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A Novel Metaheuristic for Adaptive Signal Timing Optimization Considering Emergency Vehicle Preemption and Tram Priority

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Universite Mohammed V de Rabat Ecole Mohammadia d’Ingenieurs, Morocco-Maryam Alami Chentoufi, Rachid Ellaia
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-02-0007
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
In this article, a novel hybrid metaheuristic based on passing vehicle search (PVS) cultural algorithm (CA) is proposed. This contribution has a twofold aim: First is to present the new hybrid PVS-CA. Second is to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for adaptive signal timing optimization. For this, a system that can adapt efficiently to the real-time traffic situation based on priority signal control is developed. Hence, Transit Signal Priority (TSP) techniques have been used to adjust signal phasing in order to serve emergency vehicles (EVs) and manage the tram priority in a coordinated tram intersection. The system used in this study provides cyclic signal operation based on a real-time control approach, including an optimization process and a database to manage the sensor data from detectors for real-time predictions of EV and tram arrival time. Then, a simulation model is developed using Arena Simulation Software to evaluate best timing plans at the intersection.
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Design and Performance Criteria Transport Aircraft Portable Megaphones

S-9A Safety Equipment and Survival Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4950B
  • Current
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides design criteria and performance tests for portable, handheld, battery-powered, electronic megaphones used by aircraft crew members to provide information and guidance in the event of an aircraft emergency or other non-routine situation.
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Message Sets for Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS)

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2354_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard describes standardized medium-independent messages needed by information service providers for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). The messages contained herein address all stages of travel (informational, pre-trip and en route), all types of travelers (drivers, passengers, personal devices, computers, other servers), all categories of information, and all platforms for delivery of information (in-vehicle, portable devices, kiosks, etc.).
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RDS Phrase Lists

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2540/1_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides a table of textual messages meeting the requirements for expressing “Radio Data Systems” (RDS) phrases commonly used in the ITS industry. They can be used both over the RDS subcarrier transmission media as part of a 37-bit long “Group 8a message” as well as being used to provide a common content list of phrases used in a wide number of other media and applications. This document SHALL define the normative index values to be used, extending the CEN established list to provide phrases needed by US practitioners. This standard provides non-normative textual phrases which MAY be used by implementers to ensure intelligible results. This document SHALL follow the formats and rules established in SAE J2540 in the expressions, manipulations, and use of such tables. It should be pointed out that within the rules established by this document a variety of final table are all considered “compliant” with the document, and may vary as fits the needs of implementers.
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Vision-Based Techniques for Identifying Emergency Vehicles

Texas A&M University-Abhishek Nayak, Swaminathan Gopalswamy, Sivakumar Rathinam
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses different computer vision techniques investigated by the authors for identifying Emergency Vehicles (EV). Two independent EV identification frameworks were investigated: (1) A one-stage framework where an object detection algorithm is trained on a custom dataset to detect EVs, (2) A two-stage framework where an object classification algorithm is implemented in series with an object detection pipeline to classify vehicles into EVs and non-EVs. A comparative study is conducted for different multi-spectral feature vectors of the image, against several classification models implemented in framework 2. Additionally, a user-defined feature vector is defined and its performance is compared against the other feature vectors. Classification outputs from each of the frameworks are compared to the ground truth, and results are quantitatively listed to conclude upon the ideal decision rule. As maintaining the speed of data output is the priority throughout our development, a computationally inexpensive object tracking algorithm is selected to accurately track EV between image frames. This vision-based EV detection scheme fused with data from other sensors on our autonomous vehicle shall be used…
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Impacts of Flashing Emergency Lights and Vehicle-Mounted Illumination on Driver Visibility and Glare

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-John Bullough, Nicholas Skinner, Mark Rea
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Flashing emergency lights on police cars, fire trucks, and ambulances need to be bright enough to alert otherwise unaware drivers about their presence on and near the roadway. Anecdotal evidence suggests that public safety agencies select emergency lighting systems with red or blue flashing lights based on their apparent brightness, with brighter lights judged as "better." With the advent of light emitting diodes (LEDs), emergency flashing lights are brighter and produce more highly saturated colors, thereby causing greater discomfort and disability glare. As a result, first response workers are at higher risk for being injured or killed in vehicle crashes because approaching drivers cannot see them. In the present study, participants viewed red and blue flashing lights on a scale model police vehicle, conforming to present recommended practices for emergency lights. Lights varied in intensity and optical power (intensity × duration). Participants were asked to view the scale model police vehicle and identify whether a police officer figure was standing beside the vehicle. In some trials, white LED sources were energized, providing low-level illumination on…
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Crew Rest Facilities

S-7 Flight Deck Handling Qualities Stds for Trans Aircraft
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4101/3A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This document recommends criteria for the design and installation of flight crew rest facilities (FCRF) on transport category aircraft when operations with an augmented flight crew are performed. NOTE: Within this ARP, the term “must” will indicate items required for compliance with outside known government regulations, especially 14 CFR Part 117. “Shall” describes sections which are required if this ARP is used as a means of compliance. The term “should” will indicate optional requirements, preferences, and recommendations of the approving SAE committee. Wherever noted and bracketed as [FAA] or [EASA], this document includes agency regulations for reference that are not otherwise evaluated herein.
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Survival Kit - Life Rafts and Slide/Rafts

S-9A Safety Equipment and Survival Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1282B
  • Current
Published 2019-03-05 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to survival kits to be carried with life rafts or slide/rafts on transport category airplanes flying extended over-water routes and equipped with approved satellite alerting devices (e.g., 406 MHz Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)), available for deployment after an emergency landing.
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Permanently or Semi-Permanently Installed Diagnostic Communication Devices

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3005-1_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-21 by SAE International in United States
The scope of the document is to define communication best practices in order to minimize problems for the vehicle owner when installing equipment which has a permanently or semi-permanently diagnostic CAN communication device connected to the SAE J1962 connector, or hardwired directly to the in-vehicle network.
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Optical Warning Devices for Authorized Emergency, Maintenance, and Service Vehicles

Emergency Warning Lights and Devices Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J845_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-04 by SAE International in United States
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for omnidirectional and selective coverage optical warning devices used on authorized emergency, maintenance, and service vehicles. It is intended to apply to, but is not limited to, surface land vehicles.
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