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Load Distribution Optimization of seatbelts using validated finite element approach.

Anshul Satija-Anshul Satija
Joyson Safety Systems-Priyanshu Mishra, Ravi Gaurav, Virender Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2575
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The seat belt system is one of most imperative component of the safety instrument family in a vehicle. The main purpose of seat belt is to minimize the injuries by preventing the occupant from impacting hard interior parts of the vehicle and also the passenger from being thrown-out from the vehicle in case of rollover accidents. The standard three-point belts, mounted to the vehicle in three places, namely anchor, D ring and buckle. The position of D ring is very important to distribute the impact load evenly to the occupants. Very high load in any of these locations could cause breakage of the mountings and also concentrated loading on the occupant chest of pelvis. This study mainly focuses on the seatbelt assembly performance improvement against ECE-R16 sled test. The sled test was carried out first using 28g peak acceleration pulse and measurement of forces at shoulder and anchor position was measured using the load cell. FE (Finite Element) model of the complete seatbelt assemble was developed including buckle, retractor and anchor plate. The simulation was…
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SEAT BELT DYNAMIC TEST PERFORMANCE SENSITIVITY ON SEAT BELT ANCHORAGE LOCATION

ICAT-Akshat Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2398
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Seat Belt Assemblies used in a vehicle are tested and certified as per IS 14140 for its performance during dynamic test. During validation test, seat belt anchorages are set-up as per design condition. The tolerance provided in the regulation for each anchorage is 50mm. Also there is difference in actual anchorage location in a vehicle and design location. This tolerance and variation can affect the performance of seat belt during the test or actual car accident. This study shows the variation of seat belt performance when different combination of anchorage locations is used within 50 mm.
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Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Hanna Bernemyr, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Oscar Forsberg, Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Fuel filters serve as a safety belt for modern compression ignition engines. To meet the requirements from environmental regulations these engines use the common rail injection system, which is highly susceptible to contamination from the fuel. Furthermore, the public awareness towards global warming is raising the need for renewable fuels such as biodiesel. An increased fuel variety brings a higher requirement for fuel filters as well. To better understand the process of filtration, awareness of the different possible contaminants from the field is needed. This study used several chemical characterization techniques to examine the deposits from plugged fuel filters collected from the field. The vehicle was run with a biodiesel blend available on the market. The characterization techniques included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) joined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and lastly thermal gravimetric analyzer combined with FTIR and a GC-MS (TGA/FTIR/GC-MS). In addition the remaining ash from TGA was measured in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Deposits were scraped from the used filter, and prepared for the different…
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Personnel Protection - Skid Steer Loaders

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1388_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard is intended to provide personnel protection guidelines for skid steer loaders. This document is intended as a guide towards standard practice, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. This document provides performance criteria for newly manufactured loaders and it is not intended for in-service machines.
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Standard for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Operating on Land Highways - Safety Standard

Glazing Materials Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3097Z26_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-28 by SAE International in United States
Specifications, test methods, and usage provisions for safety glazing materials used for glazing of motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment operating on land highways.
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Seatbelt Entanglement: Field Analysis, Countermeasure Development, and Subject Evaluation of Devices Intended to Reduce Risk

Tool Inc.-Jason Sidman, Bill Liteplo
UMTRI-Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Sheila Ebert, Laura Malik, Miriam A. Manary
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Since 2000, over 200 rear seat occupants have become entangled in the seatbelt when they inadvertently switched it from emergency locking mode (ELR) to automatic locking mode (ALR). Since a method is needed to lock the seatbelt when installing child restraint systems (CRS), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) commissioned tool, inc. to develop prototype devices that could reduce the risk of seatbelt entanglement resulting from the lockability requirement. A field analysis of entanglement incidents was first conducted to inform countermeasure design. Prototype devices were developed and evaluated through testing with volunteer subjects in comparison to standard seatbelt systems by assessing how different designs would be used to install CRS, the quality of the resulting installations, how users would disentangle a trapped child surrogate, as well as to identify volunteer experience when using the belts themselves. Four prototype devices were evaluated in two phases of testing conducted at the UMTRI. All four prototype devices had shorter disentanglement times than trials with the standard seatbelt, but there was not a statistically significant difference between the…
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A Resonant Capacitive Coupling WPT-Based Method to Power and Monitor Seat Belt Buckle Switch Status in Removable and Interchangeable Seats

Ford Motor Co.-Mark Cuddihy
Solace Power Inc.-Brian Pottle
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we present an intelligent and wireless subsystem for powering and communicating with three sets of seat belt buckle sensors that are each installed on removable and interchangeable automobile seating. As automobile intelligence systems advance, a logical step is for the driver’s dashboard to display seat belt buckle indicators for rear seating in addition to the front seating. The problem encountered is that removable and interchangeable automobile seating outfitted with wired power and data links are inherently less reliable than rigidly fixed seating, as there is a risk of damage to the detachable power and data connectors throughout end-user seating removal/re-installation cycles. The present study tackles this issue through outfitting three removable and interchangeable rear seat assemblies with resonant capacitive coupling wireless power transfer as to power each rear seat across a variable gap between the interior paneling and that side of the seat closest to the interior paneling. A fundamental design challenge this system presented was the need to develop a rugged method to account for different sizes of seating, and hence…
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Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

Chantal Parenteau
General Motors-Barbara Bunn, Suzanne Johannson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the use of crash cases and CT scan data.The sternum morphomics data showed the thoracic depth increased, except for the 60-74-year-old age group.…
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Passenger Vehicle Dynamic Response and Characterization of Side Structure during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Jason Skiera, Charles Crosby, Cleve Bare, Marc Paradiso, Gregory Campbell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A significant portion of real-world passenger vehicle side impacts occur at lower speeds than testing conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) or the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Test data from low- to moderate-speed side impacts involving late-model passenger vehicles is limited, making the evaluation of vehicle impact response, occupant loading, and injury potential challenging. This study provides the results of low- to moderate-speed impact testing involving a late-model mid-size sedan. Two full-scale Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) side impact crash tests were conducted at speeds of 6.2 mph (10.0 kph) and 13.4 mph (21.6 kph). Instrumentation on the late-model sedan used for the test series included tri-axis accelerometers and seat belt load cells. In both tests, instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile-male Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and passenger seats using the standard three-point seat belts. Response data for the vehicle, barrier, and ATDs was recorded using onboard data acquisition, and on- and off-board real-time and high-speed video cameras. In addition, the deformation to the side of the…
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Seat Belt Reminder Sensor Selection for Optimized Performance and Driver Convenience

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Parth Sharma, Abhilash Choubey, Mohd Azal, Rajesh Pal, Pankaj Maheshwari, Kotanageswararao Puli
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Use of safety belts inside a vehicle is necessary to ensure the safety of passengers as well as drivers. To promote the use of seat belts, a seatbelt reminder system is utilized. This system incorporates a sensor for checking seat occupancy for the passenger seat. Activation of these sensors depends on various parameters like seat pad shape, seat upholstery, vehicle H-point, a load on the seat, etc. In this study, the load factor on the seat is studied. The load on the seat may come from occupants or due to the objects placed on the seat. The detection of objects as an occupant may result in false seat belt reminder alarm and cause inconvenience to the customers. Subjective analysis and surveys, covering a broad range of market population, were done to identify such objects. Consequently, performance requirements were determined to facilitate sensor optimization and selection.
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