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Assessment of Squeak and Rattle Noise of a Car Seat Using 3D Sound Intensity Measurements

CTAG-Damian Gonzalez
Microflown Technologies-Daniel Fernandez Comesana, Tales Storani, Fanyu Meng PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1557
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Assessment of squeak and rattle noise of a car seat using 3D sound intensity measurements Squeak and Rattle (S&R) noises are transient sound events occurring when adjacent parts come into contact, either impacting or sliding. All components and sub-systems integrated in a vehicle may produce noise when excited with certain vibro-acoustic load. S&R noise can be linked to the perceived build quality, durability and even discomfort or annoyance. As a result, car manufacturers have strict regulations to prevent noise issues. Current vibro-acoustic validation tests can vary in complexity from full vehicle simulation to component level tests. Additionally, subjective assessments are often required to locate problematic areas and quantify their relevance. In this paper, S&R noise of a car seat is investigated using 3D sound intensity measurements. A multi-axial shaker is used to drive the seat with a short time-stationary excitation extracted from a road profile. Results show that both active and reactive intensity are very effective for assessing S&R problems. Furthermore, a methodology is proposed to localize the elements that produce a significant acoustic excitation…
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3D Audio Reproduction via Headrest equipped with Loudspeakers – Investigations on Acoustical Design Criteria

AUDIO MOBIL Elektronik GmbH-Thomas Hatheier
Inst. of Electronic Music and Acoustics-Manuel Brandner, Alois Sontacchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1567
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on the analysis and evaluation of acoustical design criteria to produce a plausible 3D sound field solely via headrest with integrated loudspeakers at the driver/passenger seats in the car cabin. Existing audio systems in cars utilize several distributed loudspeakers to support passengers with sound. Such configurations suffer from individual 3D audio information at each position. Therefore, we present a convincing minimal setup focusing sound solely at the passenger’s ears. The design itself plays a critical role for the optimal reproduction and control of a sound field for a specific 3D audio application. Moreover, the design facilitates the 3D audio reproduction of common channel-based, scene-based, and object-based audio formats. In addition, 3D audio reproduction enables to represent warnings regarding monitoring of the vehicle status (e.g.: seat belts, direction indicator, open doors, luggage compartment) in spatial accordance. Furthermore, individual sound zones enable superior in-car communication between seats regardless of the current driving situation. An often overlooked topic is the acoustical privacy of in-car systems towards the exterior especially during telephony which is also tackled…
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Seat Design Studies

Kettering University-Santhosh Sivan Kathiresan, Raghu Echempati
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1101
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, further studies have been carried out on the analysis and effect of certain design modifications on the structural integrity of an automotive seating rail structure. Automotive seating is one of the important component in the automotive industry due to their main function to carry the weight of passenger as well as to sustain the vibrations from the road. The seat structures are assembled to carry other important components such as side airbag and seatbelt systems. The entire seating is supported firmly and attached to the bottom bodywork of the vehicle through the linkage assembly called the seat rails. Seat rails are adjustable in their longitudinal motion which plays an important role in giving the passengers enough leg room to make them feel comfortable. Therefore, seat rails under the various operating conditions such as forward and normal positions should be able to withstand the complete weight of the human and the associated loads due to vibrations. In this paper, some of the functional requirements such as strength, stiffness, durability and crash performance are…
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CAE method Development for the Seat latch effort calculation in 2nd row Bench seats and optimization

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Ravi Purnoo Munuswamy
Ford Motor Co., Pvt., Ltd.-Arunachalam Muthupandian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1103
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are factors that can make installation of LATCH-equipped seats difficult or, in some cases, impossible. Customers are raising complaints on latching issues to automotive industry and in turn warranty issue cost more to the company. Therefore, automotive industries are spending lot of money on physical test and method development. At present, there is no such proven virtual test available for testing seat latch effort (passenger apply effort to do the latching). Since many industries concentrating more on developing new method using CAE approach for evaluate seat latching effort with less cost. So in this paper, authors are elaborating research on new method using CAE method LS dyna solver with Hypermesh preprocessor. Further deep dive on physical test data correlation with CAE method(virtual test) to verify the design verification efficiency. Also, from this test can able to estimate the effort easily and optimize seat latching performance.
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Multi-zone HAVC Development and Validation with Integrated Heated/Vented Seat Control

FCA US LLC-Murad Maghaireh, Michael Hoppe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1247
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle multi zone automatic Heating , Venting and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is the advanced form of the traditional air conditioning, the advantage of multi zone automatic HVAC is that it allows the passengers of a vehicle to set a desired temperature for their own zone within the vehicle compartment. This desired temperature is then maintained by the HVAC system, which determines how best to control the available environment data that leads to a higher comfort for the passengers. To achieve ultimate thermal comfort of the occupants in a vehicle, multi zone HVAC takes things a step further by adding heated, vented seats and, steering wheel to the HVAC controller hardware as well as strategies. The heating and cooling of the occupants by this more advance one integrated system is performed by complex control algorithms in form of embedded software programs and private LIN network. This paper describes the approach and tools used to develop, simulate and validate the one integrated climate control system. Included are 1- introduction of an integrated HVAC , steering wheel and…
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Characterization of Seat Lateral Support as a Mechanical Behavior

General Motors LLC-Bonita Thomas
OBannon Technologies-Terry O'Bannon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0870
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Seat lateral support is often talked about as a design parameter, but usually in terms of psychological perception. There are many difficulties in quantifying lateral support mechanically to the engineering teams: Anthropometric variation causes different people to interact with the seat in different places and at different angles, BPD studies are usually planar and don’t distinguish between horizontal support and vertical resistance to sinking in, most mechanical test systems are typically single-DOF and can’t apply vertical and horizontal loads concurrently, and there is scant literature describing the actual lateral loads occupants. In this study, we characterize the actual lateral loading on example seating (both driver and passenger, as passenger experience will become more important as autonomous vehicles evolve) from various sized/ shaped occupants according to dynamic pressure distribution. From this information, a six-DOF load and position control test robot (KUKA OccuBot) is used to replicate that pressure distribution. The effect of various sizes and shapes of indenters is explored. In the spirit of the appendix of SAE standard J2896, we suggest some standard mechanical test…
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Low-Energy Seat Compression: Characterizing Stiffness in Different Vehicles

Guidance Engineering-Bethany L. Suderman, Denise R. Cruise, Nicholas H. Yang, Edmund Lau, Lenka Stepan, Irving Scher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0527
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In rear-end collisions, occupants move rearward relative to the vehicle and into their seats. In low energy impacts, the stiffness of the non-frame seat components may influence the kinematic response of an occupant. Previous research has reported seat stiffness from experiments for a limited number of seats. Because passenger vehicle seats have evolved, this current work reports the range of seat stiffnesses for modern passenger vehicles. A portable measuring device to characterize vehicle seat stiffness was built to accommodate a wide range of vehicle types. The device measured simultaneously the force applied to the seat and the average deflection. Seats of a sedan, sports utility vehicle, minivan, pickup truck, and a utility van were tested using the device. For each seat, three measurements were taken for four different seat regions: lower seatback, upper seatback, fore seat bottom and aft seat bottom. The seat stiffness for each region was determined using a linear fit of the force-deflection curve generated during testing. The range of seat stiffness across all seat types was 6,588 to 22,215 N/m. The…
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Development of an Air support system for long-distance drive comfort

Hyundai Motor Company-Dongwoo Jeong, Seon Chae Na, Sangdo Park, Sangho Kim, Seungyoung Lee
Hyundai Transys-Inho Lee, Sunghoon Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0868
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Passenger fatigue during long distance driving is greatly influenced by the comfort performance of the seat and is one of the important performance of the seat. In order to satisfy this performance, it is determined by the appropriate contour of the seat and the appropriate pad with sufficient thickness and the frame supporting the pad and coverings. Recently, however, more parts such as ventilation seats and passenger detection sensors have taken up the pad In addition, The height of the vehicle have been lowered to enhance car styling, and battery for electric vehicle applied to the underbody of the vehicle, reducing the package space of seats in the vehicle. These external factors eventually lead to a reduced pad thickness of the seat cushion and exacerbate the most important cushioning in the seat cushion compartments, creating an uncomfortable cushioning problem when driving long distances. To improve the cushion composition of the seat within a limited package, air bladders are applied to the underside of the cushion pad. In addition, the function to support the buttocks using…
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Reduced Power Seat Heater System using Thermal Wave Technology

Hyundai Motor Group-Scott Ziolek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0872
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a method of controlling the seat heater using intentional oscillations between multiple, independently controlled temperatures (each with its own tolerance range). The amplitude and frequency of these oscillations can be changed based on secondary trigger events such as changes in the interior temperature. The benefits of using this technique to heat the seat surface are improved thermal sensation and reduced energy usage over the typical drive time.
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Development of an open source finite element adult model for seating discomfort investigation

Beihang University-Li Ding
Beihang University, Univ Lyon1, Univ Eiffel, IFSTTAR, LBMC-Shenghui Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0874
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To understand the causes of seating discomfort, computational finite element (FE) human body models (HBM) could be useful to estimate internal loads and soft tissue deformation, which cannot be easily measured experimentally. However, most existing models only represent a limited number of body sizes and postures and cannot be easily personalized and repositioned. Moreover, these models are proprietary and not publicly available, thus limiting the possibilities for research purposes. In recent years, an open source software package has been developed within the European project PIPER (available at www.piper-project.org), making it possible to personalize and to position an HBM used for crash injury simulation. In addition to the personalizing and positioning tools, a child model has also been developed and is also now available. The present study aims to derive an adult HBM to study seating discomfort from the PIPER child model using the PIPER personalizing tools and publicly available information concerning both external body dimensions and internal skeleton. The paper describes the model development approach, main encountered difficulties, and perspective of using such an approach…