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Emissions Optimization Potential of a Diesel Engine Running on HVO: A Combined Experimental and Simulation Investigation

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Athanasios Dimaratos, Stylianos Doulgeris, Zissis Samaras
Centre For Research & Technology Hellas-Athanasios Dimitriadis, Stella Bezergianni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0039
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The present work investigates some recalibration possibilities of a 1.4l common rail turbo-charged diesel engine for the optimal operation in terms of emissions and fuel consumption (FC) with pure Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Initially, steady-state experimental data with nominal engine settings revealed HVO benefits as a drop-in fuel. Under these conditions, pure HVO is associated with lower engine out PM (up to 75%) and CO2 (up to 10%) emissions, and lower mass-based FC (up to 9%), while NOx are similar or slightly higher to diesel fuel. At the next step, a combustion model was developed for the particular engine targeting to identify the optimal IT (Injection Timing) and EGR settings for further emissions (PM, NOx and CO2) and FC reduction with pure HVO. For this purpose, four re-adjusted IT and EGR maps were developed with both conventional diesel and HVO. The results of the combustion model in steady-state conditions showed clear reductions in NOx (up to 45%), PM (up to 70%) and CO2 (up to 6%) emissions and in fuel mass consumed (up to 6%)…

Friction reduction by optimization of local oil temperatures

Universitat of Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
University of Kassel-Oemer Oezdemir, Adrian Rienäcker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0177
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower partial loads most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures which are far below the maximum temperatures allowed, dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research project was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimization of the thermal management of the oil circuit of a combustion engine. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings can be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature. For the investigations, the oil circuit of the test engine was modified to realize three separate oil circuits of main and connecting rod bearings, cylinder head and the piston jets with turbocharger, that were individually supplied with oil at different pressures and temperatures by an external system. Furthermore, on a journal bearing test rig it was shown…

Development and Validation of a Control-Oriented Analytic Engine Simulator

FERRARI S.p.A.-Matteo Cucchi, Nicola Silvestri
University of Bologna-Alessandro Brusa, Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0002
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Due to the recent anti-pollution policies, the performance increase in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is currently under the focus of automotive manufacturers. This trend drives the control systems designers to investigate accurate solutions and build more sophisticated algorithms to increase the efficiency of this kind of engines. The development of a control strategy is composed by several phases and steps, and the first part of such process is typically spent to define and validate the logic of the strategy. During this phase a light engine simulator is particularly useful, since it allows producing robust combustion synthetic data with a low calibration and computational effort. In the first part of this paper the description of a control-oriented analytic engine simulator (ANESIM) is carried out. The latest results about the zero-dimensional knock model presented in a previous paper and some interesting analytical equations that define the main mean combustion indexes trend (like the maximum in-cylinder pressure, the MFB50, the Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) as functions of the engine speed and load are analyzed for the entire engine…

A novel 1D co-simulation framework for the prediction of tailpipe emissions under different IC engine operating conditions.

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Grigorios Koltsakis
EMPA-Patrik Soltic, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Viola Papetti, Jakub Rojewski PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0147
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The prediction of the pollutants emitted by internal combustion engines during driving cycles has been a challenge since the introduction of the emission regulation legislation. During the last decade, along with the more tightening limits and increased public concern about the matter of air quality, the possibility of simulating various driving tests with cost effective computing facilities has become a key feature for modern simulation codes. Many 1D simulation tools are available on the market, offering real time models capable of achieving the simulation of any driving cycle in limited time frames. These approaches are based on the extreme simplification of the engine geometry and on the adoption of engine maps, which, for any engine operating condition, give the engine output in terms of power, or torque, and of exhaust gas composition. Specific fluid dynamic models are used to track the composition along the exhaust system and, with the aid of ad-hoc modules, to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on. This work is based…

An embedded simulation approach for tolerance analysis on vehicle propulsion subsystem

GM Global Propulsion Systems-Claudio Mancuso, Domenico Cavaiuolo, Giuseppe Corbo
Gamma Technologies LLC-Iakovos Papadimitriou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0079
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
An increasing demand for reducing cost and time effort of the design process via improved CAE (Computer-Aided Engineer) tools and methods has characterized the automotive industry over the past two decades. One of the main challenge regarded the effective simulation of a vehicle’s propulsion system dealing with different physical domains: several examples have been proposed in literature mainly based on co-simulation approach which involves a specific tool for each propulsion system part modeling. Nevertheless, these solutions are not fully suitable and effective to perform statistical analysis including all physical parameters. In this respect, this paper presents the definition and implementation of a new simulation methodology applied to a propulsion subsystem. The reported approach is based on the usage of Synopsis Saber as dominant tool for co-simulation: models of electronic circuitry, electro-mechanical components and control algorithm are implemented in Saber to perform tolerance analysis; in addition, a dynamic link with engine plant model developed in GT-Suite environment has been established via a dedicated procedure. Moreover, a HPC Grid (High Performance Computing Grid) is used with the…

Validation of Using a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

Mahle International GmbH-Tobias Funk, Holger Ehnis, Reiner Kuenzel
Universität Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0054
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
MAHLE is conducting extensive parameter studies regarding friction savings on the piston group of fired gasoline and diesel engines to further increase the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. For each tested piston variant, steady-state fired friction measurements are taken across the entire operating range of the engine using the indication method. Based on these measurements, an empirical model is created which describes the Friction Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) depending on engine speed, engine load and coolant and oil temperature. The friction map is then used in a drive cycle simulation in order to determine fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A drive cycle corresponds to transient conditions both as a result of the changes in operating point and the engine warm-up. The current legislative drive cycles aim to better reflect real-world driving conditions and thus contain frequent and steep transient events. This article therefore assesses if the confidence interval of the steady-state friction model is also valid in transient engine operation with warm-up. For this purpose, fired friction measurements are taken both with defined speed…

Inner-Insulated Turbocharger Technology to Reduce Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Modern Engines

BorgWarner Turbo Systems-Jürgen Werner
Ricardo UK Ltd-Joshua Dalby
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0184
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
With more focus on real world emissions from light-duty vehicles, the interactions between engine and after-treatment are critical. For modern engines, most emissions are generated during the warm-up phase following a cold start. For Diesel engines this is exaggerated due to colder exhaust temperatures and larger aftertreatment systems. The De-NOx aftertreatment can be particularly problematic. Engine manufacturers are required to take measures to address these temperature issues which often result in higher fuel consumption (retarding combustion, increasing engine load or reducing the Diesel Air-fuel-ratio). In this paper we consider an inner-insulated turbocharger as an alternative, passive technology which aims to reduce the exhaust heat losses between the engine and the aftertreatment. Firstly, the concept and design of the inner-insulated turbocharger is presented. A transient 3D CFD/FEM simulation is conducted and predicts that external heat losses will be reduced by 70% compared to a standard turbocharger. A 1-D modelling methodology is then presented for capturing the behavior of the inner-insulated turbocharger. This is important as conventional models based on isentropic efficiency maps cannot accurately predict turbine…

Development of a hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application: ICE CFD-1D optimization and vehicle lap simulation

UNIMORE-Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini, Francesco Scrignoli
Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia-Valerio Mangeruga
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0200
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The paper reviews the CFD optimization of a motorcycle engine, modified for the installation in a hybrid powertrain of a Formula SAE car. In a parallel paper [Development of a hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application: packaging optimization and thermo-mechanical design of the electric motor case], the choice of the donor engine (Ducati 959 “Panigale”) is thoroughly discussed, along with all the hardware modifications oriented to minimize the new powertrain dimensions, weight and cost, and guarantee the mechanical reliability. In the current paper, the attention is focused on two main topics: 1) CFD-1D tuning of the modified Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), in order to comply with the Formula SAE regulations, as well as to maximize the power output; 2) Simulation of the vehicle in racing conditions, comparison between a conventional and a hybrid powertrain

Drivetrain Noise Source Identification and Active Noise Control of a Heavy Off-Road Vehicle

Dongfeng Motor Technical Center-Zuguo Xia
Gissing Tech. Co., Ltd.-Hailin Ruan, Wei Huang, Longchen Li, Xiaojun Chen, Xiujie Tian, Keda Zhu, Changwei Zheng, Jiapeng Zhao, Renjie Dai
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Drivetrain noise from heavy off-road vehicles mainly includes engine noise, drive shaft noise, wheel-side gear noise, tire pattern noise etc. They are the main noise sources for such vehicles as they greatly influence the ride comfort of the passengers inside. This paper solved the drivetrain noise problems of a heavy off-road vehicle using the method of active noise control (ANC). Firstly, the vehicle is benchmarked and the noise problems are analyzed, while the noise sources are identified by analyzing the transmission principles of the drivetrain. Secondly, ANC strategies are made for the vehicle based on the noise profiles under various operating conditions. Thirdly, the multiple parameters for ANC are computed from simulations modeling the vehicle in idle, constant speed and acceleration respectively. Lastly, road tests are conducted using the multiple parameters from the simulations and a noise reduction of 2-4 dB can be achieved in the whole vehicle. The results has shown that ANC is an effective method for drivetrain noise reduction in heavy off-road vehicles as this paper provides references for the systematic solution…
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Model Gives Robots a Better Feel for Object Manipulation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34576
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new learning system improves a robot’s ability to mold materials into target shapes and make predictions about interacting with solid objects and liquids. The system, known as a learning-based particle simulator, could give industrial robots a more refined touch and may have applications in personal robotics.