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Body Structure Strength Of Sleeper Coaches During Rollover Test As Per AIS 119

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2567
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Bus passenger safety has always been a concern considering various impacts like side impact, front impact, rollover etc. happening in real life scenarios. Various standards have been formulated for simulating these conditions and with respect to rollover, standards like ECE-R66 are being used to understand the superstructure strength. In India, we have AIS-052 (bus body code) and AIS-031 specific for bus rollover testing. AIS-119 has been published for rollover testing of sleeper coaches with modifications in the survival space creation in sleeper coaches for berths. With physical testing being more expensive, CAE simulations are being considered as vital option which also helps in design modification in a lesser time. This paper discusses the scope of numerical simulation of sleeper coach rollover using an explicit dynamic solver RADIOSS to understand the structure deformations, survival space clearances/intrusions. The paper will describe the procedure for the numerical simulation starting from the CAD development, geometry clean up, meshing techniques, element formulations, CG measurement, input deck set up till the post processing of results. In order to validate the numerical…
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Passenger "Sleeper Bus" Structure, an Optimization Study using Finite Element Analysis

JCBL, Ltd.-Yaseen Khan
JCBL,Ltd.-Priyanka Bhola
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2537
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT Sleeper buses are increasingly used as connectivity between cities and remote areas with sleeping comfort for passengers. During the normal operation, the bus body is subjected to several loads, external loads from the road (i.e. crossing over a speed bump, breaking & cornering). Moreover, there is a substantial possibility that these loads may lead to a structural failure. Hence, it is necessary to determine stresses occurred in the bus body to ensure its integrity under these driving scenarios. During the accident, rollover/front/rear/side impact, energy absorbing capacity of bus body structure is crucial for safety of passengers. The objective of this study is to reduce weight of bus structure while maintaining cost & safety as constraint. 3D Model prepared in NX and finite element model created in hypermesh ,LS-dyna/optistruct used as solver and post processing done in hyperview. In this study, fully loaded bus with passengers as well as maximum language mass, considered. The present study is based on the finite element analysis and design optimization of passenger sleeper bus. Number of iterations in stiffness…
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Numerical Study of Effect of Material and Orientation on Strength of Side Door Intrusion Beam

Vellore Institute of Technology-Mayank Chandak, Hirdekar Antariksh, Chavan Saurabh, Kannan Chidambaram
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays more and more people are concerned about the safety rating of their vehicle. The safety rating depends on the ability of the car to minimize the injury to the occupants post-crash. Crashworthiness of the vehicle is determined by carrying out various tests such as static and dynamic tests. Side crashes are one of the leading causes of fatal injury following front crashes. Side door strength is dependent on the door components such as latch and striker, hinge, door beam etc. Lateral stiffness is contributed significantly by the side door beam in the door structure. The side door beam limits the side intrusion into passenger compartment. This paper emphasizes the effect of intrusion beam materials and orientation in the side door strength with a numerical approach using ANSYS tool. These factors affect the strength and weight of the door. The simulation study with respect to door design is cost-effective and time-saving. Side door intrusion test as per IS 12009 norms is simulated in the software and are substantiated by the experimental test results of existing…
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Performance Assessment of Pyramidal Lattice Core Sandwich Engine Hood for Pedestrian Safety

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Anish Jafrin Thilak Johnson
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Road accidents are increasing now-a-days, Safety of pedestrian is the great concern. In average, 10% of urban pedestrian accidents are fatal. Statistics show that the impact on front side of cars is the major cause of pedestrian deaths (83.5%). The function of a vehicle’s engine hood is to keep its engine covered and allow access to the engine compartment as required for maintenance and repair. The hood structure not only protects the engine cavity, but also keeps pedestrians away from the parts of that cavity. The absorption capability and stiffness of hood structures are the key points considered when designing a vehicle’s hood. The impact of the pedestrian head on automotive hood results in major injuries and sometimes in death. Conventional engine hood results in greater Head Injury Criterion (HIC) values. GFRP pyramidal lattice core structures are used in automobiles which is used for good energy absorption. GFRP pyramidal lattice core sandwich engine hood absorbs impact energy rather than transmitting it to the head. This will minimize the severity rate of injury of pedestrian during…
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Parametric Analysis and Optimization of Variables Affecting the Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC) in Various Crash Scenarios

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Bowhead (Systems and Technology Group), United States-Vikas Hasija
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, United States-Erik G. Takhounts, Matthew J. Craig
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0005
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Incompressibility of the brain makes it susceptible to damage from shear strains. Head rotational motion can easily produce high shear strains causing brain injury. Since head injury criterion (HIC) does not account for rotational motion, a brain injury criterion (BrIC) was developed. To design potential countermeasures for reducing BrIC, it is important to investigate the parameters that influence BrIC. This article focuses on parametric analysis to examine the sensitivity of BrIC to vehicle design and crash-related parameters, and identifying important parameters which can be controlled in developing countermeasures for reducing BrIC. Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male simplified human finite element (FE) model was used in this study. Four different analyses were conducted: a Design of Experiments (DOE) study to investigate sensitivity of BrIC to impact direction and crash pulse severity b DOE studies, with fixed crash severity, for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to identify important vehicle design parameters influencing BrIC c Optimization for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to minimize…
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Next Steps for the IIHS Side Crashworthiness Evaluation Program

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)-Raul A. Arbelaez, Becky C. Mueller, Matthew L. Brumbelow, Eric R. Teoh
Published 2019-07-08 by The Stapp Association in United States
Abstract - IIHS has been conducting side impact crash tests since 2003. To understand how the side crashworthiness program can be enhanced, an ongoing research effort is focused on understanding the correlation between IIHS ratings and driver death rate. In addition, the performance of good-rated late-model vehicles has been assessed in higher severity side crash tests. The purpose of this short communication is to summarize the ongoing work and potential next steps toward developing a new crash test procedure or updating ratings criteria to further advance side crashworthiness.
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Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

  • Book
  • B-STAPP2018
Published 2019-04-30 by The Stapp Association in United States
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Effect of restraints on chest deflection • Thoracic response in dynamic front loading • Side impact assessments and comparisons • Front airbag deployment rates and implications • Reanalysis of experimental brain strain data • Modeling pedestrian impacts • Short communications o New data on the biomechanics of injury and human tolerance, new methods and tools to study the biomechanics of injury, new developments in occupant protection systems, and new concepts on the biomechanics of injury based on experimental and analytical studies.
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Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

General Motors-Chandan Mozumder, Simon Xu
Indiana University; Purdue University-Prasad Tapkir, Andres Tovar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method. Numerical examples of vehicle components under the side and the frontal impact are demonstrated to assess the xHCA capabilities of tailoring the crash responses.
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Performance of Event Data Recorders Found in Toyota Airbag Control Modules in High Severity Frontal Oblique Offset Crash Tests

Kineticorp, LLC.-William Bortles
University of Tulsa-Ryan Hostetler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the performance of Event Data Recorders (EDRs) found in the Airbag Control Modules (ACMs), as tested in support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Frontal Oblique Offset Program. Previous studies have examined EDR performance in high severity full-frontal barrier crash tests and moving deformable barrier side impact tests. This paper presents data from a high severity oblique frontal impact test in which the vehicle was struck by a moving deformable barrier. This paper examines the results of EDR data downloaded from two 2015 model year Toyota Highlanders, and the results of EDR reported change in velocity (delta-v), to vehicle mounted accelerometers and reference instrumentation. This paper will analyze EDR performance in reporting: Seatbelt buckle status,Occupant Size Classification, Front Passenger,Airbag and seatbelt pretensioner deployment time(s),Longitudinal delta-v, andLateral acceleration/crash pulse.
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Passenger Vehicle Dynamic Response and Characterization of Side Structure during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Exponent Inc.-Jason Skiera, Charles Crosby, Cleve Bare, Marc Paradiso, Gregory Campbell
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0420
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A significant portion of real-world passenger vehicle side impacts occur at lower speeds than testing conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) or the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Test data from low- to moderate-speed side impacts involving late-model passenger vehicles is limited, making the evaluation of vehicle impact response, occupant loading, and injury potential challenging. This study provides the results of low- to moderate-speed impact testing involving a late-model mid-size sedan. Two full-scale Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) side impact crash tests were conducted at speeds of 6.2 mph (10.0 kph) and 13.4 mph (21.6 kph). Instrumentation on the late-model sedan used for the test series included tri-axis accelerometers and seat belt load cells. In both tests, instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile-male Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and passenger seats using the standard three-point seat belts. Response data for the vehicle, barrier, and ATDs was recorded using onboard data acquisition, and on- and off-board real-time and high-speed video cameras. In addition, the deformation to the side of the…
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