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FOUR WAY ADJUSTABLE HEAD RESTRAINT SYSTEM

Academic Center-Nitin Kumar Waghmare
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2528
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the incidence of whiplash-associated disorders caused by rear impacts, head restraints should be closer to the head which decreases the amount of relative motion and it is believed to reduce the risk of soft tissue neck injury. Drivers are raising complaints that the head restraint causes discomfort by interfering with their preferred head position, forcing them to select a more reclined seat back angle [1]. This paper is about the importance of head restraint system and how it can be improved by adjusting the angle between the head restraint and passenger`s head. It is essential to carry out research on head restraint that can be adjusted in forward and backward direction letting the cost of seats remain in budget.
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Personnel Protection - Skid Steer Loaders

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1388_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard is intended to provide personnel protection guidelines for skid steer loaders. This document is intended as a guide towards standard practice, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. This document provides performance criteria for newly manufactured loaders and it is not intended for in-service machines.
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Personnel Protection for General Purpose Industrial Machines

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J98_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
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Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc.-Alexander Bruno, Megan Toney-Bolger, Juff George, Jeffrey Koller, Anton Filatov, Joseph Olberding
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Low- to moderate-speed motor vehicle collisions are a common crash type and are sometimes associated with injury complaints. Understanding occupant motion (kinematics) in response to low- and moderate-speed motor vehicle collisions is important for evaluating occupant interactions with interior vehicle structures, including the restraint systems, with the ultimate goal of assessing injury potential. Furthermore, quantitative occupant kinematic data from full-scale crash testing of late-model passenger vehicles is limited for collisions at low- to moderate-speeds. The current study reports kinematic data from full-scale frontal and rear-end crash tests of late-model, mid-size sedans with delta-Vs ranging from 6.0 to 19.0 kph (3.7 to 11.8 mph) and 5.6 to 19.5 kph (3.5 to 12.1 mph), respectively. For each test vehicle, the motion of a Hybrid III 50th-percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) restrained in the driver seat was recorded using high-speed onboard video. Motion tracking of the video was used to evaluate the excursion and velocity of each ATD’s head, shoulder, elbow, and knee with respect to the vehicle interior. Restraint loads were recorded via load cells placed…
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Study of Optimization Strategy for Vehicle Restraint System Design

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Guosong Li, Ching-Hung Chuang, Kevin Pline
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint systems are optimized to maximize occupant safety and achieve high safety ratings. The optimization formulation often involves the inclusion or exclusion of restraint features as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria such as Head Injury Criterion (HIC), chest deflection, chest acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meets or exceeds all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) requirements. Typically, Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimizations are applied because of their capability to handle discrete and continuous variables simultaneously and their ability to jump out of regions with multiple local optima, particularly for this type of highly non-linear problems. However, the computational time for the GA based optimization is often lengthy because of the relatively slow convergence comparing to derivative based algorithms. This study compares GA and multi-strategy optimization algorithms on driver’s side full frontal 90-degree rigid barrier impact MADYMO simulations at different impact speeds with belted and unbelted occupants. The…
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Air Cargo Pallets - Utilization Guidelines

AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5486
  • Current
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Air cargo pallets and their cargo restraint nets constitute aircraft Unit Load Devices, defined by industry standards and airworthiness certified based on Technical Standard Order (TSO) C90c in accordance with the requirements of NAS 3610. This guarantees their design to be intrinsically safe for flight on board compatible aircraft types. However, actual flight safety also requires these certified pieces of equipment to be properly used: numerous occurrences have demonstrated a certified ULD can nevertheless jeopardize flight safety if loaded or restrained in an inadequate manner.
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Road Simulation Techniques for Reproducing Vehicle Behavior at Motocross Running on a Track

Suzuki Motor Corporation-Ryota Shimizu, Hisayuki Sugita
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
A Road Simulator was developed with the aim of reproducing actual vehicle behavior while running on motocross (MX) track in a laboratory. Vehicle behavior while running on an MX track is influenced by various inertial forces, such as jump landing, acceleration at full throttle, reduced speed at full braking and so on, and also load input from the rider to handlebars and footrests. As all influences must be considered, these inertial force and external force should be applied to a vehicle in laboratory tests.To reproduce various inertial forces such as falling inertia at jump landing, longitudinal inertia during acceleration or deceleration, and rider body action on the vehicle, Active restraint systems must be added instead of the traditional method of Road Simulator that controls wheel axle’s vertical and longitudinal directions with actuators. The number of hydraulic actuator was increased, therefore all actuators must be controlled to eliminate any interaction effect of other actuator load and action. Furthermore, introducing actuator control technology that separated Frequency Response Function (FRF) by each running event, eventually the reproduction of…
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AS36100 Background and Development Record

AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR36108
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a record of the development by SAE AGE-2A Air Cargo Sub-Committee of Aerospace Standard AS36100, Air Cargo Unit Load Devices — Performance Requirements and Test Parameters, published 2005-02, and its revision A published 2006-04, intended as a technical reference for airworthiness approval of air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded with either baggage or freight on board civil transport aircraft, and to partly supersede previously used NAS 3610, Cargo unit load devices - Specification for — [ Revision 10, 1990, referenced in TSO C90(c) ].
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Air and Air/Surface (Platform) Cargo Pallet Nets

AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS1131C
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides dimensional, structural and environmental requirements for pallet nets to be used in conjunction with 2.44 m (8 ft) wide pallets described in AS1130. The pallet/net combination are used in freighter versions of certificated aircraft equipped to provide restraint to pallets tested to the requirements of NAS 3610 Class II restraint system. The minimum essential criteria are identified by use of the key word "shall". Recommended criteria are identified by use of the key word "should", and while not mandatory, are considered to be primary importance in providing serviceable, economical, and practical air transport pallet nets. Deviation from recommended criteria should occur only after careful consideration, extensive testing, and thorough service evaluation have shown alternate methods to be satisfactory. This document establishes five sizes of basic pallet nets as follows: a Size F (10 ft) (NAS 3610-2F1N): To restrain a 2.44 mm × 2.99 m × 3 m (96 in × 117.75 in × 118 in) high (max) load b Size R (16 ft) (NAS 3610-2R1N): To restrain a 2.44…
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Air Cargo Unit Load Devices - Use of Airworthiness Reference Documents

AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR36106A
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides instructions for intended proper use of Aerospace Standard AS36100A, published 2006-04 [TSO pending], as the technical reference for airworthiness approval of air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded on board civil transport aircraft. For consistency and cross-checking purposes, it also includes instructions for proper use of previous NAS 3610 [Revision 10, 1990, referenced in TSO C90c], as commonly understood by the industry.
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