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Green's Function Extraction from Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_08
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Understanding what affects acoustic waves propagating in the atmosphere is important for a variety of military applications including the development of new remote sensing techniques.

Acoustic waves propagating in the atmosphere may undergo many effects including refraction by temperature and wind velocity gradients, scattering by atmospheric turbulence, absorption by the atmosphere (fluid), diffraction by terrain features, and absorption and reflection by a porous ground. As a result, there may be insonification in acoustic shadow zones, amplitude and phase fluctuations of the propagating sound signals, loss of signal coherence, changes in the interference maxima and minima of the direct ground reflected waves, and multipath effects. Understanding these effects is important for a variety of military applications, such as acoustic source localization and classification, noise propagation in the atmosphere, and the development of new remote sensing techniques of the atmosphere.

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Spatiotemporal Imaging Exploiting Structured Sparsity

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP09_07
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Overcoming the conventional limits of spatiotemporal imaging by applying compressed sensing and sparse representations to reduce the amount of data acquired while maintaining high image resolution.

Spatiotemporal imaging contains a large class of imaging problems, which involve collecting a sequence of data sets to resolve both the spatial and temporal (or spectral) distributions of some physics quantity. This capability is exploited in numerous different fields such as remote sensing, security surveillance systems, astronomical imaging, and biomedical imaging. One typical example is hyperspectral imaging, which is a powerful technology for remotely inferring the material properties of the objects in a scene of interest. Ultrasonic and thermal imaging are other important examples of spatiotemporal imaging where high spatial resolution is needed for urban planning, military planning, intelligence and disaster monitoring and evaluation.

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Spatiotemporal Imaging Exploiting Structured Sparsity

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35104
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Spatiotemporal imaging contains a large class of imaging problems, which involve collecting a sequence of data sets to resolve both the spatial and temporal (or spectral) distributions of some physics quantity. This capability is exploited in numerous different fields such as remote sensing, security surveillance systems, astronomical imaging, and biomedical imaging. One typical example is hyperspectral imaging, which is a powerful technology for remotely inferring the material properties of the objects in a scene of interest. Ultrasonic and thermal imaging are other important examples of spatiotemporal imaging where high spatial resolution is needed for urban planning, military planning, intelligence and disaster monitoring and evaluation.

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Analysis and Automated Detection of Ice Crystal Icing Conditions Using Geostationary Satellite Datasets and In Situ Ice Water Content Measurements

Met Analytics, Inc.-J. Walter Strapp
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Thomas Ratvasky
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recent studies have found that high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms can adversely impact aircraft engine and air probe (e.g. pitot tube and air temperature) performance. Radar reflectivity in these regions suggests that they are safe for aircraft penetration, yet high ice water content (HIWC) is still encountered. The aviation weather community seeks additional remote sensing methods for delineating where ice particle (or crystal) icing conditions are likely to occur, including products derived from geostationary (GEO) satellite imagery that is now available in near-real time at increasingly high spatio-temporal detail from the global GEO satellite constellation. A recent study using a large sample of co-located GEO satellite and in-situ isokinetic evaporator probe (IKP-2) total water content (TWC) datasets found that optically thick clouds with tops near to or above the tropopause in close proximity (≤ 40 km) to convective updrafts were most likely to contain high TWC (TWC ≥ 1 g m-3). These parameters are detected using automated algorithms and combined to generate a HIWC probability (PHIWC) product at…
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Bearings, Fiber Reinforced Plastic, Sleeve, Plain and Flanged, Self-Lubricating; General Specification for

ACBG Plain Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85560C
  • Current
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
This standard defines the requirements for fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite plain and flanged sleeve bearings that are self-lubricating and which are compatible with graphite-epoxy composites.
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Geospatial Accuracy of Small Unmanned Airborne System Data in the Coastal Environment

Aerospace & Defense Technology: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP05_06
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Determining the performance of image processing software could lead to better data collection strategy.

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of commonly available COTS software to produce geometrically accurate orthometric mosaics and terrain models from low-altitude UAS imagery.

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Review of Combustion Indexes Remote Sensing Applied to Different Combustion Types

Magneti Marelli SpA – Driveline Division-Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola
University of Bologna-Vittorio Ravaglioli, Filippo Carra
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes the main studies carried out by the authors for the development of indexes for remote combustion sensing applicable to different combustion types, i.e. conventional gasoline and diesel combustions, diesel PCCI and dual fuel gasoline-diesel RCCI.It is well-known that the continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world, both for pollutants and CO2 emissions.Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. Over the past years, the authors of this paper have developed several techniques to estimate the most important combustion indexes for combustion control, without using additional cylinder pressure sensors but only using the engine speed sensor (always available on board) and accelerometers (usually available on-board for gasoline engines). In addition, a low-cost sensor based on acoustic sensing can be integrated to support combustion indexes evaluation and other engine relevant information.The real-time calculation of combustion indexes is even more crucial for innovative Low Temperature Combustions (such as diesel PCCI or dual fuel…
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Measurement Technique for Continuous-Wave, Modulated, and Pulsed Monochromatic Radiation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34177
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In many applications, such as remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases, monochromatic radiation with multiple discrete wavelengths is required. To date, there no instrument or technique that measures the wavelength jitters and fluctuations in real time.

Portable Acousto-Optic Spectrometers

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33398
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Spectrometers are widely used for applications such as chemical analysis, remote sensing, quality control, environmental monitoring, spaceborne measurements, and optical measurements. Most spectrometers are based on using dispersive elements such as prisms, gratings, or etalons. These spectrometers typically have moving parts that induce spurious readings due to vibrations, and have limited use due to their limited spectral range and resolution capabilities, which in turn limit their use when needed for portable field applications.

A Robust Waveguide Millimeter-Wave Noise Source

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33239
Published 2018-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A noise source is an enabling technology for passive millimeter-wave remote sensing applications such as atmospheric sounding, and precipitation and ice cloud measurements. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a packaged noise source that will allow calibration of the front end at the sensing frequency. This capability will eliminate or reduce the requirement of a clear view to cold space, which will reduce the mass and complexity as well as the total cost of the system.