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Evaluation of Laminated Side Window Glazing Coding and Rollover Ejection Mitigation Performance using NASS-CDS

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Ian C. Campbell, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1216
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study analyses the effect of laminated glass using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. The validity of CDS coding in identifying laminated glass was first assessed with 1997-2015 model year vehicles involved in side impacts. Sixteen individual cases were downloaded where the front outboard glass window was identified as laminated glass by NASS investigators and where the window was coded as either “out-of placed”, “disintegrated” or “holed”. The case summary and photos were reviewed. The results showed that the laminated glass availability was incorrectly coded in 11 out of the 16 cases. New coding definitions were used to identify vehicles equipped with standard or optional laminated glass in the front side windows using various sources such as NAGS data and sale brochures. The results were compared to the individual cases and found appropriate. The NASS-CDS data was then queried with 1997+ model year vehicles to determine the risk and frequency of front seat occupant ejection status by glass type in rollover crashes using the new definitions. For vehicles equipped with standard laminated glass, the risk was 1.45…
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Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc-Sarah Sherman, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Jessica Isaacs
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Evaluation of occupant kinematics during low- to moderate-speed side impacts

Exponent Inc.-Juff George, Mathieu Davis, Sarah Sharpe, Joseph Olberding, Stacy Imler, Robert Bove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid III 50th-percentile male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and right front passenger seats.…
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Methods for quantifying the impact severity of low-speed side impacts at varying angles

American Bio Engineers-Justin Brink, Scott Swinford, Brian Jones
Biomechanical Research & Testing-Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0641
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accurately quantifying the severity of minor vehicle-to-vehicle impacts has commonly been achieved by utilizing the Momentum Energy Restitution (MER) method. A review of the scientific literature revealed investigations assessing the efficacy of the MER method primarily for: 1) inline rear-end impacts, 2) offset rear-end impacts, and 3) side impacts configured with the bullet vehicle striking the target vehicle at an approximate 90° angle. To date, the utility of the MER method has not been examined and readily published for quantifying oblique side impacts. The aim of the current study was to observe the effectiveness of the MER method for predicting the severity of side impacts at varying angles. Data were collected over a sequence of 12 tests with bullet-to-target-vehicle contact angles ranging from approximately 45° to 135° with corresponding impact speeds of approximately 13.7 km/h to 16.4 km/h. Vehicle damage profiles documented after each test allowed for the application of the MER method to calculate the target vehicle’s change in velocity (ΔV). Calculated ΔV’s were then compared to the vehicle’s recorded change in velocity obtained…
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compatibility for reducing serious injury in side impact

Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Akima, Noboru Tanase, Masato Kunisada
Toyota Motor North America Inc-Jason Hallman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0982
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the research about SUV side impact by Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), it has be found that the side impact by pickup or SUV lead to larger injury criteria at pelvis and leg as compared to the side impact by IIHS SUV MDB. The root cause of the high injury criteria is large deformation of door. Intrusion of stiff front side members deformed the door. Although IIHS SUV MDB does not have stiff front side members, many pickups and SUVs have. Toyota Motor Corporation have considered frontal characteristic of vehicle. We adopt stiff bumper reinforcement and B-pillar can receive front side members through bumper reinforcement. It leads to small door deformation. We think that not only improvement of crashworthiness about side impact but also improvement of compatibility are effective to decrease fatality by side impact. To prove this idea, car to car side impact test (Highlander to Camry) is conducted.
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Virtual verification of light reflection for cluster and Side Mirror in real time scenario

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Manas Bhatnagar, Jyotiranjan Biswal, Saurabh Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0568
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the very world of automotive sector trends are changing at a very fast pace, due to continuous expectation changes by user and new regulatory requirement comes on paper with a very stringent timeline. In current situation manufacturer had to wait for mock up for concept selection and physical proto build to conclude open points of design verification, this complete process take more than a year to make design mature enough for further build. In VECV we have created Cluster design standard to meet the different level of cluster illumination & reflection at virtual level. We are defining the cluster light illumination based on our rigorous study on cluster reflection impact on side glass, windscreen and mirror. Accordingly we package our mirror to minimize the impact of cluster reflection on mirror visibility. With the help of virtual verification of cluster and Side mirror inter co-relation of packaging, we reduced the major time loss and cost required for developing proto build. Different options of mirror and cluster can be verified in quick session. With the help…
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Identication of Factors Influencing Occupant Head Kinematics in C2E_bike Impact at Intersection

Nissan Motor Co Ltd-Shigeru Hirayama
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Chinmoy Pal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0928
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Identication of Factors Influencing Occupant Head Kinematics in C2E_bike Impact at Intersection This study focusses on recent Chinese NCAP activities of introducing new head protection evaluation procedure as proposed by BASt in ESV papers. E-bike is getting very popular in different countries. Many kinds of e-bikes are available worldwide, from e-bikes that only have a small motor to assist the rider's pedal-power i.e., pedelecs to somewhat more powerful e-bikes which tend closer to moped-style functionality. This paper is focused on the PV vs E-bike (C2E_Bike) collisions at intersection. Bicycle and Bicyclist FE models are developed using side impact dummies and HBMs (GHBMC). Bicyclist’s head kinematics are analyzed in detail and compared the same with those of E-bike. Head response based on different crash factors, such as speed of impact, angle of impact, types of bike(normal and E-bike, sport-type) are compared. It is found that heavier E-bikes and the types of E-bike (location of motor) will influence the head kinematics.
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Comparison of Kinematics of Different Combinations of Bicyclists and Impact Vehicles

Nissan Motor Co Ltd-Shigeru Hirayama
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Chinmoy Pal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0932
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study focusses on new head protection evaluation procedure for bicyclists as proposed by BASt in recent publications. This paper is focused on change in kinematics of a bicyclist when different shapes of vehicle front-end impact with different bicyclists at intersection. Bicycle and Bicyclist FE models are developed using side impact dummies and HBMs (GHBMC). Bicyclist’s head kinematics and head injury are analyzed in detail. It is found that (a) existing Pop-up vehicles are effective (b) Overall kinematics of the bicyclist will be more influenced by the relative orientations of the two legs while pedaling at the time of impact than that of a pedestrian while walking and (c) the relative position (difference in height) of BLE (bonnet leading edge) and CG of the bicyclist from ground especially the hip of bicyclist is one of the most influential parameter for WAD, the distance of the impact point of the head from ground.
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Further Non-Deployment and Deployment Laboratory Experiments Using a Toyota Auris 2007 Event Data Recorder

Univ. of Malta-Miguel Tabone, Carl Caruana, Mario Farrugia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1329
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The experimental campaign discussed in publication 2019-01-0635 was extended to emulate more vehicle parameters and also to increase severity leading to deployment event. The engine RPM and Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) where emulated using LabVIEW and added to the previously reported emulated parameters of wheel speeds and brake status. The engine RPM and APP where made to follow realistic increases and decreases so that the pre-crash data was representative of the associated wheel speeds and brake status. Overlapping non deployments events were generated and the EDR data is presented enriched with additional (faster) CAN bus data sniffed from the vehicle harness. The differences in values from EDR and CAN bus data are noted and discussed. While the non-deployment events were still generated using the rubber mallet in pendulum configuration as in 2019-01-0635, a series of tests were performed using an Izod pendulum to incrementally increase event severity until deployment event was generated. The Izod pendulum was instrumented with a rotational potentiometer to measure its instantaneous angle while laboratory accelerometers were used to separately measure acceleration.…
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Invesstigation of test method to reproduce Car-to-Car side impact

Nissan Motor Co Ltd-Ryuji Ootani, Toshiyuki Ueda, Shigeru Hirayama
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Matsuyama Takeo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1221
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Side impact is one of the severest crash modes among real-world accidents. In US market, even though most of vehicles recently have achieved top rating in crash performance assessment programs, it is reported that there is hardly any sign of decreasing trend in side-impact fatalities for the last few years. In response to this trend, IIHS is planning to introduce a new test protocol. One of clarification points on current side impact tests is whether the present side Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) test reproduces real-world Car-to-Car (C2C) crash. Hence, this study addressed to identify key factors to reproduce C2C side impact by a series of parametric CAE study of MDB as follows: i) with and without suspension of MDB ii) change of height of Center Of Gravity (COG) of MDB ⅲ) barrier dimensions iv) barrier stiffness. Reproducibility of the MDB tests in the CAE study was evaluated by three indices of struck vehicle such as (1) kinematics, (2) body deformation modes (Plan and Front View) and (3) dummy injuries. As a result, it was found…