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Body Structure Strength Of Sleeper Coaches During Rollover Test As Per AIS 119

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2567
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Bus passenger safety has always been a concern considering various impacts like side impact, front impact, rollover etc. happening in real life scenarios. Various standards have been formulated for simulating these conditions and with respect to rollover, standards like ECE-R66 are being used to understand the superstructure strength. In India, we have AIS-052 (bus body code) and AIS-031 specific for bus rollover testing. AIS-119 has been published for rollover testing of sleeper coaches with modifications in the survival space creation in sleeper coaches for berths. With physical testing being more expensive, CAE simulations are being considered as vital option which also helps in design modification in a lesser time. This paper discusses the scope of numerical simulation of sleeper coach rollover using an explicit dynamic solver RADIOSS to understand the structure deformations, survival space clearances/intrusions. The paper will describe the procedure for the numerical simulation starting from the CAD development, geometry clean up, meshing techniques, element formulations, CG measurement, input deck set up till the post processing of results. In order to validate the numerical…
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Load Distribution Optimization of seatbelts using validated finite element approach.

Anshul Satija-Anshul Satija
Joyson Safety Systems-Priyanshu Mishra, Ravi Gaurav, Virender Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2575
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The seat belt system is one of most imperative component of the safety instrument family in a vehicle. The main purpose of seat belt is to minimize the injuries by preventing the occupant from impacting hard interior parts of the vehicle and also the passenger from being thrown-out from the vehicle in case of rollover accidents. The standard three-point belts, mounted to the vehicle in three places, namely anchor, D ring and buckle. The position of D ring is very important to distribute the impact load evenly to the occupants. Very high load in any of these locations could cause breakage of the mountings and also concentrated loading on the occupant chest of pelvis. This study mainly focuses on the seatbelt assembly performance improvement against ECE-R16 sled test. The sled test was carried out first using 28g peak acceleration pulse and measurement of forces at shoulder and anchor position was measured using the load cell. FE (Finite Element) model of the complete seatbelt assemble was developed including buckle, retractor and anchor plate. The simulation was…
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Cab air quality: A CRITICAL COMPONENT OF OPERATOR COMFORT

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: October 2019

Jeff Moredock
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP10_04
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Focus on defining cab air quality, measuring it, and designing the needed performance into cabin designs and HVAC systems is intensifying.

Review the design specs for any new haul truck, excavator, dozer or other off-road machine, and you're not likely to find requirements related to cab air quality-yet. However, standards are changing and the need to optimize cab enclosure environments for air quality will grow.

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Stronger, quieter cabs

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

based on exclusive interview with Worthington's Matt Trippel-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_04
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Worthington expert sees AHSS and active noise cancellation making off-highway cabs safer and less-stressful places to work.

Worthington Industries made its first-ever appearance at bauma in April, showcasing the new Global Cab modular design along with its European manufacturing partner Fritzmeier. The cab's length and width can be varied by using different modular parts and the ROPS (rollover protection structure) incorporated to meet varying requirements while optimizing the cab structure to increase visibility.

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Accuracy and Sensitivity of Yaw Speed Analysis to Available Data

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Bradley Heinrichs, Janice Lee, Cole Young
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Accident reconstructionists rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so the true value must be bracketed within a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of sport utility vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history. Simulations based on the complete tire marks reduced the average error compared with the CCS equation if measured accelerations were also matched. Adding the remaining input data…
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Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Luke Riexinger, Hampton Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development.All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ESC availability database was matched to each NASS/CDS case vehicle by the vehicle make, model, and model year. ESC effectiveness was computed using the quasi-induced exposure method.From 2006-2015, control loss was a factor in 29.7%…
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Pickup Truck and Trailer Gross Vehicle Weight Study

Moustafa El-Gindy, Nam Nguyen
UOIT-Priya Shastry
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the dynamic performance of pickup truck - trailer configurations, using performance measures adopted by Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement (CVSE). The pickup truck models are selected based on the US truck classification that segregates trucks on the basis of the vehicle’s gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR). Three different types of trailers - gooseneck trailer, pintle hook trailer and three-axle trailer with parametric hitch - are utilized in this study. The truck-trailer configurations will be evaluated for static rollover threshold, load transfer ratio, rearward amplification, friction demand, lateral friction utilization, high speed, low speed and transient off tracking and three-point handling performance. These measures are based on definitions from Canada’s heavy vehicle weights and dimensions study. Payload weights and trailers are selected based on the current British Columbia regulations, maximum towing capacity of each pickup truck, and their maximum drive axle loads. The main purpose of this analysis is to computationally evaluate the stability and controllability of these vehicle configurations in a virtual environment at both low and…
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Active Steering and Anti-Roll Shared Control for Enhancing Roll Stability in Path Following of Autonomous Heavy Vehicle

Tsinghua University-Yulong Liu, Kaiming Yang, Xiangkun He, Xuewu Ji
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Rollover accident of heavy vehicle during cornering is a serious road safety problem worldwide. In the past decade, based on the active intervention into the heavy vehicle roll dynamics method, researches have proposed effective anti-roll control schemes to guarantee roll stability during cornering. Among those studies, however, roll stability control strategies are generally derived independent of front steering control inputs, the interactive control characteristic between steering and anti-roll system have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, a novel roll stability control structure that considers the interaction between steering and anti-roll system, is presented and discussed. The proposed control framework is implemented based on dynamic game theory in which heavy vehicle roll stability can be represented as a dynamic difference game so that its two players, namely the active steering (AS) and active anti-roll bar (AARB) system, can work together to provide more roll stability to the heavy vehicle system during cornering. The interactive control strategy between AS and AARB system is obtained by non-cooperative closed-loop feedback Nash game equilibrium theory to ensure optimal roll…
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Improving Vehicle Rollover Resistance Using Fuzzy PID Controller of Active Anti-Roll Bar System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Egypt-Mohamed Mostafa Khalil, Mostafa R.A. Atia
Military Technical College, Egypt-Mohamed H. Mabrouk
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0003
Published 2018-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The active anti-roll bar (AARB) system in vehicles has recently become one of the research hotspots in the field of vehicle technology to improve the vehicle’s active safety. In most off-road vehicles, high ground clearance is required while keeping all wheels in contact with the ground in order to improve traction and maintain load distribution among the wheels. A problem however arises in some types of the off-road vehicles when the vehicle is operated at high speeds on smooth roads. In such condition, the combination of the vehicle’s center of gravity position, large suspension stroke, and soft spring construction creates a stability problem, which could make the vehicle liable to rollover. This article analyzes a comparison of stability performance between passive and active anti-roll bar systems to improve rolling resistance. For active systems, two control strategies will be investigated. The conventional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is firstly investigated and taken as a reference. Then a modified Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller with fuzzy technology is developed and compared to the reference one. A full-car…
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Collision Reconstruction Methodologies: Rollover Accident Reconstruction Vol. A, B & C

  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-186_6
Published 2018-12-01 by SAE International in United States
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction. Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volumes 1-12 bring together seminal SAE technical papers surrounding advancements in the crash reconstruction field. Topics featured in the series include: • Night Vision Study and Photogrammetry • Vehicle Event Data Recorders • Motorcycle, Heavy Vehicle,…