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Analysis and Automated Detection of Ice Crystal Icing Conditions Using Geostationary Satellite Datasets and In Situ Ice Water Content Measurements

Met Analytics, Inc.-J. Walter Strapp
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Thomas Ratvasky
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recent studies have found that high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms can adversely impact aircraft engine and air probe (e.g. pitot tube and air temperature) performance. Radar reflectivity in these regions suggests that they are safe for aircraft penetration, yet high ice water content (HIWC) is still encountered. The aviation weather community seeks additional remote sensing methods for delineating where ice particle (or crystal) icing conditions are likely to occur, including products derived from geostationary (GEO) satellite imagery that is now available in near-real time at increasingly high spatio-temporal detail from the global GEO satellite constellation. A recent study using a large sample of co-located GEO satellite and in-situ isokinetic evaporator probe (IKP-2) total water content (TWC) datasets found that optically thick clouds with tops near to or above the tropopause in close proximity (≤ 40 km) to convective updrafts were most likely to contain high TWC (TWC ≥ 1 g m-3). These parameters are detected using automated algorithms and combined to generate a HIWC probability (PHIWC) product at…
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Bearings, Fiber Reinforced Plastic, Sleeve, Plain and Flanged, Self-Lubricating; General Specification for

ACBG Plain Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85560C
  • Current
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
This standard defines the requirements for fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite plain and flanged sleeve bearings that are self-lubricating and which are compatible with graphite-epoxy composites.
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Geospatial Accuracy of Small Unmanned Airborne System Data in the Coastal Environment

Aerospace & Defense Technology: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP05_06
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Determining the performance of image processing software could lead to better data collection strategy.

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of commonly available COTS software to produce geometrically accurate orthometric mosaics and terrain models from low-altitude UAS imagery.

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Review of Combustion Indexes Remote Sensing Applied to Different Combustion Types

Magneti Marelli SpA – Driveline Division-Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola
University of Bologna-Vittorio Ravaglioli, Filippo Carra
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes the main studies carried out by the authors for the development of indexes for remote combustion sensing applicable to different combustion types, i.e. conventional gasoline and diesel combustions, diesel PCCI and dual fuel gasoline-diesel RCCI.It is well-known that the continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world, both for pollutants and CO2 emissions.Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. Over the past years, the authors of this paper have developed several techniques to estimate the most important combustion indexes for combustion control, without using additional cylinder pressure sensors but only using the engine speed sensor (always available on board) and accelerometers (usually available on-board for gasoline engines). In addition, a low-cost sensor based on acoustic sensing can be integrated to support combustion indexes evaluation and other engine relevant information.The real-time calculation of combustion indexes is even more crucial for innovative Low Temperature Combustions (such as diesel PCCI or dual fuel…
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Measurement Technique for Continuous-Wave, Modulated, and Pulsed Monochromatic Radiation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34177
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In many applications, such as remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases, monochromatic radiation with multiple discrete wavelengths is required. To date, there no instrument or technique that measures the wavelength jitters and fluctuations in real time.


Portable Acousto-Optic Spectrometers

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33398
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Spectrometers are widely used for applications such as chemical analysis, remote sensing, quality control, environmental monitoring, spaceborne measurements, and optical measurements. Most spectrometers are based on using dispersive elements such as prisms, gratings, or etalons. These spectrometers typically have moving parts that induce spurious readings due to vibrations, and have limited use due to their limited spectral range and resolution capabilities, which in turn limit their use when needed for portable field applications.


A Robust Waveguide Millimeter-Wave Noise Source

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33239
Published 2018-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A noise source is an enabling technology for passive millimeter-wave remote sensing applications such as atmospheric sounding, and precipitation and ice cloud measurements. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a packaged noise source that will allow calibration of the front end at the sensing frequency. This capability will eliminate or reduce the requirement of a clear view to cold space, which will reduce the mass and complexity as well as the total cost of the system.


Emission Performance of LPG Vehicles by Remote Sensing Technique in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Environmental Protection Dept.-Yat-Shing Yam
University of Technology Sydney-Yuhan Huang, John Zhou, Guang Hong
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Since 1st September 2014 the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) has been utilising a Dual Remote Sensing technique to monitor the emissions from gasoline and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles for identifying high emitting vehicles running on road. Remote sensing measures and determines volume ratios of the emission gases of HC, CO and NO against CO2, which are used for determining if a vehicle is a high emitter. Characterisation of each emission gas is shown and its potential to identify a high emitter is established. The data covers a total of about 2,200,000 LPG vehicle emission measurements taken from 14 different remote sensing units. It was collected from 6th January 2012 to 20th April 2017 across a period before and after the launch of the Remote Sensing programme for evaluating the performance of the programme. The results show that the HKEPD Remote Sensing programme is very effective to detect high emitting vehicles and reduce on-road vehicle emissions. The average measured remote sensing emissions of HC, CO and NO reduced by 53.6%, 29.6% and 50.3%…
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Remote Sensing for Smarter Forest Fire Fighting

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29721
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Spinoff is NASA's annual publication featuring successfully commercialized NASA technology. This commercialization has contributed to the development of products and services in the fields of health and medicine, consumer goods, transportation, public safety, computer technology, and environmental resources.


Health and Usage Monitoring Metrics Monitoring the Monitor

HM-1 Integrated Vehicle Health Management Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5783
  • Current
Published 2018-05-03 by SAE International in United States
This recommended practice applies to vibration monitoring systems for rotorcraft and fixed-wing drive trains, airframes, propulsion systems, electric power generators, and flight control systems. It addresses all aspects of metrics, including what to measure, how to measure, and how to evaluate the results.
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