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A detailed study of prominent factors affecting evaporator frosting in a mobile air conditioning (MAC) system

Tata Motors Ltd-Prasanna V Nagarhalli, Shrikant M Awate, Mubeen Syed
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Anurag Maurya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0014
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. Hence, the better cooling and dehumidifying the incoming air. Sometimes, at the low ambient temperature and higher relative humidity conditions a frost is observed. It is accumulated over the evaporator and often become thicker enough to block the flow of air completely passing through the evaporator resulting in a rise in vehicle cabin temperature. Current work presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and hence, the performance of the automotive air conditioning system. There are four major factors, thermistor poor response, undercharged and overcharged system, clogged air-filter, and also the type of compressor causing frost formation over the evaporator are considered for analysis. Current work presents the experimental analysis of the evaporator performance in the low ambient conditions with the above factors in different iterations. With the above analysis new methods and guidelines can be generated in order to avoid frost formation over the evaporator.
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Los Alamos High-Energy Neutron Testing Handbook

Honeywell Aerospace-Laura Dominik
Los Alamos National Laboratory-Steve Wender
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0054
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of the Los Alamos High-Energy Neutron Testing Handbook is to provide user information and guidelines for testing Integrated Circuits (IC) and electronic systems at the Irradiation of Chips and Electronics (ICE) Houses at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Microelectronic technology is constantly advancing to higher density, faster devices and lower voltages. These factors may increase device susceptibility to radiation effects. The high-energy neutron source at LANSCE/LANL provides the capability for accelerated neutron testing of semiconductor devices and electronic systems and to simulate effects in various neutron environments.
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Design and Analysis of Sigma Z-Source Inverter for PV Applications

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Kalaiarasi Nallathambi, Uthra Rangarajan, Anitha Daniel
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Traditional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) produces lesser output voltage than the input and causes shoot-through due to the gating of the semiconductor device connected in same leg. The ZSI is used to overcome the inadequacies of VSI. The ZSI has been extensively used in electric drives, PV system and UPS. The conventional ZSI suffers some disadvantages like restricted boost capability, discontinuity in input current and large inrush current. These limitations are overcome by using a transformer which replaces the inductor in the impedance source network. In high-voltage gain applications, the single transformer-based ZSI topologies requires more turns ratio which requires large size transformer. For improving the boost capability, the TZSI is used. The Z-source network of the TZSI constitutes two transformers with low turns ratio. TZSI has certain demerits such as restricted boost capability, high inrush current and discontinuity in the input current. However, TZSI requires high turns ratio to increase the boost capability. Thus, the modified ZSI, i.e. sigma ZSI is investigated in this paper. The sigma ZSI has the advantage of having reduced…
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Requirements for Plastic Encapsulated Discrete Semiconductors in Space Applications

CE-12 Solid State Devices
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6294/3
  • Current
Published 2019-08-07 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes the requirements for screening, qualification, and lot acceptance testing of Plastic Encapsulated Discrete Semiconductors (PEDS) for use in space application environments. The scope of this document is intended for standard silicon based technology only, but the process and methodology described within can be adopted for other technologies such as Silicon Carbide, Gallium Nitride, and Gallium Arsenide. However, when non-silicon based technology parts are being used, the device characterization shall be modified, and it is recommended to use available industry standards based upon published research/testing reports for those technology to address applicable physics of failure.
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Double-Sided Si(Ge)/Sapphire/III-Nitride Hybrid Structures

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34888
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA Langley Research Center has developed a double-sided Si(Ge)/ Sapphire/III-Nitride hybrid structure. This technology uses both sides of a sapphire wafer to build device structures — on one side, making either Si or SiGe devices and on the other side, making III-Nitride device structures (e.g. GaN, InGaN, AlGaN).

Visualizing Motion of Water Molecules for Liquid-Based Electronics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34892
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering technique was used to measure the strong bond involving a hydrogen atom sandwiched between two oxygen atoms. This hydrogen bond is a quantum-mechanical phenomenon responsible for various properties of water, including viscosity, that determine a liquid's resistance to flow or to change shape.

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Requirements for Plastic Encapsulated Discrete Semiconductors in Military and Avionics Applications

CE-12 Solid State Devices
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6294/4
  • Current
Published 2019-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This standard documents and establishes common industry practices, and screening and qualification testing, of plastic encapsulated discrete semiconductors (PEDs) for use in military and avionics application environments.
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LED Signal and Marking Lighting Devices

Signaling and Marking Devices Stds Comm
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1889_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to functions of motor vehicle signaling and marking lighting devices which use light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources. This report provides test methods, requirements, and guidelines applicable to the special characteristics of LED lighting devices. This Recommended Practice is in addition to those required for devices designed with incandescent light sources. This report is intended to be a guide to standard practice and is subject to change to reflect additional experience and technical advances.
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Graphene-Silicon Devices for Optoelectronics Applications

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34628
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Silicon is a naturally occurring material commonly used as a semiconductor in electronic devices; however, researchers have exhausted the potential of devices with semiconductors made of silicon only. These devices are limited by silicon’s carrier mobility — the speed at which a charge moves through the material — and indirect bandgap, which limits its ability to release and absorb light.

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Standardized Symbols for Electrical Circuit Diagrams

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2221_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice identifies graphic symbols used in electrical circuit diagrams. The symbols aid troubleshooting electrical systems.
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