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Study on Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Front Collision Hazard of Intelligent Vehicle

Beihang University-Deng Weiwen
Jilin Normal University-Sumin Zhang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Collision avoidance technology is one of the key areas in the longitudinal safety research of intelligent vehicles. For the research of collision avoidance system, the existing methods usually use the evaluation index based on time interval or braking process to carry out risk assessment. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the formulas for describing the longitudinal hazard degree established in most studies, such as great differences, inconsistent standards and weak normalization, a comprehensive evaluation method for the longitudinal hazard in front-impact scenarios is established. This method takes into account both the analysis of time interval and braking process, and considers the non-linear variation of the longitudinal hazard degree with the real-time distance and speed of two vehicles. It can describe the longitudinal hazard degree of vehicles in dangerous traffic scenarios. Compared with the existing longitudinal hazard assessment methods, the effectiveness and universality of the pre-collision hazard assessment method proposed in this paper are demonstrated.
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Design and Research of Intelligent Vehicle EPB Controller Based on ISO26262 Standard

Nanjing Tech University-Min Song
Senior-Tian Le Jia
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the development of intelligent vehicle and new energy vehicles has advanced by leaps and bounds, which has further improved the safety requirements of controllers. And more and more component manufacturers are actively promoting the ISO 26262 standard “Road Vehicles-Functional Safety”. At the same time, the electronic parking brake (EPB) system is an indispensable electronic product of the intelligent vehicle, which brings convenience to drivers and improves vehicle safety. So it is necessary to develop an intelligent vehicle pneumatic EPB system based on the ISO 26262 standard to improve reliability and safety. In this paper, the concept phase of the ISO 26262 standard was analyzed and applied to the design of the EPB system. The risk assessment and risk analysis of the EPB system were carried out, and the corresponding safety objectives were formulated. In this paper, a dual MCU scheme was proposed to the EPB system, which contained the core MCU and the monitoring MCU. Then the hardware circuit is designed according to the proposed safety goal, including mutual reset circuit and…
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Exploration of Cavitation-Suppressing Orifice Designs for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Operating with Straight-Run Gasoline

Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Yuanjiang Pei, Michael L. Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Roberto Torelli, Gina M. Magnotti, Sibendu Som
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The occurrence of cavitation inside injectors is generally undesirable since it can cause material erosion and result in deviations from the expected injector performance. Previous numerical work employing an injector geometry measured with x-ray diagnostics and operating with a high-volatility straight-run gasoline (SRG) has shown that: (1) most of the cavitation is generally observed at low needle lifts, (2) needle motion is responsible for asymmetric structures in the internal flow as well as large pressure and velocity gradients that trigger phase transition at the orifice inlets, and (3) cavitation affects the injector discharge coefficient and distribution of injected fuel. To explore the potential for material damage within the injector orifices due to cavitation cloud collapse, the cavitation-induced erosion risk assessment (CIERA) tool has been applied for the first time to the realistic geometry of a heavy-duty injector using the CONVERGE software. Predictions from a large eddy simulation indicated critical locations with high erosive potential in specific injector orifices. These locations matched qualitatively well with x-ray scans of an eroded injector sample that underwent a durability…
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A Maneuver-Based Threat Assessment Strategy for Collision Avoidance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Beihang University, China-Weiwen Deng
General Motors LLC, USA-Jinsong Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 07-12-01-0003
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) are being developed for more and more complicated application scenarios, which often require more predictive strategies with better understanding of the driving environment. Taking traffic vehicles’ maneuvers into account can greatly expand the beforehand time span for danger awareness. This article presents a maneuver-based strategy to vehicle collision threat assessment. First, a maneuver-based trajectory prediction model (MTPM) is built, in which near-future trajectories of ego vehicle and traffic vehicles are estimated with the combination of vehicle’s maneuvers and kinematic models that correspond to every maneuver. The most probable maneuvers of ego vehicle and each traffic vehicles are modelled and inferred via Hidden Markov Models with mixture of Gaussians outputs (GMHMM). Based on the inferred maneuvers, trajectory sets consisting of vehicles’ position and motion states are predicted by kinematic models. Subsequently, time to collision (TTC) is calculated in a strategy of employing collision detection at every predicted trajectory instance. For this purpose, safe areas via bounding boxes are applied on every vehicle, and Separating Axis Theorem (SAT) is applied for collision prediction…
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Safety Assessment of General Aviation Airplanes and Rotorcraft in Commercial Service

S-18C ARP5150A and ARP5151A Working Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5151A
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This document describes a process that may be used to perform the ongoing safety assessment for (1) GAR aircraft and components (hereafter, aircraft), and (2) commercial operators of GAR aircraft. The process described herein is intended to support an overall safety management program. It is to help a company establish and meet its own internal standards. The process described herein identifies a systematic means, but not the only means, to assess continuing airworthiness. Ongoing safety management is an activity dedicated to assuring that risk is identified and properly eliminated or controlled. The safety management process includes both safety assessment and economic decision-making. While economic decision-making (factors related to scheduling, parts, and cost) is an integral part of the safety management process, this document addresses only the ongoing safety assessment process. This ongoing safety assessment process includes safety problem identification and corrective action, tracking of problems, the application of “lessons learned” to improve the efficiency of the process, and reduction of the time to achieve corrective action in the field. ARP5150 is the recommended practice for…
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Guarding of Starter System Energization

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1493_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-08 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard describes guarding to help prevent hazardous machine movement caused by activation of the starter motor by bypassing the starter control system. This document is applicable to off-road, self-propelled work machines, as identified in SAE J1116, and agricultural tractors, as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390, which have the potential for hazardous machine movement as a result of bypassing the starter control system and powering of the starter motor.
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Flammability of Polymeric Interior Materials - Horizontal Test Method

Textile and Flexible Plastics Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J369_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-08 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard pertains to automotive vehicles and off-road, self-propelled work machines used in construction, general purpose industrial, agriculture, forestry, and specialized mining machinery. This standard does not address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed when conducting this test.
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Scaling Evaluation of Ice-Crystal Icing on a Modern Turbofan Engine in PSL Using the COMDES-MELT Code

Ohio Aerospace Institute-Jen-Ching Tsao
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents preliminary ice-crystal icing (ICI) altitude scaling evaluation results of a Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) that was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) during January of 2018. This engine geometry features a hidden core design to keep the core less exposed. The engine was fitted with internal video cameras to observe various ice buildup processes at multiple selected locations within the engine core flow path covering the fan stator, the splitter-lip/shroud/strut, and the high pressure compressor (HPC) variable inlet guide vane (IGV) regions. The potential ice accretion risk was pre-determined to occur by using NASA’s in-house 1D Engine Icing Risk assessment code, COMDES-MELT. The code was successful in predicting the risk of ice accretion in adiabatic regions like the fan-stator of the HURE at specific engine operating points. However at several operating points during the test, liquid water was observed running along the shroud toward the variable IGV of the HPC regions with an air temperature well below freezing, thus no particle melting could have occurred due…
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DO -326A and ED-202A : An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials

  • Professional Development
  • C1949
Published 2019-06-10

The international standards D-326A (U.S.) and ED-202A (Europe) titled "Airworthiness Security Process Specification" are the cornerstones of the "DO-326/ED-202 Set" and they are the only Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) by FAA & EASA for aviation cyber-security airworthiness certification, as of 2019. The "DO-326/ED-202 Set" also includes companion documents DO-356A/ED-203A: "Airworthiness Security Methods and Considerations" & DO-355/ED-204: "Information Security Guidance for Continuing Airworthiness" (U.S. & Europe) and ED-201: "Aeronautical Information System Security (AISS) Framework Guidance" & ED-205: "Process Standard for Security Certification / Declaration of Air Traffic Management / Air Navigation Services (ATM/ANS) Ground Systems“ (Europe only).

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Oxygen Cylinder Installation Guide

A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5021B
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This document provides guidance for oxygen cylinder installation on commerical aircraft based on airworthiness requirements, and methods practiced within aerospace industry. It covers considerations for oxygen systems from beginning of project phase up to production, maintenance, and servicing. The document is related to requirements of DOT-approved oxygen cylinders, as well to those designed and manufactured to standards of ISO 11119. However, its basic rules may also be applicable to new development pertaining to use of such equipment in an oxygen environment. For information regarding oxygen cylinders itself, also refer to AIR825/12.
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