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An Approach to Verification of Interference Concerns for Multicore Systems (CAST-32A)

Rapita Systems, Inc., Ltd.-Steven H. VanderLeest, Christos Evripidou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0016
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The avionics industry is moving towards the use of multicore systems to meet the demands of modern avionics applications. In multicore systems, interference can affect execution timing behavior, including worst case execution time (WCET), as identified in the FAA CAST-32A position paper. Examining and verifying the effects of interference is critical in the production of safety-critical avionics software for multicore architectures. Multicore processor hardware along with aerospace RTOS providers increasingly offers robust partitioning technologies to help developers mitigate the effects of interference. These technologies enable the partitioning of cores for different applications at different criticalities and make it possible to run multiple applications on one specific core. When incorporated into system-design considerations, these partitioning mechanisms can be used to reduce the effects of interference on software performance. In this paper we describe a novel approach to verifying the effectiveness of RTOS interference mitigation on the final hosted software. We showcase the use of the proposed approach on the NXP T2080 multicore board. The approach follows a V-model based methodology in which high- and low-level requirements…
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Localization Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Ford Autonomous Vehicles, LLC, USA-Sarah E. Houts, Robert Cammarata, Graham Mills, Siddharth Agarwal, Ankit Vora
Ford Motor Company, USA-Tyler G.R. Reid, Gaurav Pandey
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-03-0012
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles require precise knowledge of their position and orientation in all weather and traffic conditions for path planning, perception, control, and general safe operation. Here we derive these requirements for autonomous vehicles based on first principles. We begin with the safety integrity level, defining the allowable probability of failure per hour of operation based on desired improvements on road safety today. This draws comparisons with the localization integrity levels required in aviation and rail where similar numbers are derived at 10−8 probability of failure per hour of operation. We then define the geometry of the problem where the aim is to maintain knowledge that the vehicle is within its lane and to determine what road level it is on. Longitudinal, lateral, and vertical localization error bounds (alert limits) and 95% accuracy requirements are derived based on the United States (US) road geometry standards (lane width, curvature, and vertical clearance) and allowable vehicle dimensions. For passenger vehicles operating on freeway roads, the result is a required lateral error bound of 0.57 m (0.20 m, 95%),…
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Spotting Objects Amid Clutter

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35164
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new MIT-developed technique enables robots to quickly identify objects hidden in a three-dimensional cloud of data, reminiscent of how some people can make sense of a densely patterned “Magic Eye” image if they observe it in just the right way.

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EDITORIAL: There is no substitute for ‘Automotive Grade’

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_05
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

When you get in a vehicle and push the ‘start’ button, you're betting that the machine will get you to your destination safely and reliably, regardless of the driving conditions. Lives are at stake the moment you lift off the brake pedal.

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The Navigator

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP09_02
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

No trust in AI systems without data protection

When people surround themselves with microphones and cameras, others will be listening and watching. This reality shouldn't come as a surprise, but remarkably it does. The advent of automated driving will dramatically expand this activity. In fact, it is already creating controversy.

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Flight Computer

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35114
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Abaco Systems Huntsville, AL 866-652-2226

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IEEE-1394b for Military and Aerospace Vehicles - Applications Handbook

AS-1A Avionic Networks Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5654A
  • Current
Published 2019-08-12 by SAE International in United States
This Handbook is intended to accompany or incorporate AS5643, AS5643/1, AS5657, AS5706, and ARD5708. In addition, full understanding of this Handbook also requires knowledge of IEEE-1394-1995, IEEE-1394a, and IEEE-1394b standards. This Handbook contains detailed explanations and architecture analysis on AS5643, bus timing and scheduling considerations, system redundancy design considerations, suggestions on AS5643-based system configurations, cable selection guidance, and lessons learned on failure modes.
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Electromechanical Actuators Specification Guide

A-6B3 Electro-Mechanical Actuation Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5754
  • Current
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides general characteristics, requirements, and design data to be recommended for inclusion in a procurement technical specification of an electromechanical actuator (EMA), including its control and monitoring.
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Novel Techniques Trick Object Detection Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34412
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

New adversarial techniques developed by engineers at Southwest Research Institute can make objects “invisible” to image detection systems that use deep-learning algorithms. These techniques can also trick systems into thinking they see another object or can change the location of objects. According to the researchers, deep-learning neural networks are highly effective at many tasks, but they were adopted so quickly that the security implications of the algorithms weren't fully considered.

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JAUS / SDP Transport Specification

AS-4JAUS Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5669A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-22 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies a data communications layer for the transport of messages defined by the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) or other Software Defined Protocols (SDP). This Transport Specification defines the formats and protocols used for communication between compliant entities for all supported link-layer protocols and media. Although JAUS is the SDP used as the example implemented throughout this document, AS5669 can be used for any SDP that meets the required capabilities. A Software Defined Protocol is defined as an application data interface for communicating between software elements. The SDP is agnostic of the underlying communications protocol and in fact communicates in much the same manner regardless if the communicating entities are collocated in the same memory space or separated by a satellite link.
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