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Patient Demographics and Injury Characteristics of ER visits Related to Powered Scooters

Exponent, Inc.-Heather N Watson, Christina MR Garman, Jeffrey Wishart, Jacqueline Zimmermann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0933
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electric scooters (e-scooters) have become increasingly popular in the U.S. In 2018, e-scooters usage overtook other shared micro-mobility transportation modes, including bike shares; over 38 million trips were taken on e-scooters. As the popularity increases, so does the societal concern regarding the safety of these devices. To examine the types of injuries associated with e-scooters and the injury rate per trip at a national level, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a probability sample of US Hospitals that collects information from emergency room visits related to a consumer product, was utilized. Records from September 2017 to December 2018 were extracted, and those associated with powered scooters were identified. Injury distributions by age, sex, race, treatment, diagnosis and location on the body were explored. The number of person-trips was obtained to perform a risk analysis. Between September 2017 and December 2018, an estimated 17,772 injuries were associated with powered scooters. Nearly 45% of injuries occurred in persons aged 10-29 years and males tended to sustain a higher proportion of injuries compared to females. Almost 87%…
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PTW Passive Safety: Numerical Study of Standard Impact Scenarios with Rider Injury Risk Assessment

Tianjin University of Science and Technology-Wenle Lv
University of West Bohemia-Tomasz Bonkowski, Ludek Hyncik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0930
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Powered two-wheeler (PTW) riders and passengers are among the group of vulnerable road users (VRU). This group uses the road transportation system together with other better-protected users such as passenger cars and truck drivers. The main vulnerability of PTW rider lies in their unequal position during the crash, due to the inability of application of the crashworthiness concept during the PTW vehicle design. This inequality could be somehow mitigated by the design of personal protective equipment (PPE). Mostly the design of the PPE’s is led by the standards which often are obsolete and takes into account only simple drop-tests (ECE 22.05). Those tests did not take into account complicated kinematics of the motorcycle accidents and biomechanics of the human body (the assessment is based only on the linear acceleration of the headform center of gravity).The authors propose a virtual approach for the PTW rider injury risk assessment, which coupled with the pre-impact conditions, could be used for the new PPE protection standards preparation. In this paper, authors want to present a numerical study on the…
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Runtime Active Safety Risk-Assessment of Highly Autonomous Vehicles for Safe Nominal Behavior

Hitachi Ltd.-Swarn Singh Rathour, Tasuku Ishigooka, Satoshi Otsuka
University of Seville-RAUL MARTIN
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0107
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fatal crashes involving automated driving systems, raised the concern of minimum standard requirement for safety, reliability and performance of Autonomous Driving System (ADS)/Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) before this cutting-edge technology take on public roads. However, limited knowledge and understanding of the complex driving scenario followed by highly uncertain behavior of dynamic occupants introduce enormous challenges in design and analyzing the required minimum safety function to insure necessary level of safety. Hence, in order to overcome the challenges to ensure necessary safety requirements of AD/ADAS systems we propose a runtime active safety assurance module to provide required necessary level of safety as well as to overcome the limitation of safety by design risk of an AD/ADAS system. The proposed runtime active assurance safety performs dynamic risk assessment of “Sensing Risk, Planning risk and Action Risk”; to determine whether specified normal performance can be achieved or not in order to guarantee minimal risk maneuver in a given driving scenario. The dynamic risk assessment of AD/ADAS system that comprises of sensing, planning and acting module is based…
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AI enhanced methods for virtual prediction of short circuit in full vehicle crash scenarios

Applus + Idiada-Cristian Jimenez
CRF SCpA-Stefano Menegazzi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0950
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new artificial intelligence (model order reduction) / finite element coupled approach will be presented for the risk assessment of battery fire during a car crash event. This approach combines standard crash finite element for the main car body with a reduced order model for the battery. Simulation is today used by automotive engineering teams to design lightweight vehicle bodies fulfilling vehicle safety regulations. Legislation is rapidly evolving to accommodate the growing electrical vehicle market share and is considering additional battery safety requirements. The focus is on avoiding internal short circuit due to internal damage within a cell which may result in a fire hazard. Assessing short circuit risk in CAE at the vehicle level is complex as there involves phenomena at different scales. The vehicle deforms on a macroscale level during the impact event. The battery cells deform locally and damage extremely thin components such as the separator, generating short circuits at the meso scale level. It is therefore necessary to evaluate phenomena from macroscale to microscale. AI methods will help to bridge the…
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Functional Safety Development of Bi-Directional On-Board Charger for New Energy Vehicles

China FAW Group Co., Ltd.-Jian Liu, Wei Li, Jiwei Wen, Tianqiang Zhang, Deping Wang, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang, Qi Sun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0608
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
BOBC (Bi-directional on-board charger) is a power conversion system component for AC charging and discharging of new energy vehicles. It has two working modes: AC charging mode and AC discharge mode. In the two working modes, the BOBC belongs to both the controller and the actuator.In some extreme cases such as communication and control failure of the AC charging mode, new energy vehicles have the risk of high-voltage battery overcharging and overheating, which will lead to high-voltage battery fire or even explosion. In the AC discharge mode, it involves the actual operation of the users on electricity, and the risk of short circuit and open circuit may happen in the process, which endangers the safety of the users. Based on the risks brought by the two working modes, it should pay more attention to the safety of the BOBC. ISO26262 provides the corresponding guiding analysis method and quantitative index for the hazard caused by the failure of automobile electronics and electrical appliances. It is necessary for BOBC to carry out functional safety design according to…
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Human Health Risk Assessment of Space Radiation

University of Pittsburgh-Ashmita Rajkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0020
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Mars has been the topic of colonization and discovery for the last few decades but there have been hindrances in implementing the mission. This focus on Mars colonization has only deepened after the discovery of water on its surface. The discovery of water on Mars has led researchers to believe that its sustainability of life is higher than any other uncolonized planet. Although, life can survive on Mars, it is highly unethical to send communities to Mars without acknowledging the risks, especially those concerning the well being of humans. The risks of living on Mars are slowly unraveling through extensive research, but it is evident that certain health care measures must be taken in order to prevent potentially fatal conditions. One of the biggest problems is health concerns that astronauts face after returning from Mars. Health problems in space have been increasingly difficult to deal with because of the lasting circumstances that astronauts suffer upon returning back to Earth. As a result of these issues, NASA has delayed its Mars mission to circa 2028. Another…

Preparing for MDR? Don’t Overlook the Analytical Evaluation Threshold

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36027
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Medical device manufacturers have a big challenge in preparing for their regulatory device submissions for 2020. In addition to the European Union’s new Medical Device Regulation (MDR) taking effect in May, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is expected published the latest version of ISO 10993-18 in January 2020. These updates will emphasize the criticality of chemical characterization studies and toxicological risk assessments, and a key concept in successful implementation of these activities is the analytical evaluation threshold (AET).

How to Protect Patients from Potential Electrical Failure

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35777
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

People and power don’t mix well, and this is particularly true when people are medical patients. Aside from the more usual environment of a medical facility, patients are also increasingly using medical devices at home. Medical equipment is therefore heavily regulated by standards-based requirements and subsequent product testing to ensure the safety of patients and healthcare professionals alike.

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AS5553C, Counterfeit Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition Verification Criteria

G-19C Standards Compliance Verification
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6462C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
This document is intended for use during audits to the requirements of AS5553C. It may be used by all contracting organizations that procure EEE parts, whether such parts are procured directly or integrated into electronic assemblies or equipment as guidance for evaluating compliance to AS5553C.
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Study on Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Front Collision Hazard of Intelligent Vehicle

Beihang University-Deng Weiwen
Jilin Normal University-Sumin Zhang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Collision avoidance technology is one of the key areas in the longitudinal safety research of intelligent vehicles. For the research of collision avoidance system, the existing methods usually use the evaluation index based on time interval or braking process to carry out risk assessment. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the formulas for describing the longitudinal hazard degree established in most studies, such as great differences, inconsistent standards and weak normalization, a comprehensive evaluation method for the longitudinal hazard in front-impact scenarios is established. This method takes into account both the analysis of time interval and braking process, and considers the non-linear variation of the longitudinal hazard degree with the real-time distance and speed of two vehicles. It can describe the longitudinal hazard degree of vehicles in dangerous traffic scenarios. Compared with the existing longitudinal hazard assessment methods, the effectiveness and universality of the pre-collision hazard assessment method proposed in this paper are demonstrated.
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