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Analysis of occupant dynamics and optimization of Driver airbag performance against all FMVSS208 frontal impact cases using validated Finite element Methodology

Key Safety Systems Inc.-Sumit Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2545
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Several people die every year due to vehicle accidents. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) are U.S. federal regulations stating design, structure, performance, and durability necessities for vehicles. The objective of a crash test for FMVSS No. 208 is to measure how well a passenger vehicle would protect its occupants in the event of a frontal crash. FMVSS 208 consists of series of tests including different impact surface type as well as occupant sizes. It also covers the belted and unbelted occupant behavior at the time of front impact. Each test scenario has different ways to injure the occupant. Airbags are the part of passive safety equipment family in any automobile and play an imperative role to reduce the occupant head and chest injuries at the time of crash or accidents. This study covers the evaluation of airbag performance in all FMVSS 208 load cases using validated Finite Element Methodology (FEM). Finite Element Analysis (FAE) is an advanced tool to simulate the airbag behavior. Airbag deployment phenomena is very complex in nature and depend on…

Evaluation of Harness Tightening Procedures for Child Restraint System (CRS) Sled Testing

Ohio State University-Julie Mansfield, Gretchen Baker, John Bolte
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Sled testing procedures should reflect a rigorous level of repeatability across trials and reproducibility across testing facilities. Currently, different testing facilities use various methods to set the harness tension for child restraint system (CRS) sled tests. The objective of this study is to identify which harness tightening procedure(s) produce tensions within a reasonable target range while showing adequate reproducibility, repeatability, and ease-of-use. Five harness tightening procedures were selected: A) FMVSS 213 procedure, B) a 3-prong tension gauge, C) ECE R44/R129 procedure, D) two finger method, and E) pinch test. Two CRS models were instrumented with a tension load cell in the harness system. Seven sled room operators were recruited to perform each of the five harness tightening procedures for ten repetitions apiece on both instrumented CRS using a Hybrid III 3-year-old. The static harness tension measured by the load cell was recorded after each procedure was completed. Data were analyzed for mean, variance, reproducibility, and repeatability. Operator feedback surveys were used to quantify ease-of-use.The ECE R44/R129 procedure produced harness tensions which were quite low. The…
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Sensor Selection for Selective Clutch Fault Isolation in Automatic Transmissions Based on Degree of Fault Tolerance

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Majed Mohammed, Richard Hathaway, Abigail A. Henning
Ohio State University-Eeshan Vijay Deosthale, Qadeer Ahmed, Giorgio Rizzoni
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Multiple clutches are engaged to achieve a specific gear ratio in an automatic transmission (AT). When an engaged clutch loses pressure during the AT operation, it is classified as a clutch stuck off fault. Automatic transmissions can enter in neutral states because of these faults and the vehicle can lose power at the wheels. Our previous work describes a systematic way of performing sensor placement analysis for diagnosis of clutch faults in automatic transmissions. In this paper, we approach the issue from the point of view similar to that of functional safety according to the ISO 26262 standard; where a transmission functional safety concept should address transitioning to a safe state in case of hazards associated with stuck off clutches. We try to address the questions whether all the faults really need to be isolated from each other and whether it is possible to isolate only a subset of faults to reduce the number of required sensors and still maintain a reasonable performance/safety. A way to classify clutch faults based on fault tolerant actions and…
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Functional Application, Regulatory Requirements and Their Future Opportunities for Lighting of Automated Driving Systems

Lumileds-Helmut Tiesler-Wittig
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated Driving Systems (ADS) are now at start to initiate a change of the human mobility and usage of vehicles.The safe and non-disruptive integration of automated vehicles into “normal” traffic will ask for a new way of communication between the vehicles and their environment. Similar to the existing signal lights, dedicated ADS signals can play a major role in this communication, in a passive way e.g. as tail light (to be seen) or in an active mode beyond turn indicators or stop lights.Recent publications show high attention on the automation of vehicles - traffic density as well customer comfort is driving the development towards more autonomy and intense usage of human-machine interfaces to increase effectiveness of transportation. Vehicle lighting in this field will take a natural functionality - both to see and to be seen needs to be updated to the future needs of the application. Especially during the decade of a mixed traffic situation, lighting needs to take more communication functionality than before. As most of human sensing is based on visual recognition, lighting…
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FMVSS 126 Sine with Dwell ESC Regulation Test for Autonomous Vehicles

Ohio State University-Evan Lowe, Sheng Zhu, Bilin Aksun Guvenc, Levent Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Electronic stability control (ESC) has been an essential part of road vehicle safety for almost three decades. In April of 2007, the United States federal government issued a regulation to test the validity of ESC in development vehicles, and the regulation is called Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 126 in North America (NA), and an equivalent test in other countries outside of NA called ECE13-H (Economic Commission for Europe). While these standards have been used to certify ESC in development passenger cars for over a decade, this has not yet been scrutinized for the application of autonomous vehicles. Autonomous cars have sensors and control systems which can be used to improve ESC, where commercial standard vehicles do not. In this manuscript, we explored how an autonomous vehicle could complete the FMVSS 126 regulation, on its own, without a human driver, and discussed whether the FMVSS 126 (also called Sine with Dwell) test remains a useful regulation for autonomous cars. Additionally, we described a potential general obstacle avoidance capability assessment (GOACA) which could be a…
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Enabling Efficient Functional Safety Audits - The Missing Link between ISO 26262 and Automotive SPICE

Dyson Technology Ltd.-Ireri Ibarra
Volvo Group-Per Johannessen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the field of electric and electronic (E/E) design for the automotive industry, there are separate traditions related to functional safety and software quality assurance. Both relying on the evaluation of the processes used; Automotive SPICE provides detailed guidance on how to perform this evaluation whilst ISO 26262 does not and simply mention Automotive SPICE as one possible solution. ISO 26262 additionally requires for an evaluation of the functional safety achieved by the product and uses the process evaluation (or functional safety audit in ISO 26262 terms) to support the final functional safety assessment. The purpose is to evaluate the implementation of the necessary safety processes according to the claimed scope defined in the safety plan.Automotive SPICE does not make a distinction on whether the application of the software under evaluation is safety related or not. ISO 26262 requires formal functional safety audits as a minimum for the part of the life cycle activities related to elements having ASIL C and ASIL D requirementsIn this paper we show how the link between ISO 26262 and…
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Color Specification

Lighting Standard Practices Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J578_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard defines and provides a means for the control of colors employed in motor vehicle external lighting equipment, including lamps and reflex reflectors. The document applies to the overall effective color of light emitted by the device in any given direction, and not to the color of the light from a small area of the lens. It does not apply to pilot, indicator, or tell-tale lights.
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Summary of Stop Lamp-Related Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and NHTSA Interpretations, Relative to ATC, Stability Control Interventions, Engine Retarders/Exhaust Brakes

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2963_201810
  • Current
Published 2018-10-02 by SAE International in United States
Provide previous stop light activation research into single document for future reference. Relevant documents and interpretations noted in Table 1.
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How to Specify Intrinsically Safe Remote Monitoring Sensor Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32866
Published 2018-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Wireless sensor networks frequently operate in hazardous areas where explosive atmospheres pose a safety risk to equipment and operators. The design of these systems must follow National Electrical Code (NEC), Canadian Electrical Code (CEC), and IEC/CENELEC installation requirements for Intrinsically Safe (I.S.) systems.


Predictive Estimation of Side Pole Impact Dummy Response Based on Linear Impactor SAB Performance

Fiat Chrysler Automobile-Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Jianping Wu, Brian Beaudet, Hamid Keshtkar
Published 2018-06-18 by SAE International in United States
This article discusses steps to predictively estimate the responses of Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) in a side impact event, based on a Side Airbag (SAB) Force-Deformation (F-D) characteristics derived from the linear impactor test. A critical load management challenge that has been used to assess this predictive response process is the oblique pole impact test - part of the FMVSS 214 protocol. In this scenario, the ATD is assumed to have a free travel until it is stopped by the crushed and stacked up door against the rigid pole. Three critical energy management paths involved to manage the kinetic energy of the ATD at impact are assumed at the onset, namely, the door trim crush, ATD torso loading and most important efficient energy management of the SAB at a controlled force level. The SAB energy management is assumed critical and tied with the final response of the test ATD. In the study being reported, the amount of energy absorbed by the SAB and the reaction force of the SAB are used to predictively estimate the…
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