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Aircraft Plenum Air Outlet Optimization Method

Embraer-Fernando Stancato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0021
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
It is possible to observe a growing interest by mobility industry toward a increased passenger comfort perception. This tendency is being characterized in the aviation sector by interior project that would guarantee the passenger comfort in entertainment, ergonomics, lightning, air quality, acoustics and thermal environment. Regarding this last three aspects, the air distribution through the plenum has a great impact on them. In this work it is presented a method to select the best outlet orifice configuration. The method was applied on seven different plenums. Acoustic evaluation was done using a rig experiment. Based on noise levels of each configuration, the dominant frequency range is identified. Objectives metrics, such as overall levels, speech interference level (SIL3) and loudness were applied. Subsequently, subjective analysis was conducted using the paired comparison method. Finally, an acoustic performance classification was established. Draft effect and air temperature distribution inside the cabin was done using CFD simulation. Besides that, a one-dimensional duct model was done for each configuration to evaluate plenum velocity and pressure distribution. Through these models, it was possible…
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Integrated Electrical UAV Propulsion Design and Testing For High Efficiency

DARcorporation-Wanbo Liu, Drew Darrah, Joel Eppler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0053
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper covers the design, modeling and analysis of an electric ducted fan system for sUAV (<55 lb) and the verification of predicted performance with test data. Analysis shows that the operating condition of the motor can significantly affect performance and should be considered when selecting or designing a rotor and vice versa. Motor manufacturers usually provide a list of compatible propellers for a motor design with thrust at RPM data coupled with gram per Watt efficiency. However, the gram per Watt value is not constant across the range of operation and a better modeling is needed depending on thrust requirements. Many of the electrical losses can be difficult to calculate directly, such as flux and iron losses in the motor and switching losses in the ESC. Incorporating an estimation/approximation of such losses during the rotor design phase enables a more accurate performance predication and a better overall system efficiency. Two rotors are designed to work inside of the duct and both have identical geometry except for a small blade pitch changes to increase maximum…
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Real Time Simulated Test Platform for Electric Power Line Replaceable Unit Closed Loop Testing

Honeywell Technology Solutins Lab., Pvt.-Davendar Kashireddy, Kumar Sakinala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0018
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Aerospace application Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) development is tedious process involving hardware development and software development. Detail testing to be performed as per design assurance level (DAL) level of the system in which the LRU used. LRU design and developed for control application of a system to be tested on the real plant/system. Early system requirements validation during development stage using real plant / system involves high risk causing damage to system impacts high lead time to fix the system or most of time system itself is not built yet or system not available at the location of LRU design and development for system functional testing. However real-time simulation environment can address these limitations of system testing. Real time simulation environment is one platform extensively used for control system validation during initial stage of LRU design and development by simulating plant model / system. Correctness of the control algorithm, software implementation, hardware design can be checked during design and development stage which reduces the errors later during system integration lab (SIL) test. Any real-time simulation…
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Accounting thermal exchanges in Coanda effect

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Michele Trancossi
Universidade Da Beira Interior-Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0026
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Modeling Coandã effect has been a fundamental issue in fluid dynamic research in the XX century. It has lost some interest because of the improvement in CFD, even if it could be still important in the area of the preliminary design of aerodynamic devices that benefits of fluid deflection by convex surfaces. An effective model of Coandã effect has not been defined, and fundamental questions are still open. One of the problems which affect many practical cases, but it is still marginally approached by scientific literature, is the influence of convective heat exchange on Coandã adhesion of a fluid stream on a convex surface in the presence of a temperature gradient between the fluid and the convex surface. This paper aims to start an effective research direction on the effects of convective heat exchange on Coandã effect. It approaches the problem with a set of CFD simulations. It analyses the previous hypotheses, which are based on Prandtl number and evidences the need of a more effective model that account also Reynolds number.
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A MATLAB Simulink Based Co-Simulation Approach for Vehicle Systems Model Integration

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Brian C. Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Tim Deppen, Charles Lucas, Rodney Yeu, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0005
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a MATLAB-Simulink based general co-simulation approach is presented which supports multi-resolution simulation of distributed models in an integrated architecture. This approach was applied to simulating aircraft thermal performance in our Vehicle Systems Model Integration (VSMI) framework. A representative advanced aircraft thermal management system consisting of an engine, engine fuel thermal management system, aircraft fuel thermal management system and a power and thermal management system was used to evaluate the advantages and tradeoffs in using a co-simulation approach to system integration modeling. For a system constituting of multiple interacting sub-systems, an integrated model architecture can rapidly, and cost effectively address technology insertions and system evaluations. Utilizing standalone sub-system models with table-based boundary conditions often fails to effectively capture dynamic subsystem interactions that occurs in an integrated system. Additionally, any control adjustments, model changes or technology insertions that are applied to any one of the connecting subsystems requires iterative updates to the boundary conditions. When evaluating a large set of trade studies, the number of boundary condition models and time to generate these models…
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Study of Rider Model for Motorcycle Racing Simulation

Honda Racing Corporation-Masatsugu Nishimura, Yoshitaka Tezuka
Università degli Studi di Padova-Enrico Picotti, Mattia Bruschetta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0572
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Various rider models have been proposed that provide control inputs for the simulation of motorcycle dynamics.However, those models are mostly used to simulate production motorcycles, so they assume that all motions are in the linear region such as those in a constant radius turn. As such, their performance is insufficient for simulating racing motorcycles that experience quick acceleration and braking.Therefore, this study proposes a new rider model for racing simulation that incorporates Nonlinear Model Predictive Control. In developing this model, it was built on the premise that it can cope with running conditions that lose contact with the front wheels or rear wheels so-called "endo" and "wheelie", which often occur during running with large acceleration or deceleration assuming a race. For the control inputs to the vehicle, we incorporated the lateral shift of the rider's center of gravity in addition to the normally used inputs such as the steering angle, throttle position, and braking force.We compared the performance of the new model with that of the conventional model under constant radius cornering and straight braking,…
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Hierarchical Predictive Control of a Combined Engine/SCR System with Limited Model Knowledge

SAE International Journal of Engines

Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany-Knut Graichen
MTU Friedrichshafen, Germany-Jens Niemeyer, Jörg Remele
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0015
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the problem of minimizing the overall operational cost of a heavy-duty off-highway diesel engine combined with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst is considered. Here, we propose a hierarchical model-based scheme described as an optimal control problem. The sequence of resulting optimal control values are setpoints for the underlying engine controller, applied in a model predictive control (MPC) fashion. The presented scheme meets several demands. While minimizing the overall costs, it handles box constraints for the control variables as well as a nonlinear NOx-conversion rate constraint ensuring that a given emission target is met. The approach makes use of Gaussian process models for the input-output behavior of the underlying components and a technique for online adaptation. Thus, the presented hierarchical scheme is able to compensate model uncertainties and aging effects of engine, air path, and SCR catalyst. Moreover, in comparison to the literature, our approach doesn’t require detailed models of the underlying components, and the hierarchical, modular design allows the applicability to different engines and SCR controllers. We illustrate the proposed approach…
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Comparison Between MCC and MZCM Combustion Models

Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais-Paulo Ricardo da Penha, Rogério Jorge Amorim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0133
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper evaluates the ability of two combustion models to predict a small HSDI diesel engine operation after changing its operational parameters. Both Multi-Zone Combustion Model (MZCM) and Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) are inherently coupled to the fuel injection process allowing great freedom of simulation for multistage injection engines but also requiring consistent calibration of the model parameters. In the present work, two operating conditions of a reference research engine are modelled and tuned in the AVL Boost® software using both MCC and MZCM to model the combustion process. The operational conditions evaluated are defined by changes in EGR rate, fuel injection start and distribution, boost pressure, and injection pressure. The predictive ability of each model is assessed by comparing the output results accuracy and the number of parameters changes needed to tune the model for a given change of operation. The novelty of this work resides in the comparison of the two models, as built in the software, in a practical simulation process. Both models have a similar amount of base parameters to be…
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Battery cell modeling for energy and power estimations in a battery pack applied to a HEV

Juliana C M S Aranha, Felipe Lima Marques, Thiago Chiachio CPqD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0243
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
In this paper we present the concept of cell battery modeling and its importance to the battery management system of a HEV. A review of possible equivalent circuits to model the battery electric behavior is made and we present the proposed equivalent circuit to this application. This model takes into consideration the temperature, current and state of charge conditions in which the battery is being used, without adding equations to state-space model. Then, we discuss the laboratory tests that need to be performed to provide information for the models. A test procedure is presented in 6 different scenarios. Finally, the results of the application of this methodology for a NMC battery cell are showed. The maximum RMSE found between real and estimated voltage by the model was 1.0041e-4. A state of charge estimation using this model showed a 1.995e-6 mean squared error.
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A Coupled Approach Using CFD and FEA Solution for Solving the Cooling of Automotive Disk Brake

Siemens Industry Software-Joel Sanvezzo Junior, Douglas Dutra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0012
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The cooling efficiency of automotive disk brakes comprises an important area of development, since the system performance is directly related to the overheating level that is being achieved during the braking period. The heat generation occurs during the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. After this process, it is crucial an effective thermal dissipation in order to assure the decay of temperature levels. Such thermal dissipation results mainly from the interaction of the brake components with the external airflow in the wheel arch, where there are the occurrence of heat transfer mechanisms including conduction, convection and radiation. In this sense, through the application of simulation models, it is possible to predict the thermal- structural behavior by combining solutions in the fluid dynamics and structural areas. In this work, a one-way fluid-structure approach is proposed by combining conventional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models. The CFD modeling aim to solve the disk brake cooling during the airflow passage in the wheel arch and its interaction with the brake components. The FEA modeling…
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