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Mechanical Behavior of Representative Volume Element Specimens of Lithium-Ion Battery Modules without and with Electrolyte under Quasi-Static and Dynamic In-Plane Compressive Loading Conditions

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Michigan, USA-Eui Seop Kim, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
University of Ulsan, Republic of Korea-Sung-Tae Hong
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0014
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
Small rectangular representative volume element (RVE) specimens of lithium-ion battery modules without and with electrolyte were tested under quasi-static and dynamic in-plane constrained compressive loading conditions. Effects of electrolyte and loading rate on the compressive behavior of RVE specimens were examined. The test results show that the average buckling stress of the specimens with electrolyte is higher than that of the specimens without electrolyte under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The test results also show that the average buckling stress of the specimens under dynamic loading conditions is higher than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions, without or with the presence of electrolyte in the specimens. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress of the specimens due to electrolyte under dynamic loading conditions is more than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress for the specimens with electrolyte from the quasi-static to dynamic loading conditions is more than that for the specimens without electrolyte.
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‘Road Race’ for AV Testing May Be Slowing

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP05_10
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

To optimize safety, as well as cost- and time-efficiency, experts espouse increased virtual testing of autonomous vehicles as preferable to the industry's rush to test on public roads.

Chris Hoyle, technical director of software specialist rFpro, believes the race by auto and technology companies to be ahead of competitor programs involving autonomous vehicle (AV) testing on public roads is losing momentum.

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A Trajectory-Based Method for Scenario Analysis and Test Effort Reduction for Highly Automated Vehicle

Tsinghua University-Yunlong Qi, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li, Wei Kong, Yongsheng Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Unlike the test of passive safety of traditional vehicles, highly automated vehicles (HAV) need more capabilities to be tested. Besides, there are more parameter combinations for the scenarios that need to be tested for each capability, resulting in a high time-consuming and costs for the autonomous vehicle tests. This paper proposes a method for scenario analysis and test effort reduction. Firstly, the trajectories of the vehicle under test (VUT) in the scenario are analyzed, and the trajectories which lead to the test mission failure are obtained. Based on the above trajectories, the threshold that lead to the test mission failure, or a combination of thresholds are analyzed. The above thresholds or a combination of thresholds values are defined as Scenario Character Parameter (SCP). The process of the analysis of the SCPs are related to the abilities of the HAV, but does not depend on the specific algorithm of the HAV. Therefore, through the above analysis of trajectories and SCPs, the ability of the scenario to measure the performance of HAVs can be quantized. After completing…
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FRED II Quasistatic Seat Testing Rearward: An Improved Method Based on the SAE H-point Manikin

Collision Research & Analysis Inc.-Samuel White
Ford Motor Company-Roger Burnett
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Various methods have been used to load a seat in the rear direction, including FMVSS 207, assorted body blocks and QST (quasistatic seat test). However, each method lacks some critical aspect of occupant loading of the seat or is too complex for routine development work. A new method is presented to determine the strength and energy transfer of a seat to an occupant in rear impacts that reflects how an occupant interacts with the seat in a rear impact. A metal-cast H-point manikin, called FRED II, was modified to support a loading bar and was pulled rearward into the seatback by a hydraulic ram. The force and displacement of the loading and the inboard and outboard seatback angle were measured. The response of the seat was recorded by video. The moment about the recliner pivot at peak force was determined by aligning the center of the recliner in side views of the seat position initially and at peak load. The height of the cable above the center of the recliner was determined giving the moment…
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Determination of Validation Testing Scenarios for an ADAS Functionality: Case Study

ZF-Oleg Kirovskii
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As the engineering community continues working on automated driving (AD) functionalities, the topic of safety validation still provides fuel for discussions. Despite the vehicles equipped with higher level AD functionalities ready to enter service on public roads, there is still no state-of-the-art process created for safety validation procedures. In this situation, vehicles with similar functionalities may end up coming through fundamentally different validation procedure, and the public may be exposed to additional risks.This paper fist formulates requirements which safety validation process needs to fulfill. The requirements are based on ISO 26262, PAS 21448 (SOTIF), and the state of the art requirements typical for safety applications. Then, the process of implementation of those requirements is sketched.
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Study on a Method for Evaluating the Safety of the Braking Control Algorithm for Automated Driving System When Following

National Traffic Safety and Environment-Masato Gokan, Nobuhisa Tanaka, Yoshimi Furukawa, Tunetoshi Iwase, Taichi Hirowatari
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study is to develop a method for evaluating the safety of the braking control algorithm for automated driving under mixed traffic flow of automated driving system and vehicles driven by drivers. We consider that the automated driving system should be controlled such that it blends in with mixed traffic. Therefore, in evaluating the safety of braking control for the automated driving system when following, the influence of the automated driving system on the driver of the following vehicle is an important evaluation index.First, we analyzed past traffic accidents in Japan to determine a suitable traffic environment for evaluating the safety of the braking control algorithm for the automated driving system when following.Second, the driver’s braking operations were measured using actual vehicles in this situation. We developed a method of generating sample algorithms of braking control based on the driver’s braking operations.Finally, we developed a method of identifying the most suitable range of parameters of braking control algorithms by evaluating these sample algorithms based on the results of actual experiments.This evaluation method…
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A Fault Tolerant Time Interval Process for Functional Safety Development

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Daniel Denomme, Sam Hooson
kVA-James Winkelman
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
During development of complex automotive technologies, a significant engineering effort is often dedicated to ensuring the safe performance of these systems. An important aspect to consider when assessing the viability of different safety designs or strategies is the time period from the occurrence of a fault to the violation of a Safety Goal (SG). This time period is commonly referred to as the Fault Tolerant Time Interval (FTTI). In Automotive Safety, ISO 26262 [1] calls for the identification and appropriate partitioning of the FTTI, however very little guidance is provided on how to do this. This paper presents a process, covering the entire safety development lifecycle, for the identification of timing constraints and the development of associated requirements necessary to prevent Safety Goal violations.
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Enabling Efficient Functional Safety Audits - The Missing Link between ISO 26262 and Automotive SPICE

Dyson Technology Ltd.-Ireri Ibarra
Volvo Group-Per Johannessen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the field of electric and electronic (E/E) design for the automotive industry, there are separate traditions related to functional safety and software quality assurance. Both relying on the evaluation of the processes used; Automotive SPICE provides detailed guidance on how to perform this evaluation whilst ISO 26262 does not and simply mention Automotive SPICE as one possible solution. ISO 26262 additionally requires for an evaluation of the functional safety achieved by the product and uses the process evaluation (or functional safety audit in ISO 26262 terms) to support the final functional safety assessment. The purpose is to evaluate the implementation of the necessary safety processes according to the claimed scope defined in the safety plan.Automotive SPICE does not make a distinction on whether the application of the software under evaluation is safety related or not. ISO 26262 requires formal functional safety audits as a minimum for the part of the life cycle activities related to elements having ASIL C and ASIL D requirementsIn this paper we show how the link between ISO 26262 and…
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AD-EYE: A Co-Simulation Platform for Early Verification of Functional Safety Concepts

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Naveen Mohan, Martin Törngren
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated Driving is revolutionizing many of the traditional ways of operation in the automotive industry. The impact on safety engineering of automotive functions is arguably one of the most important changes. There has been a need to re-think the impact of the partial or complete absence of the human driver (in terms of a supervisory entity) in not only newly developed functions but also in the qualification of the use of legacy functions in new contexts. The scope of the variety of scenarios that a vehicle may encounter even within a constrained Operational Design Domain, and the highly dynamic nature of Automated Driving, mean that new methods such as simulation can greatly aid the process of safety engineering.This paper discusses the need for early verification of the Functional Safety Concepts (FSCs), details the information typically available at this stage in the product lifecycle, and proposes a co-simulation platform named AD-EYE designed for exploiting the possibilities in an industrial context by evaluating design decisions and refining Functional Safety Requirements based on a reusable scenario database.Leveraging our…
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Characterizing the Safety of Automated Vehicles: Book 1 - Automated Vehicle Safety

Kettering Univ.-Juan R. Pimentel
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-203
Published 2019-03-07 by SAE International in United States
Safety has been ranked as the number one concern for the acceptance and adoption of automated vehicles since safety has driven some of the most complex requirements in the development of self-driving vehicles. Recent fatal accidents involving self-driving vehicles have uncovered issues in the way some automated vehicle companies approach the design, testing, verification, and validation of their products. Traditionally, automotive safety follows functional safety concepts as detailed in the standard ISO 26262. However, automated driving safety goes beyond this standard and includes other safety concepts such as safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) and multi-agent safety. Characterizing the Safety of Automated Vehicles addresses the concept of safety for self-driving vehicles through the inclusion of 10 recent and highly relevent SAE technical papers. Topics that these papers feature include functional safety, SOTIF, and multi-agent safety. As the first title in a series on automated vehicle safety, each will contain introductory content by the Editor with 10 SAE technical papers specifically chosen to illuminate the specific safety topic of that book.
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