knock-limited spark timings at different operating conditions. Results showed that the amplitude of speed oscillations, derived from in-cycle speed data with resolution of six crank angle degree, could also be used to quantify the knock. The knock frequency based on speed oscillations also showed a sharp increase at the onset of knock. Cycle by cycle knock estimation was also done using the speed oscillations. Thus, methods based on in-cycle oscillations of speed have the potential for detecting the knock in…
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Methodology to Determine the Fast Burn Period Inside a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Converted to Natural Gas Lean-Burn Spark Ignition Operation

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2220
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of existing diesel engines to natural-gas operation can reduce the dependence on petroleum imports and curtail engine-out emissions. A convenient way to perform such conversion is by adding a gas injector in the intake manifold and replacing the diesel fuel injector with a spark plug to initiate and control the combustion process. However, challenges may appear with respect to engine’s efficiency and emissions as natural-gas spark-ignition combustion inside a diesel combustion chamber is different to that in conventional spark ignition engines. For example, major difference is the phasing and duration of the fast burn, defined as the period in which the rate of heat release increases linearly with crank angle. This study presents a methodology to investigate the fast burn inside a diesel geometry using heat release data. The algorithm was applied to experimental data from a single-cylinder research engine that operated at several lean-burn conditions that changed spark timing, equivalence ratio, and engine speed. More, a 3D CFD RANS engine simulation was used to validate the developed methodology. As results showed that…
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Effects of Coolant Temperature and Fuel Properties on Soot Emission from a Spark-ignited Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Chiba University-Ankur Gupta, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Hisakazu Suzuki
Harbin Engineering University, Chiba University-Qian Xiong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2352
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Effects of measurement method, coolant temperature and fuel composition on soot emissions were examined by engine experiments. By reducing the pressure fluctuation in the sampling line, the measured soot emissions with better stability and reproducibility could be obtained. With lower coolant temperatures, larger soot emissions were yielded at much advanced fuel injection timings. Compared to gasoline, soot emissions with a blend fuel of normal heptane, isooctane and toluene were significantly decreased, suggesting the amounts of aromatic components (toluene or others) should be increased to obtain a representative fuel for the predictive model of particulate matter in SIDI engines.
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Using RON Synergistic Effects to Formulate Fuels for Better Fuel Economy and Lower CO2 Emissions

ICARE-CNRS, INSIS-Andrea Comandini, Nabiha Chaumeix
IFP Energies nouvelles-David Serrano, Laurie Starck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2155
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The knock resistance of gasoline is a key factor to decrease the specific fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of modern turbocharged spark ignition engines. For this purpose, high RON and octane sensitivity (S) are needed.This study shows a relevant synergistic effect on RON and S when formulating a fuel with isooctane, cyclopentane and aromatics, the mixtures reaching RON levels well beyond the ones of individual components. The same is observed when measuring their knock resistance on a boosted single cylinder engine.The mixtures were also characterized on a rapid compression machine at 700 K and 850 K, a shock tube at 1000 K, an instrumented and an adapted CFR engine. The components responsible for the synergistic effects are thus identified. Furthermore, the correlations plotted between these experiments results disclose our current understanding on the origin of these synergistic effects.This study concludes that this synergistic effect encourages formulating highly paraffinic fuels for lower specific fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions. Thus, paraffins are still relevant compounds to formulate highly efficient gasolines, despite their low octane sensitivity when individually…
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Plasma Temperature of Spark Discharge in a Lean-burn Spark-ignition Engine Using a Time Series of Spectra Measurements

Kyushu University-Yukihide Nagano, Toshiaki Kitagawa
Okayama University-Nobuyuki Kawahara, Masanobu Watanabe, Eiji Tomita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2158
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this research, a spark plug with an optical fiber has been developed to obtain the emission spectra from the spark discharge and flame kernel. This developed spark plug with an optical fiber can obtain the time series of emission spectra from the spark discharge and Initial flame kernel in the real spark-ignition engine using EMCCD spectrometer. The plasma vibrational temperature of the spark discharge can be measured using the emission spectra from the electrically excited CN violet band system. The plasma of the spark discharge and gas rotational temperature of the initial flame kernel can be also measured using emission spectra from OH* radicals (P and R branches). The plasma temperature of the spark discharge was almost 8,000 K and the gas temperature of the Initial flame kernel approached that of the adiabatic flame temperature.
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