The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Side impact crashes
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Mechanical Response of Laterally-Constrained Prismatic Battery Cells under Local Loading

Tsinghua University-Feiyu Xiao, Bobin Xing, Yong Xia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0200
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The crash safety of lithium-ion batteries has received great attention in recent years because of their growing popularity in electric vehicles. However, the safety issues of prismatic batteries have not been thoroughly studied; in particular, the mechanical responses of prismatic battery cells with lateral constraints under varied loading conditions still remain unclear.In this study, indentation tests are conducted to study the mechanical response of prismatic battery cells. Fixtures providing lateral constraint which simulates the real packing situation in battery module are designed. Firstly, the effects of lateral constraints on coupled mechanical and electrical responses of prismatic battery cells are analyzed and discussed. Secondly, dynamic indentation tests of prismatic cells with lateral constraints are carried out. The response of the stacked batteries under local loading is revealed. Thirdly, non-destructive X-ray computed tomography imaging technique is employed to detect the fracture patterns in battery cells caused by indentation.The results of indentation tests indicate that the indentation depth and the peak force for the battery internal failure are affected by the side constraint conditions and the responses of…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation of Laminated Side Window Glazing Coding and Rollover Ejection Mitigation Performance using NASS-CDS

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Ian C. Campbell, Michael Carhart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1216
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study analyses the effect of laminated glass using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. The validity of CDS coding in identifying laminated glass was first assessed with 1997-2015 model year vehicles involved in side impacts. Sixteen individual cases were downloaded where the front outboard glass window was identified as laminated glass by NASS investigators and where the window was coded as either “out-of placed”, “disintegrated” or “holed”. The case summary and photos were reviewed. The results showed that the laminated glass availability was incorrectly coded in 11 out of the 16 cases. New coding definitions were used to identify vehicles equipped with standard or optional laminated glass in the front side windows using various sources such as NAGS data and sale brochures. The results were compared to the individual cases and found appropriate. The NASS-CDS data was then queried with 1997+ model year vehicles to determine the risk and frequency of front seat occupant ejection status by glass type in rollover crashes using the new definitions. For vehicles equipped with standard laminated glass, the risk was 1.45…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Sarah Sherman, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Juff George, Mathieu Davis, Sarah Sharpe, Joseph Olberding, Stacy Imler, Robert Bove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as for evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test, resulting in vehicle lateral delta-Vs of 6.1 kph (3.8 mph) and 14.0 kph (8.7 mph), respectively. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Methods for quantifying the impact severity of low-speed side impacts at varying angles

American Bio Engineers-Justin Brink, Scott Swinford, Brian Jones
Biomechanical Research & Testing-Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0641
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accurately quantifying the severity of minor vehicle-to-vehicle impacts has commonly been achieved by utilizing the Momentum Energy Restitution (MER) method. A review of the scientific literature revealed investigations assessing the efficacy of the MER method primarily for: 1) inline rear-end impacts, 2) offset rear-end impacts, and 3) side impacts configured with the bullet vehicle striking the target vehicle at an approximate 90° angle. To date, the utility of the MER method has not been examined and readily published for quantifying oblique side impacts. The aim of the current study was to observe the effectiveness of the MER method for predicting the severity of side impacts at varying angles. Data were collected over a sequence of 12 tests with bullet-to-target-vehicle contact angles ranging from approximately 45° to 135° with corresponding impact speeds of approximately 13.7 km/h to 16.4 km/h. Vehicle damage profiles documented after each test allowed for the application of the MER method to calculate the target vehicle’s change in velocity (ΔV). Calculated ΔV’s were then compared to the vehicle’s recorded change in velocity obtained…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Structural Performance Comparison between 980MPa Generation 3 Steel and Press Hardened Steel Applied in the Body-in-White A and B-Pillar Parts

General Motors LLC-Andre Pereira, Adam Ballard, Rajmouli Komarivelli, Haoming Li
United States Steel Corp.-Vasant Pednekar, Guofei Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0537
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Commercially available Generation 3 (GEN3) advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have inherent capability of replacing press hardened steels (PHS) using cold stamping processes. 980 GEN3 AHSS is a cold stampable steel with 980 MPa minimum tensile strength that exhibits an excellent combination of formability and strength. Hot forming of PHS requires elevated temperatures (> 800°C) to enable complex deep sections. 980 GEN3 AHSS presents similar formability as 590 DP material, allowing engineers to design complex geometries similar to PHS material; however, its cold formability provides implied potential process cost savings in automotive applications. The increase in post-forming yield strength of GEN3 AHSS due to work and bake hardening contributes strongly toward crash performance in energy absorption and intrusion resistance. The viability of using cold stamped 980 GEN3 AHSS as a replacement for PHS has often been challenged due to concerns about formability and capability to meet final crash performance targets. To address these concerns, A-pillar and B-pillar parts were successfully cold stamped using U. S. Steel 980 GEN3 AHSS and assembled in a prototype mid-size…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Comparison of Kinematics of Different Combinations of Bicyclists and Impact Vehicles

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Chinmoy Pal, Shigeru Hirayama
RNTBCI-Pratap Naidu Vallabhaneni, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0932
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study focusses on new head protection evaluation procedure for bicyclists as proposed by BASt in recent publications. This paper is focused on change in kinematics of a bicyclist when different shapes of vehicle front-end impact with different bicyclists at intersection. Bicycle and Bicyclist FE models are developed using side impact dummies and HBMs (GHBMC). Bicyclist’s head kinematics and head injury are analyzed in detail. It is found that (a) existing Pop-up vehicles are effective (b) Overall kinematics of the bicyclist will be more influenced by the relative orientations of the two legs while pedaling at the time of impact than that of a pedestrian while walking and (c) the relative position (difference in height) of BLE (bonnet leading edge) and CG of the bicyclist from ground especially the hip of bicyclist is one of the most influential parameter for WAD, the distance of the impact point of the head from ground.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Further Non-Deployment and Deployment Laboratory Experiments Using a Toyota Auris 2007 Event Data Recorder

University of Malta-Miguel Tabone, Mario Farrugia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1329
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The experimental campaign discussed in publication 2019-01-0635 was extended to emulate more vehicle parameters and also to increase severity leading to deployment event. The engine RPM and Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) where emulated using LabVIEW and added to the previously reported emulated parameters of wheel speeds and brake status. The engine RPM and APP where made to follow realistic increases and decreases so that the pre-crash data was representative of the associated wheel speeds and brake status. Overlapping non deployments events were generated and the EDR data is presented enriched with additional (faster) CAN bus data sniffed from the vehicle harness. The differences in values from EDR and CAN bus data are noted and discussed. While the non-deployment events were still generated using the rubber mallet in pendulum configuration as in 2019-01-0635, a series of tests were performed using an Izod pendulum to incrementally increase event severity until deployment event was generated. The Izod pendulum was instrumented with a rotational potentiometer to measure its instantaneous angle while laboratory accelerometers were used to separately measure acceleration.…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Invesstigation of test method to reproduce Car-to-Car side impact

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Matsuyama Takeo, Ryuji Ootani, Toshiyuki Ueda, Shigeru Hirayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1221
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Side impact is one of the severest crash modes among real-world accidents. In US market, even though most of vehicles recently have achieved top rating in crash performance assessment programs, it is reported that there is hardly any sign of decreasing trend in side-impact fatalities for the last few years. In response to this trend, IIHS is planning to introduce a new test protocol. One of clarification points on current side impact tests is whether the present side Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) test reproduces real-world Car-to-Car (C2C) crash. Hence, this study addressed to identify key factors to reproduce C2C side impact by a series of parametric CAE study of MDB as follows: i) with and without suspension of MDB ii) change of height of Center Of Gravity (COG) of MDB ⅲ) barrier dimensions iv) barrier stiffness. Reproducibility of the MDB tests in the CAE study was evaluated by three indices of struck vehicle such as (1) kinematics, (2) body deformation modes (Plan and Front View) and (3) dummy injuries. As a result, it was found…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Likelihood of Spinal Disc Herniations in Occupants Involved in Real World Side Impacts

Tack Lam
Biomechanics Scientific LLC-B. Johan Ivarsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0526
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The prevalence of spinal disc herniations in people with no spinal symptoms have been reported to increase with age; from about 20% in those below 40 years to about 30% in those above 40 years. Spinal disc herniations are usually associated with degenerative changes. Though rare, spinal disc herniations can also be caused by trauma. With an increasing number of older people on U.S. roads with a concomitant increase in the probability of getting injured in a vehicle collision, it is reasonable to expect that some of these occupants can present with clinical findings of spinal disc herniations after a side impact, and attribute these findings to the impact. In this study, we looked at the relationship between real world side impacts and the occurrence of spinal injuries, in particular disc herniations, in occupants involved in such impacts. We examined the reported occurrence of all spine injuries in side impact crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database from 1993 through 2014. There were over 8,400 adult raw case occupants,…