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Real Time Simulated Test Platform for Electric Power Line Replaceable Unit Closed Loop Testing

Honeywell Technology Solutins Lab., Pvt.-Davendar Kashireddy, Kumar Sakinala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0018
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Aerospace application Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) development is tedious process involving hardware development and software development. Detail testing to be performed as per design assurance level (DAL) level of the system in which the LRU used. LRU design and developed for control application of a system to be tested on the real plant/system. Early system requirements validation during development stage using real plant / system involves high risk causing damage to system impacts high lead time to fix the system or most of time system itself is not built yet or system not available at the location of LRU design and development for system functional testing. However real-time simulation environment can address these limitations of system testing. Real time simulation environment is one platform extensively used for control system validation during initial stage of LRU design and development by simulating plant model / system. Correctness of the control algorithm, software implementation, hardware design can be checked during design and development stage which reduces the errors later during system integration lab (SIL) test. Any real-time simulation…
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A Study of the Control Logic of Electronically Controlled Suspension for Motorcycle

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Takenori Terada, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Hideyuki Kato, Taro Iwamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0569
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Electronically controlled suspensions are expected to improve driving performance as the damping characteristics of the suspension can be adjusted in real time to respond to road conditions. This paper reports the results of testing the suspension control logic for improving ride quality, especially when driving on rough roads, using an internally developed riding simulator.The skyhook theory is widely known as a control logic for reducing vibration when driving a four-wheeled vehicle on a rough road, which we utilized in our riding simulator to examine the vibration reduction effects when applying control logic for motorcycle suspensions. The test results show that the skyhook theory can be applied in motorcycles.However, sensors for suspension systems that can be installed in mass-produced motorcycles are severely limited in terms of cost and space. Therefore, we examined a control logic based on skyhook theory that can reduce vibration even with a simple and inexpensive sensor system.A novel control logic was successfully designed that implements the relationship between the suspension stroke speed and the vertical acceleration of the sprung mass from the…
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Step-by-step correlation between calculated and measured data in order to reduce errors by vehicle simulation tools

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Escola de Engenharia, U-Fabrício J.P. Pujatti
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles - FCA-Eduardo F. Figueiredo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0285
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
In designing a new vehicle is necessary to estimate the vehicle performance, emission pollutants, and fuel consumption. Also is necessary check if the fuel economy technologies contents are attend the project goals. Therefore, simulate the vehicles on fuel consumption simulation tools, are crucial to attend the project time and cost.One of aspects more critical on simulation tools is its ability to reflect the vehicle reality accurately. The proposal of this work is to present a methodology to check the accuracy of vehicle simulation results using an analysis step-by-step process of errors between the simulated and experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under FTP-75 and HWFET cycles. The tests were performed on a Flex Fuel vehicle fueled by Brazilian's ethanol and gasoline fuels and the final fuel economy results. Good agreement between simulation and test results were obtained, demonstrating that this process is technically sound to improve the fuel consumption simulation accuracy.
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Optimal Energy Management for Variable Fuel Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology, Vienna-Bastian Beyfuss, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2219
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) strongly depends on the implemented energy management strategy (EMS) that splits the drivers torque request onto internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric machine (EM). While in conventional vehicles overall efficiency decreases by using low quality fuel (in terms of octane rating), in HEV this effect can amplify itself. This is due to the restricted ICE operation to higher load areas, where the risk of engine-knock is increased.Since the EMS can set the ICE operation point flexible, the author suggests consideration of fuel quality (Research Octane Number RON) within the EMS to exploit the full fuel saving potential of HEV.This paper examines three different fuel qualities, with varying octane rating, on the engine test bench. Results show that the operation range of optimal ICE efficiency varies significantly between them. While high octane fuel allows a broader usable area for ICE operation in HEV, low octane fuel has a negative impact in knock relevant areas. However, this peril can be avoided by adapting the EMS.Test bench data is used to generate…
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Study of New HILS Test Method with Combination of the Virtual Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems and the Engine Test Bench

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Nobunori Okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2343
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption rate (fuel economy) and exhaust gas emission regulations are being tightened around the world year by year. In Europe, the real driving emission (RDE) method for evaluating exhaust gas emitted from road-going vehicles was introduced after September 2017 for new types of light/medium-duty vehicles, in addition to the chassis dynamometer test using the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP). Further, the worldwide harmonized heavy-duty certification (WHDC) method was introduced after 2016 as an exhaust gas emission test method for heavy-duty vehicles. In each evaluation, the tests of vehicles and engines are initiated from cold states.Heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are evaluated using the vehicle simulation method. For example, the power characteristics of a engine model is obtained during engine warm operation. Therefore, various performances during cold start cannot be precisely evaluated by using simulator.In this study, we simultaneously control a real engine and vehicle simulation in real time, and examine a new evaluation technique for evaluating various performances by considering the engine temperature.
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Functional Olefin Copolymers for Low Viscosity Energy Efficiency HDEO and PCMO

Afton Chemical Corporation-Carranza A., Jiang S., Devlin M. T., Sheldon B., Hux K., Walker C., Wyatt W.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2201
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
There is still a need in the industry for engine oils that have low viscosities to improve vehicle fuel efficiency but also protect engines from wear. Viscosity modifiers (VMs) are chief additives responsible for adjusting the viscometric characteristics of automotive lubricants. Most notably, VMs have a significant impact on a lubricant's viscosity-temperature relationship as indicated by viscosity index (VI), cold cranking simulator (CCS) viscosity, and high temperature high shear (HTHS) viscosity of engine oils. Functional copolymers bearing branched, linear, or anti-wear functionalities have been synthesized and evaluated for viscometric and wear protection performance. The resulting polymers improved tribofilm formation, shear stability and CCS viscosities. Indirect benefits including Noack improvement and trim oil reduction were observed.
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Proposal of Wall Heat Transfer Coefficient Applicable to Spray-wall Interaction Process in Diesel Engines (Second Report: Improvement of Diesel Combustion Simulator UniDES by the Proposed Wall Heat Transfer Coefficient)

TOYOTA CENTRAL R&D LABS., INC.-Takato IKEDO, Kazuhisa INAGAKI, Yoshihiro NOMURA, Reiko UEDA
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION-Hiroshi OYAGI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2226
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The first report proposed a new heat transfer coefficient formula applicable to diesel combustion. This, the second report, incorporates this formula into a heat loss prediction model and evaluates the prediction accuracy of heat loss over the whole engine operation range by using a diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator). In addition, the proposed model also factors in the effect of lower spray penetration due to swirl flow. As a result, it was clarified that prediction accuracy improved in every engine operation region, and it was possible to predict the indicated mean effective pressure with an accuracy containing an absolute error of less than 2.3%.
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Optimisation of Low Temperature Combustion Technology, for Future Drive Cycles, using a Factorial Design of Experiments

University of the West of England-A.S. van Niekerk, P.J. Kay, B. Drew, N. Larsen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2171
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Automotive manufacturers are facing increased pressure to meet more stringent emissions legislation and new legislative driving cycles. One technology that has the potential to meet future legislation is Low Temperature Combustion (LTC), which has the potential to significantly reduce NOx over conventional diesel combustion. Most studies reported in the literature evaluating this technology only change ’one- factor-at-a-time’ at steady state conditions. This paper addresses these issues and presents a methodology utilising DoE analysis to optimise a validated multi- fidelity engine simulation for LTC over a transient cycle (WLTP) which makes the results more applicable to real world driving conditions.A validated simulation for a 2.4-litre compression ignition engine was developed in Ricardo WAVE. To increase the fidelity of the model, empirical data such as 3D scans of the inlet geometry were included. The simulation was validated against experimental engine emissions and performance data. A characterization study using a full factorial DoE was performed on the whole engine simulation to minimise vehicle emissions using LTC. The vehicle simulation was tested against the WLTP and the response of…
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Finding Diverse Failure Scenarios in Autonomous Systems Using Adaptive Stress Testing

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA-Peter Du, Katherine Driggs-Campbell
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0018
Published 2019-12-18 by SAE International in United States
Identifying and eliminating failure scenarios is critical in the development of autonomous vehicle (AV) systems. However, finding such failures through real-world vehicle-level testing is a difficult task as system disengagements and accidents are rare occurrences. Simulation approaches have been proposed to supplement vehicle-level testing and reduce the costs associated with operating large fleets of autonomous test vehicles. While one can run more vehicles in simulation than in the real world, applying traditional Monte Carlo sampling techniques to find failures still yields an unguided search and a large waste of computing resources. A more directed method than random sampling is needed to identify failure scenarios in a computationally efficient manner. Adaptive Stress Testing (AST) is a method that uses reinforcement learning (RL) paradigms to efficiently find failure scenarios in stochastic sequential decision-making systems. Through iteratively exploring the action space and collecting rewards, AST aims to establish an optimal policy that generates a set of high-probability failure trajectories. However, the trajectories obtained through AST tend to lack diversity and converge to similar failure states. Due to the…
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Modelling and Simulation of Vehicle Suspension System with Variable Stiffness Using Quasi-zero Stiffness Mechanism

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India-Mohit Saini
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0003
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
The dynamics and comfort of a vehicle closely depends on the stiffness of its suspension system. The suspension system of a vehicle always had to trade-off between comfort and performance of a vehicle; since for comfort a softer suspension is preferred which in turn decreases the aerodynamics and cornering performance and increases the ride height of the vehicle; whereas in stiffer suspension the ride height can be lowered, but forces due to bumps are transferred all the way up to the drivers cabin. This article aims to design a vehicle suspension model with variable stiffness using quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) mechanism and study its force-displacement characteristics and minimize the fundamental stiffness of the suspension system. The model developed uses the principle of negative stiffness to achieve low stiffness for the softer suspension system. The mechanism designed comprises of a pushrod suspension system with three parallel springs attached to one end of the rocker arm, one primary coil spring is mounted perpendicular to the rocker arm and the other two secondary plate springs are attached to the…