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Hybrid Powertrain Calibration Techniques

AVL LIST GmbH-Ernst Winklhofer, Alois Hirsch, Harald Philipp, Michael Trifterer, Manuel Berglez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0196
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Meeting the particle (PN) emissions limits in dynamic vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). Such transients arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor (EM) and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the ICE’s hybrid and drive environment. The paper reports on a methodology to measure - on a degree crank angle basis - and evaluate the ICE and EAS response to the vehicle drive requirements and the power shift dynamics between EM and ICE. Focus, in particular, is given to 1. particle…
 
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Drivetrain Noise Source Identification and Active Noise Control of a Heavy Off-Road Vehicle

Dongfeng Motor Technical Center-Zuguo Xia
Gissing Tech. Co., Ltd.-Hailin Ruan, Wei Huang, Longchen Li, Xiaojun Chen, Xiujie Tian, Keda Zhu, Changwei Zheng, Jiapeng Zhao, Renjie Dai
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Drivetrain noise from heavy off-road vehicles mainly includes engine noise, drive shaft noise, wheel-side gear noise, tire pattern noise etc. They are the main noise sources for such vehicles as they greatly influence the ride comfort of the passengers inside. This paper solved the drivetrain noise problems of a heavy off-road vehicle using the method of active noise control (ANC). Firstly, the vehicle is benchmarked and the noise problems are analyzed, while the noise sources are identified by analyzing the transmission principles of the drivetrain. Secondly, ANC strategies are made for the vehicle based on the noise profiles under various operating conditions. Thirdly, the multiple parameters for ANC are computed from simulations modeling the vehicle in idle, constant speed and acceleration respectively. Lastly, road tests are conducted using the multiple parameters from the simulations and a noise reduction of 2-4 dB can be achieved in the whole vehicle. The results has shown that ANC is an effective method for drivetrain noise reduction in heavy off-road vehicles as this paper provides references for the systematic solution…
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A Case Study on Golf Car Powertrain NVH Sources and Mitigation Methods

Club Car, LLC-Adam Clark
Roush Industries, Inc.-Steven Carter, Kenneth Buczek, Mayuresh Pathak
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The golf market has remained flat in North America. Whereas, it has grown worldwide. A trend is seen where the number of young adults and adults over the age of 65 years involved with the game has increased. The demographics in golf showing the most growth also have high standards for the operation of the golf car. They have transcended their expectations to align with some of the qualities expected of automobiles. There is a shift in consumer expectations. Moreover, the market competition has also increased. This drives the OEMs to deliver refined golf cars with NVH being a key aspect in development. This paper showcases a recent study to improve the powertrain N&V performance of an internal combustion engine golf car. Primarily, a test-based approach is followed. Chassis rolls and on road testing are performed for benchmarking and target setting. System and component tests are performed to root cause issues. The tests further help to provide input for mitigation methods for application on the golf cars. Structural modifications address structure-borne noise and perceived vibration.…
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Reducing Vehicle Interior NVH by Means of Locally Resonant Metamaterial Patches on Rear Shock Towers

KU Leuven - DMMS lab, Flanders Make-Luca Sangiuliano, Claus Claeys, Elke Deckers, Bert Pluymers, Wim Desmet
MotionS lab, Flanders Make-Jasper De Smet
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Stringent regulations for CO2 emissions and noise pollution reduction demand lighter and improved Noise, Vibration Harshness (NVH) solutions in automotive industries. Designing light, compact and, at the same time, improved NVH solutions is often a challenge, as low noise and vibration levels often require heavy and bulky additions, especially to be effective in the low frequency regime. Recently, locally resonant metamaterials have emerged among the novel NVH solutions because of their performant NVH properties combined with lightweight and compact design. Due to the characteristic of stop band behavior, frequency ranges where free wave propagation is inhibited, metamaterials can beat the mass law, be it at least in some tunable frequency ranges. Previously the authors demonstrated how metamaterials can reduce the vibrations in a simplified shock tower upon shaker excitation. In this work, the authors apply the metamaterial concept on the real rear shock towers of a vehicle. In order to be able to benchmark the solution, a test vehicle is chosen, which is equipped in its commercial version with a 1.46 kg tuned vibration absorber…
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Performance Testing and Analysis of Multi-Channel Active Control System for Vehicle Interior Noise Using Adaptive Notch Filter

Tongji University-Lijun Zhang, Xiyu Zhang, Dejian Meng
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
It is considered that slow convergence speed and large calculation amount of commonly used adaptive algorithm in the active control system for vehicle interior noise yield noise reduction performance and hardware requirements problems. In this paper, a 4-channel active control of vehicle interior noise based on adaptive notch filter is established, and road test is carried out to test and analyze the performance of the control system. Firstly, the general mathematic model of the multi-channel active control system based on adaptive notch filter is established. The computational complexity of the algorithm is analyzed and compared with that of the FXLMS algorithm. Secondly, a hardware-in-the-loop test bench based on multi-channel adaptive notch filter is set up, to measure the noise reduction performance of ANC system under various working conditions. Finally, the typical test conditions are designed to test the system noise reduction performance, and the road test is carried out and result is analyzed.
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‘Road Race’ for AV Testing May Be Slowing

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP05_10
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

To optimize safety, as well as cost- and time-efficiency, experts espouse increased virtual testing of autonomous vehicles as preferable to the industry's rush to test on public roads.

Chris Hoyle, technical director of software specialist rFpro, believes the race by auto and technology companies to be ahead of competitor programs involving autonomous vehicle (AV) testing on public roads is losing momentum.

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Research on the Model of Safety Boundary Condition Based on Vehicle Intersection Conflict and Collision

Tongji University-Biao Wu, Xichan Zhu, Maozhu Liao, Rui Liu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Because of the high frequency and serious consequences of traffic accidents in the intersection area, it is of great significance to study the vehicle conflict and collision scenarios of the intersection area. Due to few actual crash accidents occurring in naturalistic driving studies data or field operational tests data, the data of traffic accident database should be also used to analyze the intersection conflict and collision. According to the China Field Operation Test (China-FOT) database and the China in Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database, the distribution feature of the respective intersection scenario type is obtained from the data analysis. Based on the intersection scenario type, two characters of intersection conflict and collision, the environmental character and the vehicle dynamic character, are used to analyze for the integration process of intersection conflict and collision. The environmental character contains several parameters, including environment type, weather and time, which has a strong influence on the collision accidents. Through the environmental parameters analyzing, the distribution model of environmental character is obtained. The vehicle dynamic character includes two vehicle dynamic…
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R410A Based Automotive Heat Pump System That Hits Cabin Heating Goal Successfully in -30 °C Extreme Ambient

BAIC Motor Corporation, Ltd. New Energy-Kelvin Zhai
BYD Auto Industry Company Limited-Xuefeng Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet low ambient challenges on Battery based Electric Vehicles (BEV), it is necessary to employ heat pump systems on the HVAC systems. However, due to the boiling points limitation of the regular refrigerant R134A/R1234YF, even with Vapor Injection cycle (VI) added, due to -26°C Boiling Temperature (BT) limitation, it is still encountering serious challenges to meet -30 °C or lower ambient needs, although VI Heat Pump (VI H/P) may reach COP>=1.7 at ambient -18 °C. An alternative low BT refrigerant, R410A, plus VI participation, the combination provides potentials to operate in extreme low ambient like -30 °C. In order to find out the actual heating performance of R410A+VI, a demonstration fleet of three vehicles had been built up for road tests to compare each other, which consists of a traditional vehicle (ICE gas heating), a BEV with PTC water heating system (R134A) and a BEV with VI heat pump system (R410A). The testing area covers the coldest city in China such as Harbin, (-20°C), Yakeshi (-39 °C), The road tests have exhibited positive results…
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An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

FKFS-Jens Neubeck
MTS Systems Corp.-Ford Boone, Wilbur Kan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated.To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation. The HRW allows testing of a vehicle’s combined longitudinal, lateral and vertical characteristics and therefore provides the possibility to supplement road testing with integrated vehicle testing under laboratory conditions.IVK, FKFS and MTS agreed…
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Conceptual Design and Analysis of Hybrid Torque-Vectoring Differential (H-TD)

Industrial Technology Research Institute-Yun-Jui Chung
National Taiwan University-Cheng-Kai Lin, Po-Jen Cheng, Tyng Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0333
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study proposes a motor-controlled torque-vectoring differential equipped with electric hybrid functionality, hereinafter referred to as H-TD (Hybrid Torque-vectoring Differential). The mechanism of H-TD consists of an open differential, a planetary gearset, an electric motor, a clutch brake, and a clutch. The main difference between H-TD and preciously published TVD (Torque Vectoring Differential) systems is that it uses the electric motor to be able to not only distribute torque between output shafts, but also provide additional hybrid power. Hence, H-TD provides the possibility to integrate multiple functions into a single system. Furthermore, H-TD can be utilized in both hybrid electric vehicles and electric ones. Firstly, the constitution of H-TD mechanism is introduced, and three operation modes of the system, control strategy, as well as the dynamic models for the system are presented. Secondly, after considering the possible design requirements and the possible powertrain configurations of H-TD on four-wheeled vehicles, a set of feasible design parameters of the system is given. After completing the conceptual design of H-TD, this study uses a numerical simulation program prepared…
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