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A Dynamic Fault Tree Approach for Time-Dependent Logical Modeling of Autonomous Flight Systems

Cobham Mission Systems Inc-John Wang
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper addresses the urgent need for adequate methodologies to use in analyzing autonomous flight systems, including Unmanned Aircraft. These systems are inherently dynamic and require analysis that is explicitly time dependent. Autonomous flight systems are becoming more commonly used, especially for Part 23 aircraft including Business (Corporate) and Regional Jets or Unmanned Aircraft deployed in hazardous environment/situation. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions under uncertain conditions caused by potential system structure changes when entering a new flight phase or switching to a new system configuration due to system degradation or failure(s) [1]. This paper highlights significant modeling errors that can arise in analyzing dynamic scenarios where these time dependencies are ignored. Model-based solutions are provided by incorporating a time-dependent algebraic formalism into Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Dependency Diagram (DD) with updated descriptions in SAE ARP4761A and ARP4754B (Note: These are currently under development). A Dynamic Goal Tree (or alternatively, a Dynamic Dependency Diagram) provides an effective implementation of the time-dependent logic for dynamic system analysis analyzing autonomous flight systems which…
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Characterizing the Safety of Automated Vehicles: Book 1 - Automated Vehicle Safety

Kettering Univ.-Juan R. Pimentel
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-203
Published 2019-03-07 by SAE International in United States
Safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles since safety has driven some of the most complex requirements in the development of self-driving vehicles. Recent fatal accidents involving self-driving vehicles have uncovered issues in the way some automated vehicle companies approach the design, testing, verification, and validation of their products. Traditionally, automotive safety follows functional safety concepts as detailed in the standard ISO 26262. However, automated driving safety goes beyond this standard and includes other safety concepts such as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) and multi-agent safety. Characterizing the Safety of Automated Vehicles addresses the concept of safety for self-driving vehicles through the inclusion of 10 recent and highly relevent SAE technical papers. Topics that these papers feature include functional safety, SOTIF, and multi-agent safety. As the first title in a series on automated vehicle safety, each will contain introductory content by the Editor with 10 SAE technical papers specifically chosen to illuminate the specific safety topic of that book.
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The Safety of Controllers, Sensors, and Actuators: Book 5 - Automated Vehicle Safety

Kettering Univ.-Juan R. Pimentel
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-207
Published 2019-03-07 by SAE International in United States
Safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles since safety has driven some of the most complex requirements in the development of self-driving vehicles. Recent fatal accidents involving self-driving vehicles have uncovered issues in the way some automated vehicle companies approach the design, testing, verification, and validation of their products. Traditionally, automotive safety follows functional safety concepts as detailed in the standard ISO 26262. However, automated driving safety goes beyond this standard and includes other safety concepts such as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) and multi-agent safety. The Safety of Controllers, Sensors, and Actuators addresses the concept of safety for self-driving vehicles through the inclusion of 10 recent and highly relevent SAE technical papers. Topics that these papers feature include risk reduction techniques in semiconductor-based systems, component certification, and safety assessment and audits for vehcicle components. As the fifth title in a series on automated vehicle safety, this contains introductory content by the Editor with 10 SAE technical papers specifically chosen to illuminate the specific…
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Multi-Agent Safety: Book 2 - Automated Vehicle Safety

Kettering Univ.-Juan R. Pimentel
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-204
Published 2019-03-07 by SAE International in United States
Safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles since safety has driven some of the most complex requirements in the development of self-driving vehicles. Recent fatal accidents involving self-driving vehicles have uncovered issues in the way some automated vehicle companies approach the design, testing, verification, and validation of their products. Traditionally, automotive safety follows functional safety concepts as detailed in the standard ISO 26262. However, automated driving safety goes beyond this standard and includes other safety concepts such as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) and multi-agent safety. Multi-Agent Safety addresses the concept of safety for self-driving vehicles through the inclusion of 10 recent and highly relevent SAE technical papers. Topics that these papers feature include vehicle interaction with other vehicles, pedestrians, bicyclists, and other road objects. As the second title in a series on automated vehicle safety, each will contain introductory content by the Editor with 10 SAE technical papers specifically chosen to illuminate the specific safety topic of that book.
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The Role of ISO 26262: Book 4 - Automated Vehicle Safety

Kettering Univ.-Juan R. Pimentel
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-206
Published 2019-03-07 by SAE International in United States
Safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles since safety has driven some of the most complex requirements in the development of self-driving vehicles. Recent fatal accidents involving self-driving vehicles have uncovered issues in the way some automated vehicle companies approach the design, testing, verification, and validation of their products. Traditionally, automotive safety follows functional safety concepts as detailed in the standard ISO 26262. However, automated driving safety goes beyond this standard and includes other safety concepts such as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) and multi-agent safety. The Role of ISO 26262 addresses the concept of safety for self-driving vehicles through the inclusion of 10 recent and highly relevent SAE technical papers. Topics that these papers feature include model-based systems engineering (MBSE) and the use of SysML language in a management-based approach to safety As the fourth title in a series on automated vehicle safety, this contains introductory content by the Editor with 10 SAE technical papers specifically chosen to illuminate the specific safety topic…
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Artificial Lightning Tests on Metal and CFRP Automotive Bodies: A Comparative Study

Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Japan-Hiroshi Makishima
Nippon Institute of Technology, Japan-Sultan A. Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Hiroyuki Shimizu
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0001
Published 2019-01-07 by SAE International in United States
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been used in automobiles as well as airplanes. Because of its light weight and high strength, CFRP is a good choice for making vehicle bodies lighter, which would improve fuel economy. Conventional metal bodies provide a convenient body return for electric wiring and offer good shielding against electromagnetic fields. Although CFRP is a conductor, its conductivity is much lower than that of metals. Therefore, CFRP bodies are usually not useful for electric wiring. In thunderstorms, an automotive body is considered to be a Faraday cage that protects the vehicle’s occupants from the potential harms of lightning. Before CFRP becomes widely applied to automotive bodies, its electric and electromagnetic properties need to be investigated in order to determine whether it also works as a Faraday cage against lightning. In this article, CFRP and metal body vehicles were tested under artificial lightning. The electric discharging caused by the artificial lightning in the vehicles was investigated under different grounding conditions. A CFRP roof plate and a CFRP box mimicking vehicle cabin were…
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Safety Assessment of Transport Airplanes in Commercial Service

S-18C ARP5150A and ARP5151A Working Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5150A
  • Current
Published 2019-01-02 by SAE International in United States
This document describes guidelines, methods, and tools used to perform the ongoing safety assessment process for transport airplanes in commercial service (hereafter, termed “airplane”). The process described herein is intended to support an overall safety management program. It is associated with showing compliance with the regulations, and also with assuring a company that it meets its own internal standards. The methods identify a systematic means, but not the only means, to assess ongoing safety. While economic decision-making is an integral part of the safety management process, this document addresses only the ongoing safety assessment process. To put it succinctly, this document addresses the “Is it safe?” part of safety management; it does not address the “How much does it cost?” part of the safety management. This document also does not address any specific organizational structures for accomplishing the safety assessment process. While the nature of the organizational structure is significant to the quality of a safety program, this document focuses on the functions to be accomplished and does not attempt to define what the structure…
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Editorial: Trust, testing and transition

Editorial Director-Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP01_01
Published 2019-01-01 by SAE International in United States

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering is still a “young” magazine, but this issue's contents might represent its most eclectic collection of ideas yet. Reflecting the increasingly diverse spectrum of thought regarding automated driving, not everything you read here this month is what you'd call optimistic.

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SAE J1939 Functional Safety Communications Protocol

Truck Bus Control and Communications Network Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1939-76_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-26 by SAE International in United States
This document provides the technical requirements for implementing the SAE J1939 Functional Safety Communication Protocol in a manner determined suitable for meeting industry applicable functional safety standards.
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Introduction to Automated Vehicle Safety: Multi-Agent, Functional Safety, and SOTIF

  • Professional Development
  • WB1890
Published 2018-11-07

Fatal accidents involving automated vehicles have made it clear that safety is paramount to their acceptance, testing, verification, validation, and deployment. In fact, safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles, and understandably so, since safety has some of the most complex requirements in the development of such vehicles. However, there are many misconceptions involving safety and the concept of safety as applied to automated vehicles.