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A Novel Prediction Algorithm for Heavy Vehicles System Rollover Risk Based on Failure Probability Analysis and SVM Empirical Model

China Automotive Technology and Reseach Center Co.,Ltd-Zhenfeng Wang, Fei Li, Xinyu Wang
Harbin Institute of Technology-Zheng Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0701
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The study of heavy vehicles rollover prediction, especially in algorithm-based heavy vehicles active safety control for improving road handling, is a challenging task for the heavy vehicle industry. Due to the high fatality rate caused by vehicle rollover, how to precisely and effectively predict the rollover of heavy vehicles became a hot topic in both academia and industry. Because of the strong non-linear characteristics of Human-Vehicle-Road interaction and the uncertainty of modeling, the traditional deterministic method cannot predict the rollover hazard of heavy vehicles accurately. To deal with the above issues, this paper applies a probability method of uncertainty to the design of a dynamic rollover prediction algorithm for heavy vehicles and proposes a novel algorithm for predicting the rollover hazard based on the combined empirical model of reliability index and failure probability. Moreover, the paper establishes a classification model of heavy vehicles based on the support vector machine (SVM) and uses the Monte Carlo method to calculate the failure probability of rollover limit state of heavy vehicles. The fishhook, double lane change, and slalom…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Window Glazing Coding and Rollover Ejection Mitigation Performance using NASS-CDS

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Ian C. Campbell, Michael Carhart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1216
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study analyses the effect of laminated glass using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. The validity of CDS coding in identifying laminated glass was first assessed with 1997-2015 model year vehicles involved in side impacts. Sixteen individual cases were downloaded where the front outboard glass window was identified as laminated glass by NASS investigators and where the window was coded as either “out-of placed”, “disintegrated” or “holed”. The case summary and photos were reviewed. The results showed that the laminated glass availability was incorrectly coded in 11 out of the 16 cases. New coding definitions were used to identify vehicles equipped with standard or optional laminated glass in the front side windows using various sources such as NAGS data and sale brochures. The results were compared to the individual cases and found appropriate. The NASS-CDS data was then queried with 1997+ model year vehicles to determine the risk and frequency of front seat occupant ejection status by glass type in rollover crashes using the new definitions. For vehicles equipped with standard laminated glass, the risk was 1.45…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Glazing and Curtain Airbags for Occupant Containment in Rollover

Exponent Inc.-Bruce Miller, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Sarah Sharpe
Ford Motor Company-Ram Krishnaswami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0976
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By their nature as chaotic, high-energy events, rollovers pose an injury risk to occupants, in particular through exposure to perimeter contact and ejection. While seatbelts have long been accepted as a highly effective means of retaining occupants, it has been suggested that technologies such as laminated safety glazing or rollover curtain airbags could alternatively provide effective occupant containment during rollovers. In this study, a full-scale dolly rollover crash test was performed to assess the occupant containment capacity of laminated side glazing and rollover curtain airbags in a high-severity rollover. This allowed for the analysis of unrestrained occupant kinematics during interaction with laminated side glazing and rollover curtain airbags and evaluation of failure modes and limitations of laminated glazing and rollover curtain airbags as they relate to partial and complete ejection of unrestrained occupants. The dolly rollover was performed with a 2010 Chevrolet Express at a nominal speed of 43 mph, with unbelted anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in the driver, right front passenger, and designated third, fourth, and fifth row seating positions. Vehicle dynamics and…
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Update on Second-Row Children Responses in Rear and Frontal Crashes with a Focus on the Potential Effect of Stiffening Front Seat Structures

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau
ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1215
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The protection of children in rear seats is an important issue, but it is a more complex than assessing front seat performance in rear impacts. 1997–2015 NASS-CDS data were analyzed to estimate the distribution and risk of seriously-to-fatally (MAIS 3+F) injured 0-7 year old children in the 2nd row by crash types with 1994+ model year vehicles. The results showed that children were frequently injured in frontal (39.3%) and in side (27.2%) crashes. The injury risk was highest in rollover (1.72% ± 0.36) followed by rear crashes (0.75% ± 0.56%). Individual rear and frontal impact cases were also reviewed to better understand injury mechanisms of children in the 2nd row. The cases were downloaded and reviewed. There were 15 injured children involved in 14 rear impact crashes. Half were associated with significant intrusion (12+ inches) intrusion of their seating area, pushing the child forward. More than half (7 out of 11 cases with known information) of the front seatbacks remained in their pre-crash position or were pushed forward. Rear crashes involving the front-seat rotating rearward…
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The Effect of Obesity on Rollover Ejection and Injury Risks

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1219
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Obesity rates are increasing among the general population. This study investigates the effect of obesity on ejection and injury risk in rollover crashes through analysis of field accident data contained in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database. The study involved front outboard occupants of age 15+ years in 1994+ model year vehicle rollover crashes. Complete and partial ejection risks were first assessed seating location relative to roll direction and belt use. The risk of serious-to-fatal injuries (MAIS 3+F) in non-ejected occupants were then evaluated. Occupants were sorted into two BMI groups, normal (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI <25.0 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The overall risk for complete ejection was 2.10% ± 0.43% when near-sided and 2.65% ± 0.63% when far-sided, with a similar risk for both the normal and obese BMI groups. Complete ejection was uncommon for belted occupants with a risk of 0.2% or less for all groups. The risk of partial ejection was greater for obese compared to normal BMI occupants. For near-side occupants, the overall risk of partial…
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Accident Statistical Distributions from NASS CDS - An Update

Exponent Inc.-Jennifer L. Yaek, Thomas Brown
SURVICE Engineering Co.-Alan Goertz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0518
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) contains an abundance of field accident data. As technology advances and the database continues to grow over the years, the statistical significance of the data increases and trends can be observed. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date, reference resource with respect to commonly sought-after accident statistics. Charts include up-to-date accident distributions by Delta-V and impact direction with corresponding injury severity rates. Rollover data is also analyzed, as well as historical trends for injury severity, belt usage, air bag availability, and vehicle safety technology availablility.
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Development of Active Rear Axles Steering Controller For 8X8 Combat Vehicle

OntarioTech University-Moataz Ahmed, Moustafa El-Gindy, Haoxiang Lang, Mohamed Omar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0174
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lateral dynamic control considered to be crucial to enhance the handling characteristics and stabilization of a vehicle as a safety demand. In this paper, an active rear axles steering control system will be developed using optimal quadratic regulator (LQR) control methodology. The controller aims to minimize the vehicle sideslip and consequently increase its handling stability and transient state performance. The controller design has been utilized the independent steering of the vehicle`s 3rd and 4th axles as control inputs. Furthermore, the developed controller will be combined with feedforward zero sideslip (ZSS) controller based on the steady state model of the vehicle and satisfying the Ackermann steering condition. In addition, the steady state handling performance will be evaluated using Skid Pad test. The transient state performance will be assessed at low coefficient of friction (COF) surface using FMVSS 126 Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system test speed, while Open Loop Step Slalom Test will be used for assessing the controller at high COF. The controllers will be implemented using MATLAB Simulink and will be simulated in a co-software…
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SUV Kinematics during a Steer-Induced Rollover Resolved Using Consumer-Grade Video, Laser Scans and Match-Moving Techniques

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Cole R. Young, David J. King, Gunter P. Siegmund
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0642
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rollover crashes are complex events that generate motions in all six degrees of freedom (6DOF). Directly quantifying the angular rotations from video can be difficult and vehicle orientation as a function of time is often not reported for staged rollover crashes. Our goal was to evaluate the ability of using a match-moving technique and consumer-grade video cameras to quantify the roll, pitch and yaw angles and angular velocities of a rollover crash. We staged a steer-induced rollover of an SUV at 106 km/h. The vehicle was fitted with tri-axial accelerometers and angular rate sensors, and five consumer-grade video cameras (2 on tripods, 2 on drones, 1 handheld, ~30 fps) captured the event. Roll, pitch and yaw angles were determined from the video using specialized software. We then compared the vehicle orientation angles from the video data to the integrated angular rate data measured by onboard sensors, and also compared the angular rates from the differentiated video data to the angular rates measured directly by the sensors. We found that both methods of measuring the 3D…
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New Control Method of Four-Wheel Independent Driving Electric Vehicles for Anti-Slip Purposes

Tsinghua University-Gangtie Zheng
University of Cambridge, Tsinghua University-Chen Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1420
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The performance of electric vehicles could be enhanced by more flexible drivetrain configurations combined with advanced control method. Based on the four wheel independent driving and front and rear axle modular steering configuration, which was proposed by our research group last year, the problem of slippery under close-to-limit conditions are further discussed and simulated. A new torque vectoring method based on obtainable parameters and variables in real driving situations is introduced to reduce the sideslip when turning on low friction coefficient surfaces or with high speed. This method is developed from a comprehensive index, which reflects the stability and maneuverability, by adding additional torques when stability could not be compensated enough by basic torque vectoring. Besides, an improvement of adding a simu-Torsen differential mechanism is made to the model of the vehicle, which enables another control method with the same purpose as before. This method is combined with the torque vectoring and the active control to switch on the simu-Torsen differential mechanism. All the control methods were validated with a real SUV based Simulink model.…
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Load Distribution Optimization of Seatbelt Using Validated Finite Element Approach

Joyson Safety Systems-Anshul Satija, Priyanshu Mishra, Ravi Gaurav, Virender Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2575
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The seat belt system is one of most important component of the safety instrument family in a vehicle. The main purpose of seat belt is to minimize the injuries by preventing the occupant from impacting hard on interior parts of the vehicle and also the passenger from being thrown-out from the vehicle in case of rollover accidents. The standard three-point belt is mounted in the vehicle at three locations namely Anchor, D-ring and Buckle. The position of anchorages is very important to distribute the impact load evenly to the occupants. Very high load in any of these locations could cause breakage of the mountings and also concentrated loading on the occupant chest of pelvis. Current study mainly focuses on the seatbelt assembly performance improvement against UNECE-R16 sled test. The sled test was carried out first using 28g peak acceleration pulse and measurement of forces at shoulder and anchor position was measured using the load cell. FE (Finite Element) model of the complete seatbelt assembly was developed including Buckle, Retractor and Anchor plate. The simulation was…
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