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General Motors Technical Center India-Vijaya Kumar R L, Biswajit Tripathy, Jayaraj Radhakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2557
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Plastic automotive fuel tanks made up of blow molded, multi-layered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) material can take complex shapes with varying thickness. Accidental drop of fuel tank from a height during handling can lead to development of cracks. Damage can also occur due to an impact during a crash. This can be catastrophic due to flammability of the fuel. The objective of this work is to characterize and develop a failure model for the fuel tank material to simulate damage and enhance predictive capability of CAE for chassis and safety load cases. Methodology Different aspects were considered to develop a characterization and modelling strategy for the HDPE fuel tank. Material properties can be influenced by factors such as, service temperature, rate of deformation, state of stress etc. Hence, samples cut-out from different regions of the fuel tank were subjected to a variety of tests such as tensile test at different strain rates viz. 0.01/s, 0.1/s, 1/s, 10/s and 100/s, compression, shear, flexure and instrumented dart impact tests at different temperatures, -40°C, 23°C…

Design of Light weight spoiler for efficient aerodynamic performance of a vehicle

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Aditya Pandey, Vivek KV Shenoy, BalaChandar R, Ayan Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0003
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The spoiler is an aesthetic as well as functional part fitted on the vehicles to increase the vehicle appeal and improve vehicle aerodynamics. The improvement of aerodynamics performance of the vehicle at higher speeds is achieved by reducing the overall vehicle coefficient of drag. This helps in better handling and improved fuel efficiency of the vehicle thus contributing to development of a greener vehicle. In this paper, the main focus is to reduce overall vehicle coefficient of drag, reduce the spoiler weight and improve the vehicle appeal thereby increase the customer appeal. Six-sigma design methodology (Define-Measure-Analyze-Design-Verify) and tools were used to arrive at the optimum solution for the stated objectives. QFD is used for converting the customer requirements into engineering parameters which define the final product. The QFD inputs are then used to define the critical to quality parameters (CTQ) for the spoiler. CTQ parameters were further drilled down to derive the engineering parameters and their relationship to CTQ values established using the correlation methods. Coefficient of drag value of 0.41 compared to the baseline…

PHEV Real World Driving Cycle Energy and Fuel and Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Darrell Robinette, Eric Kostreva, Alexandra Krisztian, Anthony Lackey, Christopher Morgan, Joshua Orlando, Neeraj Rama
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents real-world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real-world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle (CAV) control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charge. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.6% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge. After completing 30 baseline drive cycles, a design for six sigma (DFSS) L18 array was designed to look at sensitivity of a range of parameters to energy consumption as related to connected and automated vehicles to target highest return on engineering development effort. The parameters explored in the DFSS array that showed the most sensitivity, in order of…
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Optimization of Catalytic Converter Design to Improve Under-Hood Thermal Management

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora, Michael W. Huxford
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Catalytic Converter along with the inlet pipe and heat shields are part of the exhaust system that emits powerful heat to the surrounding components. With increasing need for tight under-hood spaces it is very critical to manage the heat emitted by the exhausts that may significantly increase temperature of surrounding components. In this paper a design methodology for catalytic converter has been applied which optimizes the design of the catalytic converter to reduce the surface temperature. The exhaust surface temperature is simulated as a function of time to account for transient effects. The simulation also considers various duty cycles such as road load, city traffic and grade driving conditions. To control the heat output of the exhaust system to the surrounding components different materials and properties of catalytic converter have been considered to reduce radiative heat transfer. The most influential design factors for the catalytic converter which affect the surface temperature of the exhaust system have been identified with this process. The paper summarizes the optimization steps necessary to meet the optimal functional goals…
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Automotive HVAC Dual Unit System Cool-Down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

FCA Canada Inc.-Pooya Mirzabeygi
FCA US LLC-Aamir Khawaja, Murali Govindarajalu, Sumant Joshi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these heat exchangers by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance. The goal of this paper is to find the optimal configuration of an AC system to achieve maximum cool down by investigating the effect of parameters such as distribution of air between the front and rear unit, front and rear evaporator, TXV settings,…
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Relating Experimental Drive Distraction and Driving Performance Metrics to Crash Involvement - Definitions of Terms and Concepts

Driver Metrics, Performance, Behaviors and States Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3151_201810
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This Information Report provides functional definitions and discussions of key terms and concepts for relating the experimental evaluation of driver distraction to real-world crash involvement. Examples of driver distraction and driving performance metrics include those related to vehicle control, object and event detection and response (OEDR), physiological indicators, subjective assessments, or combinations thereof. Examples of real-world crash involvement metrics include the epidemiological effect size measures of risk ratio, rate ratio, and odds ratio. The terms and concepts defined in this document are not intended to contribute to methodologies for assessing the individual metrics within a domain; these are covered in other SAE documents (e.g., SAE J2944) and SAE technical reports. For any measure chosen in one domain or the other, the goal is to give general definitions of key terms and concepts that relate metrics in one domain to those in the other. Issues of repeatability and validity are discussed in relation to these methods and metrics for relating the two domains. However, the actual specification of a particular methodology for predicting crash involvement from…
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Robustness and Variability Prediction of Seat Vibration Caused by All-Wheel Drive System Imbalance in Vehicle Development

Volvo Car Group-Magnus Olsson, Jesper Schwartz, Mikael Fransson
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
During the vehicle development process in the premium and luxury automotive segments an important task is the refinement of noise, vibration and harshness. Along with other attributes such as styling, drivability and vehicle dynamics it strongly influences the overall perception of the vehicle. At the same time the automotive manufacturers need to release more products faster to the market using shorter vehicle development time with reduced cost. Altogether this has increased the use of virtual models and decreased the number of test vehicles in the programs. When assembling vehicles in production there will be a natural variation, which will result in a spread in the attribute performances. When shifting towards virtual models and reduced numbers of physical test vehicles there is a higher risk that the variations in production will be neglected, leading to more customer complaints. The question is if the production variability could be predicted before start of production by taking the component variability and assembly process into account early on in the vehicle development phase. This paper demonstrates a methodology how this…
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Development of a Robust AIS Parametric Model for V8 Engines Using Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA US LLC-Weiguo Zhang, Mark Likich, Brian Butler
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The automotive Air Induction System (AIS) is an important part of the engine systems which delivers the air to the engine. A well-designed AIS should have low flow restriction and radiates a good quality sound at the snorkel. The GT-Power simulation tool has been widely utilized to evaluate the snorkel noise in industry. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the simulation method enhanced with Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) approach has been developed and implemented in AIS development to meet the functional requirements. The development work included different types of DFSS projects such as identifying new concept, robust optimization and robust assessment etc. In this paper, the work of a robust optimization project is presented on developing an AIS parametric model to achieve optimized snorkel noise performance for a V8 engine.First, the theory of AIS acoustic modeling using GT-power and DFSS robust optimization using Taguchi’s parameter design method are described. Secondly, the effects of several AIS design control factors on the AIS sound attenuation and snorkel performance are studied. Finally, the eight steps of Taguchi’s parameter design…
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Generating a Real World Drive Cycle–A Statistical Approach

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Satish V Thimmalapura, Nabal Kishore Pandey
Mahindra Research Valley-Murali Krishna Kondaru, Kumar Prasad Telikepalli
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Drive cycles have been an integral part of emission tests and virtual simulations for decades. A drive cycle is a representation of running behavior of a typical vehicle, involving the drive pattern, road characteristics and traffic characteristics. Drive cycles are typically used to assess vehicle performance parameters, perform system sizing and perform accelerated testing on a test bed or a virtual test environment, hence reducing the expenses on road tests. This study is an attempt to design a relatively robust process to generate a real world drive cycle. It is based on a Six Sigma design approach which utilizes data acquired from real world road trials. It explicitly describes the process of generating a drive cycle which closely represents the real world road drive scenario. The study also focuses on validation of the process by simulation and statistical analysis.
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Application of Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Product Quality in Injection Molded Parts at Supplier End in Motorcycle Industry

Hero MotoCorp Limited-Raviprakash Shankaranarayana
Published 2017-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Process Parameters play a vital role in product quality of Injection Molded components. Variation in process parameters will lead to Injection Molded manufacturing defects like Sink Mark, Flow Mark, Silver Streak, Flash, Warping, Weld lines, Jetting, voids, Short Shot & Bubbles. This manuscript is innovative because suppliers (Tier 1 and Tier 2) do not use DoE for standardization of their process parameters in Injection Molding and High Pressure Die Casting. They do trial and error method to arrive at the process parameters which is error prone and time consuming.The variation of process parameters can be optimized using Six Sigma approach, a structured methodology which is Process focused & data driven approach. The purpose of this paper is to present through a case study how the concepts of Design of Experiments, which is a part of Six Sigma Methodology can be used for improving the Injection Molding Process at supplier end reducing defects & hence improving Quality at supplier which stops 100% BOP inspection and segregation when the parts reach the OEM. Here one of the…
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