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Safety (24976) Crashes (6470) Design Engineering and Styling (6290) Protective systems (6176) Crash research (5766) Human Factors and Ergonomics (5516) Safety testing and procedures (5367) Tests and Testing (5206) Injuries (4566) Vehicles and Performance (3785) Power and Propulsion (3542) Electrical, Electronics, and Avionics (3402) Simulation and modeling (3004) Impact tests (2811) Restraint systems (2695) Parts and Components (2643) Parts (2607) Occupant protection (2332) Materials (2286) Crashworthiness (2086) Interiors, Cabins, and Cockpits (2000) Engines (1995) Fluid power systems (1980) Vehicles (1979) Hydraulic systems (1961) Bodies and Structures (1901) Environment (1891) Anthropometric test devices (1817) Analysis methodologies (1802) Certification (1773) Human factors (1765) Maintenance and Aftermarket (1520) Hazards and emergency operations (1482) Biomechanics (1374) Safety belts (1336) Vehicle occupants (1308) Chassis (1284) Manufacturing (1283) Computer simulation (1146) Age groups (1035) Finite element analysis (1004) Exteriors (982) Electrical, Electronics and Avionics (964) Management and Organization (944) Collision avoidance systems (941) Engine cooling systems (897) Transportation Systems (890) Fuels and Energy Sources (871) Fittings (842) Vehicle dynamics (830)

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Viano, David C. (103) King, Albert I. (71) Tarriere, C. (71) Got, C. (66) Reed, Matthew P. (65) Yoganandan, Narayan (65) Prasad, Priya (63) Eppinger, Rolf H. (62) Patel, A. (62) Guenther, Dennis A. (61) Ono, Koshiro (60) Crandall, Jeff (58) Schneider, Lawrence W. (58) Mackay, G. M. (57) Cesari, D. (56) Yang, King H. (54) Langwieder, K. (53) Chou, Clifford C. (52) Pintar, Frank A. (52) Nagai, Masao (51) Fayon, A. (50) Huelke, Donald F. (48) Tarrière, C. (48) Mizuno, Koji (47) Rouhana, Stephen W. (47) Takahashi, Yukou (46) Melvin, John W. (45) Crandall, Jeff R. (44) Trosseille, Xavier (44) Digges, Kennerly (43) Matsui, Yasuhiro (43) Wismans, J. (41) Cesari, Dominique (40) Ishikawa, Hirotoshi (40) Tyan, Tau (40) Day, Terry D. (39) Digges, Kennerly H. (39) Morgan, Richard M. (39) Nusholtz, Guy S. (39) Warner, Charles Y. (38) Appel, H. (37) Kent, Richard (36) Otte, Dietmar (36) Thomas, C. (34) Tingvall, Claes (34) Yasuki, Tsuyoshi (34) Nusholtz, Guy (31) Gabler, Hampton C. (30) Otte, D. (30) Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn (30)

Publishers

SAE (14947) NHTSA (2188) JSAE (1665) TBMG (942) AAAM (917) IRCOBI (763) I MECH E (421) STAPP (387) ISATA (382) VDI (296) IAATM (198) RAS (175) CTEA (153) HFES (143) KSAE (138) SIA (137) ATA (107) FICT (102) ARAI (99) IBEC (60) SAEA (54) ITS (48) GPO (45) SAEC (27) UMIN (26) SAEITC (23) JUMV (21) OMKDK (20) TUB (20) WSU (18) SAGE (16) IATO (8) Lawyers (8) JGA (7) UNISA (6) CNR (5) Wiley (5) Honda (4) SupplierB (4) Bosch (3) AVL (2) CEC (2) TRD (2) ABOUT (1) ASHGATE (1) CRCP (1) NOSTARCH (1) PEP (1) SSS (1)

Affiliations

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (417) Ford Motor Co. (254) Ford Motor Company (250) Japan Automobile Research Institute (247) Toyota Motor Corp. (162) General Motors Corp. (140) Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (138) University of Michigan (136) University of Virginia (133) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (115) Honda R&D Co., Ltd. (106) Chalmers University of Technology (95) Wayne State University (92) Wayne State Univ. (85) Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (75) University of Birmingham (69) Toyota Motor Corporation (68) Transport Canada (65) Volvo Car Corp. (65) Robert Bosch GmbH (64) Volkswagen AG (60) Mitsubishi Motors Corp. (57) INRETS (56) Nagoya Univ. (54) NASA Langley Research Center (53) National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (51) Nihon Univ. (50) Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (50) Chrysler Corp. (49) General Motors Corporation (49) NASA Johnson Space Center (49) Renault (48) University of California (46) National Research Institute of Police Science (45) Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. (45) University of Heidelberg (45) Mazda Motor Corp. (43) Federal Aviation Administration (42) George Washington Univ. (42) Peugeot-Renault Association (42) Calspan Corp. (40) Delphi Corporation (39) Loughborough University of Technology (39) The Ohio State University (39) TNO Automotive (39) The University of Michigan (38) CEESAR (37) Keio Univ. (37) NASA Ames Research Center (37)

Committees

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies (1673) A-4 Aircraft Instruments Committee (160) A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee (139) AGE-3 Aircraft Ground Support Equipment Committee (136) S-9 Cabin Safety Provisions Committee (113) AE-1 Engine Accessory Installations Committee (110) AGE-2 Air Cargo (106) AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee (96) S-7 Flight Deck Handling Qualities Stds for Trans Aircraft (69) Cranes and Lifting Devices Committee (67) OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General) (62) AGE-4 Packaging, Handling and Transportability Committee (59) Truck Crashworthiness Committee (50) A-20AC Crew Station and Interior Lighting Committee (44) A-6C1 Contamination and Filtration Committee (44) VIN - WMI Technical Committee (44) OPTC4, Protective Structures (43) Aircraft SEAT Committee (42) Seat Belt Systems Standards Committee (42) HFTC4, Operator Seating and Ride (41) Fuel Systems Standards Committee (38) Impact and Rollover Test Proced Stds Comm (38) Human Accom and Design Devices Stds Comm (35) HFTC1, Controls, Visibility, Anthropometrics, Accessibility (34) A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee (32) AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Committee (28) G-12ADF Aircraft Deicing Fluids (27) E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems (26) Dummy Testing and Equipment Committee (25) Inflatable Restraints Committee (25) E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management (24) S-9B Cabin Interiors and Furnishings Committee (24) Signaling and Marking Devices Stds Comm (24) A-5 Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Committee (23) HFTC2, Machine Displays and Symbols (23) A-5A Wheels, Brakes and Skid Controls Committee (22) A-6C4 Power Sources Committee (22) Driver Vision Standards Committee (22) Safety Test Instrumentation Stds Comm (22) G-12RDF Runway De icing Fluids (21) Snowmobile Technical Committee (21) A-20B Exterior Lighting Committee (20) Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee (20) A-20C Interior Lighting (19) AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee (19) Agricultural Tractor Standards Committee (ATSC) (19) ARINC IA (19) Glazing Materials Standards Committee (18) Spark Arrester Standards Committee (18) G-12HOT Holdover Time Committee (16)

Events

International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (1944) International Congress & Exposition (962) American Association for Automotive Medicine, Annual Meeting (798) International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts (763) SAE International Congress and Exposition (659) JSAE Spring Conference (563) SAE World Congress & Exhibition (556) JSAE Autumn Conference (492) International Conference On Environmental Systems (298) SAE 2005 World Congress & Exhibition (259) SAE 2006 World Congress & Exhibition (237) International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (224) SAE 2004 World Congress & Exhibition (195) SAE 2010 World Congress & Exhibition (192) Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition (187) International Body Engineering Conference & Exposition (160) SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition (149) SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition (143) Stapp Car Crash Conference (143) SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition (141) SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition (138) SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition (136) SAE 2002 World Congress & Exhibition (131) SAE 2001 World Congress (130) SAE 2012 World Congress & Exhibition (129) SAE 2003 World Congress & Exhibition (128) WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (122) International Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (120) Passenger Car Meeting & Exposition (120) SAE 2000 World Congress (115) WCX World Congress Experience (115) International Conference on Traffic Safety (113) Motorsports Engineering Conference & Exposition (108) ISATA 1993 (104) World Aviation Congress & Exposition (103) Future Transportation Technology Conference & Exposition (102) Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering Symposium (90) Advances In Aviation Safety Conference & Exposition (84) ISATA 1997 (81) Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference (79) SAE 2015 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures (77) SAE 2011 International Conference on Aircraft and Engine Icing and Ground Deicing (70) International Truck & Bus Meeting & Exposition (68) SAE Government Industry Meeting and Exposition (67) 2005 Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering Symposium (64) National Automobile Engineering Meeting (64) JSAE Spring Meeting (62) 2004 JSAE Annual Congress (59) International Automobile Safety Conference (59) 12th World Congress of the International Association for Accident and Traffic Medicine and 7th Nordic Congress on Traffic Medicine (1992) (58)

Magazine

Automotive Engineering® (31) Aerospace & Defense™ Technology (19) MOBILITY ENGINEERING™ AUTOMOTIVE, AEROSPACE, OFF-HIGHWAY (12) Off-Highway Engineering® (5) MOMENTUM The Magazine for Student Members of SAE International® (2) Digital Aerospace Engineering,® (1) Digital Aerospace Engineering® (1) Digital Aerospace Engineering™ (1) MOBILITY ENGINEERING™ ENGLISH QUARTERLY (1) Off-Highway Engineering™ (1) Truck & Off-Highway Engineering™ (1)

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

  • Journal
  • V127-9EJ
Published 2018-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the Journal

Mechanical Retractor Noise Evaluation on Electrodynamic Shaker: Test Procedure

  • ZF Group - Kai-Ulrich Machens, Jens Scholz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1532
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Modern vehicles are driven with various speeds over specific rough road tracks to detect the presence of annoying buzz, squeak and rattle sounds. As known in the occupant safety industry, the mechanical locking systems of seat belt retractors can be significant noise sources when excited by road vibrations. Along with the retractor integration into the vehicle (interface stiffness, efficiency of trims) the retractors affinity to rattle has an important impact on the perceived loudness. A reliable bench test procedure is necessary to quantify the acoustic performance of retractors, verify production quality, and derive realistic acoustic product targets. The vibration input in this specification has been defined as a horizontal 60Hz bandlimited broadband excitation, while the N10 instationary loudness metric has been selected to characterize the retractor acoustic performance. A single load case along with a single value linear metric have been found to adequately characterize retractor noise without added test complexity. This publication offers a developed test procedure to the automotive industry, with the potential to reduce the number of retractor noise procedures currently in…

Seat belt retractor noise test correlation to 2DOF shaker test and real vehicle comfort

  • VIRTUAL VEHICLE - Johann Payer, Maximilian Amort, Josef Girstmaier, Eugene Nijman
  • BMW AG - Florian Ober
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1507
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Seatbelt retractors as important part of modern safety systems are mounted in any automotive vehicle. Their internal locking mechanism is based on mechanically sensing elements. When the vehicle is run over rough road tracks, the retractor oscillates by spatial mode shapes and its interior components are subjected to vibrations in all six degrees of freedoms. Functional backlash of sensing elements cause impacts with neighbouring parts and leads to weak, but persistent rattle sound, being often rated acoustically annoying in the vehicle. Current acoustic retractor bench tests use exclusively uni-directional excitations. Therefore, a silent 2 DOF test bench is developed to investigate the effect of multi-dimensional excitation on retractor acoustics, combining two slip-tables, each driven independently by a shaker. Tests on this prototype test bench show, that cross coupling between the two perpendicular directions is less than 1%, allowing to control both directions independently. The setup generates low idle noise and is free of resonances up to 150 Hz. N10 loudness readings from combined horizontal - vertical parameter scans with varying ratios and levels reveal the…

Experimental and numerical study on speaker design of active pedestrian alerting system (APAS) in hybrid and pure electric vehicles

  • Hyundai Motor Company - Jinmo Lee, Kang-Duck Ih, Jung-Keun You, Jinseok Hong
  • MSC - Xavier Robin, Gai Vo Thi
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1550
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
APAS refers to a low speed sound warning system of electric driven vehicles, which emits alerting sound only to target pedestrians by sound focusing techniques with array of speakers and object detective camera. In the present study, experimental and numerical investigations are conducted in designing speaker part and array of APAS with consideration of three main performance matrices; HEV/EV warning sound regulations in Europe and U.S., pedestrian awareness, and driver's noise comfort. The present APAS speaker consists of back enclosure, wave guide and front grill. Each of these components plays an important role for characterizing frequency emphasis and sound directivity. The main impedance frequencies of the speaker are determined by considering warning sound regulations and also by analyzing acoustic frequency response at in/outside of a vehicle. As a result, the dimensions of the speaker components are designed to be capable of satisfying warning sound regulations and to radiate more pedestrian perceptive sound with smaller noise influence to a driver. The test and simulation results of the actual speaker prototype are found to agree well with…

Robustness and reliability enhancement on retractor noise testing, from development considerations to round robin

  • ZF Group - Jens Scholz
  • Virtual Vehicle Competence Center - Maximilian Amort, Johann Payer
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1533
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Sensing and acting elements to guarantee the locking functions of seat belt retractors can emit noise when the retractor is subjected to externally applied excitations. For these elements to function correctly, stiffness, inertia and friction needs to be in tune, leading to a complex non-behavior of motion, which makes it delicate to test for vibration induced noise. Requirements for a noise test are simplicity, robustness, repeatability, and independence of laboratory and test equipment. This paper reports on the joint development process for an alternative test procedure, involving three test laboratories with different equipment. In vehicle observation on parcel shelf mounted retractors, commercially available test equipment, and recent results from multi-axial component tests [1], set the frame for this work. Robustness and reliability of test results is being analyzed by means sensitivity studies on several test parameters. This work results in a proposal for a general test procedure [2] that allows to characterize at best the noise emitted by the inner components of retractors, being independent from vehicle specific information, but providing a maximum of repeatability…

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of seatbelt retractors in the vehicle supporting an acoustical optimal retractor integration by CAE

  • Virtual Vehicle Research Center - Thomas Schaffner, Josef Girstmair
  • ZF Group, Active & Passive Safety, OSS - Jens Neumann
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1543
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle integration of seatbelt retractors is from an acoustical point of view a real challenge, which has to start early during the vehicle development process. Buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak but disturbing interior noise. The inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is excited by street surface irregularities, which can be amplified by structural resonances and generates a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for the early development phase to predict the contact of the retractor to the console and the noise relevant low frequency local modes via the finite element method. These results are compared to measurements of the contact pattern and experimentally evaluated eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. The influences of deviations of retractor frame and console onto the contact pattern are shown. Counter measures like dimples and felts are analyzed with regard to an improved robustness of the mounting situation and to increased lowest associated eigenfrequency.
new

Plain Bearing Selection for Landing Gear Applications

  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1594D
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

This document is intended to give advisory information for the selection of plain bearings and bearing materials most suitable for aircraft landing gear applications. Information included herein was derived from bearing tests and service experience/reports. Airframe/landing gear manufacturers, commercial airlines, the U.S. Air Force and Naval Air Systems Command provided input for the document.

new

FITTING, ELBOW, 90°, STANDARD AND REDUCER, FLARED, 37° SPHERICAL

  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6099A
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.

new

HOSE ASSEMBLY, PTFE, CRES REINFORCED, 3000 PSI, 400 °F, STRAIGHT TO 45°, FLARELESS, LIGHTWEIGHT

  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS116H
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.

new

FITTING, CROSS, STANDARD AND REDUCER, 37° SPHERICAL, FLARED

  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6103A
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.