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Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb reinforced Plastics

Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt Ltd.-Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep S, Aakash S K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2538
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Plastics Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt. Ltd, Chennai. India Key Words: Paper Honeycomb, Epoxy Composites, Mechanical Properties, Tensile, Impact & Flexural Test Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective : Composite Materials are widely being used in many engineering applications because of their desirable properties & Cost, Weight Effectiveness. They are widely being used as their Strength-Weight Ratio is Higher than any Other Material. Paper Honeycomb Material is basically a paper made of honeycomb shapes enforced between layers of Glass Mat. This paper deals with the evaluation of Tensile Strength, Flexural (Three-Point Bending) Strength & Flexural Modulus, Impact Strength of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Epoxy Composites. The Scope of this Material defines the quality of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Composites which can be used for Automotive Trim Parts. Methodology: Before beginning the tests, the specimens should be prepared and the steps for the preparation of paper honeycomb reinforced epoxy composites are shown below: 1. Mould Preparation 2. Mixing of Epoxy and Hardener with a ratio of 10:1 3.…
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High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat System for Tractor Sheet Metal Application

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Rahul Lalwani, Sudhir Sawant, Yogesh keskar, Nitin Pagar
Mahindra Research Valley-Vinay Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2541
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In sheet metal painting for various applications like tractor and automobiles, most attractive coating is metallic paints. It is widely applied using 3 coat 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production through put time and lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming and sustainability initiatives, paint application process was identified to reduce burden on environment and save energy. Various other industry benchmarking and field performance requirement studies helped to identify critical quality parameters. There was collaboration with supplier to develop monocoat system without compromising any performance and aesthetic properties. This resulted in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.Metallic mono-coat formulated using strong polyurethane resins and latest technology pre-coated aluminum pigment for achieving metallic effect in finish. With new resin technology, further reduction in baking temperature and energy is possible.
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Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

Mahindra Engineering-Rahul Lalwani
Mahindra Research Valley-Divya Pande, B Jayanthan, Vinay Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2555
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating. This method can save huge time in predicting the weathering performance and decision making. RESULTS (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation degradation study was performed on…
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Primer, Anodic Electrodeposition for Aircraft Applications

AMS G8 Aerospace Organic Coatings Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3144A
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes the requirements for a waterborne, corrosion inhibiting, chemical and solvent resistant, anodic electrodeposition epoxy primer capable of curing at 200 to 210 °F (93 to 99 °C).
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Design and Analysis of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Automobile Hood

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Akhil Kumar Guduru, V N B Prasad Sodisetty, Vidya Prudhvi Sai Katari
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The need for eco-friendly materials is recently increasing in the automobile and aerospace sectors. Material selection for automobile components is influenced by various factors such as cost, weight and strength. Natural fibers offers various advantages over conventional materials such as environmental friendly, easily available, recyclable and higher specific strength. Among the natural fibers Sisal and Kenaf fibers are selected for present study due to their good mechanical properties and availability. Kenaf fibers have great potential to be used as construction and automotive materials due to their long fibers which are derived from the bast. Sisal fibers do not absorb moisture and possess good impact, sound absorbing properties and high fire resistance properties. Epoxy LY556 is selected as matrix material to bind the combination of these two natural fibers due to its high temperature resistance and adherence to reinforcements. Alkaline treatment was carried out to remove the moisture from the natural fibers. Fabrication of epoxy/Kenaf fibre/Sisal Fibre composite materials of different stacking sequence was carried out by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) method. These composites…
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Application of Response Surface Method to Optimize Waterjet Cutting Process Parameter of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Laminates

VIT-Savitoj Singh Aulakh, Dhanush Patil, Renold Elsen, Sangeet Aggarwal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Waterjet machining is a widely used advanced machining technique because of its versatility in removal of material for a wider range of materials. Waterjet machining is particularly advantageous in the precise cutting of advanced materials like Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) comparative to conventional machining methods. The conventional machining methods result in the release of high amount of glass fiber dust which leaves the work environment unsafe for the workers. The material dust if inhaled can lead to acute respiratory diseases. In this work an analysis was done on the cutting performance of Waterjet machining and is presented based on an experimental investigation on fabricated fiberglass reinforced laminates. It is shown that with a good combination of cutting parameters such as nozzle traverse speed, waterjet pressure, and Stand-off distance a cutting performance can be achieved. Plausible trends of kerf quality and machining time with respect to the waterjet pressure, nozzle traverse speed and nozzle stand-off distance are analysed. The surface roughness and machining time has been optimized using DOE techniques for achieving proper machining characteristics and…
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Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties and Vibration Damping Frequency Factor of Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science-Sathish Kumar Rajamanickam, Sivakumar Sattanathan, Deenadayalan Ganapathy, Joshuva Arockia Dhanraj
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Vishnuvardhan Ravichandran
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Kenaf Fiber regarded as industrial crop for different applications. It is one of the most important plants cultivated for natural fibers globally. Natural fibers such as kenaf fibers are getting attention of researchers and industries to utilize it in different composites due to its biodegradable nature. In this present investigation mechanical properties, vibration damping frequency factor and thermogravimetric analysis of kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite (KFREC) have been evaluated and reported. The tests were conducted with different weight categories of kenaf fiber such as 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%. The effects of fiber content on tensile, flexural, impact strengths, hardness and thermal decomposition properties of the composite were determined. The failure mechanism and damage features of the KFREC were categorized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the increase in the fiber content decreases the damping vibration factor (ζ) correspondingly. The lowest value of the damping vibration factor was recorded as 0.033 for 35% weight content of Kenaf fiber in the composite. The maximum value of hardness, tensile, flexural, and impact strengths were…
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Exploration of Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Sisal Fiber Reinforced Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Epoxy Polymer Matrix Composite as an Alternative Friction Material in Automobiles

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shanthosh Gopal, Tharunkumar Magudeeswaran, Ramamoorthi Rangasamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The brake pad is one of the foremost imperative parts of the vehicle. Due to the environmental requirement, natural materials were the alternate source for products manufacturing. The product composite made by using hot press techniques with mixing ingredients such as natural fiber (treated sisal), cashew nut filler, graphite and alumina with resin (cashew nut shell liquid - CNSL and epoxy). Two formulas and four samples of each set were composed by varying the resin type of CNSL and epoxy and prepared the test samples with attaining better hardness. The main intern of this proposed effort is to appraise the wear in dry sliding and performance of friction of the prepared composites. The composites are taken for tribo test by varying the load of 10,20,30,40 N and sliding distance of 1000, 2000 m respectively. Experiments were performed at stated process parametric conditions to record the responses. The result shows that the CNSL resin composites specific wear resistance and frictional coefficients are found better than epoxy resin composites. The addition of filler element cashew nut shell…
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Influence of Amount of Phenolic Resin on the Tribological Performance of Environment-Friendly Friction Materials

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi-Navnath Kalel, Jayashree Bijwe, Ashish Darpe
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The binder in friction materials (FMs) plays a very crucial role which binds all the ingredients firmly so that they can function the way they were supposed to do. The type and amount of binder, both are very critical for manipulating the desired performance properties, which mainly include friction and its sensitivity towards operating parameters, wear resistance, counter-face friendliness, noise, vibration etc. Although a lot is reported on the influence of types of resins on tribo-performance of FMs, hardly any paper pertains to paint this on a bigger canvas with more detailed understanding of the amount of resin in FMs on the performance properties.The present study addresses these aspects by developing brake-pads with identical composition but varying in amount (wt. %) of straight phenolic resins (6, 8, 10 and 12) by compensating the difference with barite, a space filler. The ingredients did not contain asbestos, Copper, Zinc, etc. and hence were environment friendly. Tribological performance of the composites was evaluated on a full-scale inertia brake dynamometer following JASO C406 test schedule. With increase in the…
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Aging Effect on Disc Pad Properties

Compact International (1994) Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Kritsana Kaewlob, Nipon Tiempan
SKR Consulting Inc.-Seong K. Rhee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
One low-copper formulation and one copper-free formulation were made into disc pads, and both of them were cured under 4 different conditions. These pads had no backing layer and no scorched layer. Pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies were continuously monitored over a period of 12 months. After 12 months at room temperature, pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies all increased to higher values. The low-copper formulation increased relatively rapidly during the first 60 days and the copper-free formulation increased relatively rapidly for the first 90 days, and then slowly thereafter. Two competing processes are found to be taking place simultaneously; internal stress relief leading to pad expansion and cross-linking of the resin leading to pad shrinkage. As the pad properties are changing continuously, the timing of property measurement becomes an important issue for quality assurance. Implications of these changing properties are discussed for friction, wear, brake squeal and squeal modeling/simulation, and simple non-destructive test methods are recommended for checking pad quality consistency.
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