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Multi-objective Restraint System Robust and Reliability Design Optimization with Advanced Data Analytics

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Company-Guosong Li, Kevin Pline, Zhenyan Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0743
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint system design optimization is important for occupant protection and achieving high score in NCAP rating of five-Star. The target is to minimize the Relative Risk Score (RRS), defined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NTHSA)'s New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). The design input includes restraint feature options (e.g., some specific features on/off) as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables, such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria involve HIC, chest deflection/acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meeting or exceeding all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 requirements. Considering the local variability of input variables such as manufacturing tolerances, the robustness and reliability of nominal designs were also taken into account in optimization process. Genetic Algorithms (GA) based optimization methods were applied because these methods can handle discrete and continuous design variables simultaneously, as well treat such highly nonlinear optimization problems in a robust manner In this study, frontal impact modes were used…
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Assessment of Collision Markings on Non-Used Vehicle Restraint Systems

Design Research Engineering-Richard H. Gregg
Explico Engineering-Karla J. Petroskey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0975
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Forensic investigators of automobile collisions are commonly tasked with determining whether physical evidence observed on restraint systems is consistent with the occupant’s use or non-use of the seat belt restraint. The characteristics of collision-induced markings generated on seat belt systems are not solely dependent on the belted status of the occupant, but also the technological features incorporated in the seat belt assembly. As the state-of-the-art for seat belt assemblies have changed over time, so has the constellation of physical evidence typically created on seat belt restraint systems. Pretensioner deployment can leave physical evidence on restraint system hardware in the absence of occupant loading. This study presents examples of physical evidence collected from seat belt systems involved in real-world collisions, which were initially alleged to affirm proper belt use, but were ultimately proven to be evidence of non-use. Several laboratory demonstrations were conducted to investigate physical evidence created on restraint system hardware as a result of pretensioner deployments of non-used seat belts in a variety of non-stowed conditions. The demonstrations show the initial positions of the…
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A primary study on the restraint system of self-driving car

Hunan University-Binhui Jiang, Hongze Ren, Zhonghao Bai
The Johns Hopkins University-Feng Zhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s postures in the self-driving car, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car has significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mainstream restraint systems (3-points belt with airbag or 4-points belt with airbag) on the driver in three different scenarios (driving with a seat angle of 110°, half-reclining resting with a seat angle of 135°, and reclining resting with a seat angle of 160°) . It can be found that in the simulation results: 1. All the restraint systems are capable of providing effective protection for the driving driver and the restraint system with 4-points belt has advantages due to its better protective effect on the occupant thorax; 2. When the driver is half-reclining or reclining resting, the head HIC36, neck Nij and chest compression are about 827-958, 0.62-0.88, and 66-68 mm, respectively;…
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Innovative Active Head Restraint System in a Car: Safety Assessment with Virtual Human Body Model

Mecas ESI S.r.o-Jana Hlucha, Ludek Kovar
Transport Research Centre-Martina Kostikova, Pavlina Moravcova, Katerina Bucsuhazy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0979
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are many systems designed to protect passengers in modern vehicles. The aim of this article is to use numerical simulations for safety assessment of innovative head restraint system, which can protect passengers head and neck during a side impact. That is, to evaluate possible benefit of such headrest installed in a car without head airbag during side impact and it is also tested in configuration of the far side impact. The functionality of the headrest is evaluated with respect to human population variability. We use the virtual human body model Virthuman to represent an occupant. The model is scaled for pre-selected human individuals to assess population variability influence in configuration of side impact scenarios. The human model can cover large numbers of passengers of different sizes and it extends conventional virtual evaluation of the new safety designs via existing pre-defined mono-purpose side dummies and its FE models. FE model of a small car with side airbag is used to verify benefit of the innovative headrest in different side impact scenarios inspired by the pole…
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An Optimization Study of Occupant Restraint System for Different BMI Senior Women in Vehicle Frontal Impact

Chongqing University-Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Huijie Xu, Yue Fu, Ling Jiang, Yunlei Yin
State Key Lab of Vehicle NVH & Safety Technology-Ruyi Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0981
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accident statistics have shown that older and obese occupants are less adaptable to existing vehicle occupant restraint systems than ordinary middle-aged male occupants, and tend to have higher risk of death and injury in vehicle crashes.However, the current research on the mechanism of injury in vehicle frontal impact for aging and obese occupants is scarce. This paper mainly focuses on the optimization design method of occupant constraint system parameters for specific body type characteristics. The damage attributes of vehicle crash on elderly female with different BMI (body mass index) was analyzed. The design variables in the constraint system were screened for DOE analysis. We selected five parameters for optimization, namely the force limiter force limit value of the seat belt, the pretensioner preload of the seat belt, the preload time of the seat belt, the ignition time of the airbag, the proportionality coefficient of the mass flow rate of the airbag. The objective of this study is to minimize the risk of comprehensive injuries, and the constraints are that indicator values for head injury, neck…
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Optimal Restraint System in Frontal Impact and Its Applications

Geely Automobile Research Institute-Xiao Zhang, Yang Heping, Liu Shuang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0985
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Occupant injury is affected by restraint system in a vehicle crash event. In order to minimize the occupant injury, the characteristics of restraint system has been discussed and two basic functions have been proposed in a mass-spring model. Based on above functions, an optimal restraint system is proposed and the influence factors on the restraint system is discussed. Then the shortcomings of optimal restraint system are discussed. Based on these shortcomings, a suboptimal restraint system which is more close to reality is proposed, and the influence factors on the sub-system is also discussed as well. A new index-OSI (Occupant injury Severity Index), which can be used to evaluate the crashworthiness is given by suboptimal restraint system. By studying the relationship between OSI and Head-Chest composite injury risk possibility, it is concluded that OSI is the better index for evaluating crash pulse compared to VPI (Vehicle Pulse Index), EA (Effective Acceleration) and OLC (Occupant Load Criterion). At last, the sensitivity of OSI’s influence factors are analyzed by a number of CAE simulations, these simulation studies provide…
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Identifying Automated Driving Systems-Dedicated Vehicles (ADS-DVs) Passenger Issues for Persons with Disabilities

On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3171_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
It is expected that Level 4 and 5 automated driving systems-dedicated vehicles (ADS-DVs) will eventually enable persons to travel at will who are otherwise unable to obtain a driver's license for a conventional vehicle, namely, persons with certain visual, cognitive, and/or physical impairments. This information report focuses on these disabilities, but also provides guidance for those with other disabilities. This report is limited to fleet operated on-demand shared mobility scenarios, as this is widely considered to be the first way people will be able to interact with ADS-DVs. To be more specific, this report does not address fixed route transit services or private vehicle ownership. Similarly, this report is focused on road-worthy vehicles; not scooters, golf carts, etc. Lastly, this report does not address the design of chair lifts, ramps, or securements for persons who use wheeled mobility devices (WHMD) (e.g., wheelchair, electric cart, etc.), as these matters are addressed by other committees within SAE International.
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Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes

Aircraft SEAT Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5276/1
  • Current
Published 2019-10-31 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems (CRS) which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport category airplanes. The AS is not intended to provide design criteria that could be met only by an aircraft-specific CRS. The goal of this standard is to achieve child-occupant protection by specifying a dynamic test method and evaluation criteria for the performance of CRS under emergency landing conditions.
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Personnel Protection - Skid Steer Loaders

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1388_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard is intended to provide personnel protection guidelines for skid steer loaders. This document is intended as a guide towards standard practice, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. This document provides performance criteria for newly manufactured loaders and it is not intended for in-service machines.
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Personnel Protection for General Purpose Industrial Machines

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J98_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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