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Characterization of deposits collected from a plugged fuel filter

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Hanna Bernemyr, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Oscar Forsberg, Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0140
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Fuel filters serves as a safety belt for modern compression ignition engines. To meet the requirements from environmental regulations these engines use the common rail injection system, which is highly susceptible for contamination. Further the public awareness towards global warming is raising the need for renewable fuels, such as biodiesel. The higher fuel variety brings a higher requirement for fuel filters as well. To better understand the process of filtration, awareness of the different possible contaminants from the field is needed. This study used several chemical characterization techniques to examine the deposits from plugged filters collected from the field. The vehicle was run with biodiesel blends available on the market. The characterization techniques included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) joined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and lastly thermal gravimetric analyzer combined with FTIR combined with a GC-MS (TGA/FTIR/GC/MS) and EDX on the remaining ash. Deposits were scraped from the used filter, and prepared for the different analytic methods. After cleaning the contamination with different solvents, GC-MS identified the…
 

Seatbelt Entanglement: Field Analysis, Countermeasure Development, and Subject Evaluation of Devices Intended to Reduce Risk

Tool Inc.-Jason Sidman, Bill Liteplo
UMTRI-Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Sheila Ebert, Laura Malik, Miriam A. Manary
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Since 2000, over 200 rear seat occupants have become entangled in the seatbelt when they inadvertently switched it from emergency locking mode (ELR) to automatic locking mode (ALR). Since a method is needed to lock the seatbelt when installing child restraint systems (CRS), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) commissioned tool, inc. to develop prototype devices that could reduce the risk of seatbelt entanglement resulting from the lockability requirement. A field analysis of entanglement incidents was first conducted to inform countermeasure design. Prototype devices were developed and evaluated through testing with volunteer subjects in comparison to standard seatbelt systems by assessing how different designs would be used to install CRS, the quality of the resulting installations, how users would disentangle a trapped child surrogate, as well as to identify volunteer experience when using the belts themselves. Four prototype devices were evaluated in two phases of testing conducted at the UMTRI. All four prototype devices had shorter disentanglement times than trials with the standard seatbelt, but there was not a statistically significant difference between the…
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VirtualCrash.com - Occupant Crash Simulation Analysis Made Easy

Hork Enterprises-Henk Helleman
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Over 30 years of occupant crash safety simulations have seen ever more sophisticated tools and models to keep pace with ever more demanding and expanding requirements. These sophisticated tools, however, require highly trained and experienced analysis specialists to operate. This keeps them out of reach of occasional users such as program managers, restraints buyers, and design engineers. Yet, the people involved in the early stages of vehicle development can have a great impact on vehicle safety performance and the costs of achieving the targets. By combining prebuilt models and a fully capable finite element solver with an easy to use web interface, we aim to make the simulation technology available to anybody with a web browser.The Virtualcrash.com application is richly featured. Alike to sled testing, there is a choice of multiple vehicle geometries, from sub-compacts to large trucks. They come with crash pulses that are typical for their class that may be scaled up or down to make them more or less severe. If that does not suit the purpose, a custom crash pulse may…
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A Resonant Capacitive Coupling WPT-Based Method to Power and Monitor Seat Belt Buckle Switch Status in Removable and Interchangeable Seats

Ford Motor Co.-Mark Cuddihy
Solace Power Inc.-Brian Pottle
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we present an intelligent and wireless subsystem for powering and communicating with three sets of seat belt buckle sensors that are each installed on removable and interchangeable automobile seating. As automobile intelligence systems advance, a logical step is for the driver’s dashboard to display seat belt buckle indicators for rear seating in addition to the front seating. The problem encountered is that removable and interchangeable automobile seating outfitted with wired power and data links are inherently less reliable than rigidly fixed seating, as there is a risk of damage to the detachable power and data connectors throughout end-user seating removal/re-installation cycles. The present study tackles this issue through outfitting three removable and interchangeable rear seat assemblies with resonant capacitive coupling wireless power transfer as to power each rear seat across a variable gap between the interior paneling and that side of the seat closest to the interior paneling. A fundamental design challenge this system presented was the need to develop a rugged method to account for different sizes of seating, and hence…
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Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

Chantal Parenteau
General Motors-Barbara Bunn, Suzanne Johannson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the use of crash cases and CT scan data.The sternum morphomics data showed the thoracic depth increased, except for the 60-74-year-old age group.…
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Passenger Vehicle Dynamic Response and Characterization of Side Structure during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Jason Skiera, Charles Crosby, Cleve Bare, Marc Paradiso, Gregory Campbell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A significant portion of real-world passenger vehicle side impacts occur at lower speeds than testing conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) or the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Test data from low- to moderate-speed side impacts involving late-model passenger vehicles is limited, making the evaluation of vehicle impact response, occupant loading, and injury potential challenging. This study provides the results of low- to moderate-speed impact testing involving a late-model mid-size sedan. Two full-scale Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) side impact crash tests were conducted at speeds of 6.2 mph (10.0 kph) and 13.4 mph (21.6 kph). Instrumentation on the late-model sedan used for the test series included tri-axis accelerometers and seat belt load cells. In both tests, instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile-male Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and passenger seats using the standard three-point seat belts. Response data for the vehicle, barrier, and ATDs was recorded using onboard data acquisition, and on- and off-board real-time and high-speed video cameras. In addition, the deformation to the side of the…
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Seat Belt Reminder Sensor Selection for Optimized Performance and Driver Convenience

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Parth Sharma, Abhilash Choubey, Mohd Azal, Rajesh Pal, Pankaj Maheshwari, Kotanageswararao Puli
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Use of safety belts inside a vehicle is necessary to ensure the safety of passengers as well as drivers. To promote the use of seat belts, a seatbelt reminder system is utilized. This system incorporates a sensor for checking seat occupancy for the passenger seat. Activation of these sensors depends on various parameters like seat pad shape, seat upholstery, vehicle H-point, a load on the seat, etc. In this study, the load factor on the seat is studied. The load on the seat may come from occupants or due to the objects placed on the seat. The detection of objects as an occupant may result in false seat belt reminder alarm and cause inconvenience to the customers. Subjective analysis and surveys, covering a broad range of market population, were done to identify such objects. Consequently, performance requirements were determined to facilitate sensor optimization and selection.
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Passenger Vehicle Response and Damage Characteristics of Front and Rear Structures during Low- to Moderate-Speed Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Charles Crosby, Jason Skiera, Cleve Bare, Steven Como, Eric McDowell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A significant number of vehicle-to-vehicle collisions involve front-to-rear impacts at low- to moderate-speeds. While a variety of studies have been conducted since the 1990s involving fore-aft collisions, those discussing the response of late model passenger vehicles during progressively more severe impacts are limited. In this study, four inline, front-rear tests were conducted using two midsize sedans of the same make, model, and year. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile-male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was located in the driver seat of each sedan and was restrained using the standard three-point seat belt system. Instrumentation on the vehicles included tri-axis accelerometers and seat belt load cells.For each test, the centerlines of the vehicles were aligned, and the striking vehicle impacted the stationary target vehicle at closing speeds of 4.6, 7.9, 13.5, and 20.9 mph (7.4, 12.7, 21.7, and 33.6 kph). The front and rear bumper covers were removed to allow the response of the bumper systems to be observed during the impact. Vehicle and ATD data were recorded using on-board data acquisition while on- and off-board real-time…
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Crew Rest Facilities

S-7 Flight Deck Handling Qualities Stds for Trans Aircraft
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4101/3A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This document recommends criteria for the design and installation of flight crew rest facilities (FCRF) on transport category aircraft when operations with an augmented flight crew are performed. NOTE: Within this ARP, the term “must” will indicate items required for compliance with outside known government regulations, especially 14 CFR Part 117. “Shall” describes sections which are required if this ARP is used as a means of compliance. The term “should” will indicate optional requirements, preferences, and recommendations of the approving SAE committee. Wherever noted and bracketed as [FAA] or [EASA], this document includes agency regulations for reference that are not otherwise evaluated herein.
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Methods to Evaluate Impact Characteristics of Seat Back Mounted IFE Monitors

Aircraft SEAT Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6330
  • Current
Published 2018-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines means to assess the effect of changes to seat back mounted IFE monitors on blunt trauma to the head and post-impact sharp edges. The assessment methods described may be used for evaluation of changes to seat back monitor delethalization (blunt trauma and post-test sharp edges) and head injury criterion (HIC) attributes (refer to ARP6448 Appendix A Items 3 and 6, respectively). Application is focused on type A-T (transport airplane) certified seat installations.
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