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AFP Processing of Dry Fiber Materials (DFP) for Improved Rates and Reliability

Electroimpact Inc.-Michael Assadi, Tyler Field
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0030
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper explores the differences found when processing dry-fiber, thermoset, carbon materials (DFP) as compared to processing pre-preg, thermoset materials with Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) equipment. When comparing these two processes, heating systems and tension control must be modified from traditional AFP systems. These new heating systems also require enhanced safety measures. Existing safety systems have been designed to accommodate high performance AFP equipment. As a result, the changes required to accommodate DFP heating systems have become negligible. Although processing dry fiber requires a higher level of heating, tension control and added safety measures, once these differences are overcome, processing rates and reliability are significantly improved. Specifically, overall payout speeds and steering speeds can be increased for dry fiber resulting in increased laydown rates. The lack of resin within the material greatly reduces resin build-up for longer maintenance intervals. This also results in greater reliability by minimizing or eliminating the associated problems with resin build-up. All of these advantages increase the machine utilization when processing aerospace parts made from dry fiber materials with AFP equipment.
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Independent Aftermarket (IAM) and the Three Dimensions of Friction Material Evaluation

LINK South America-Pedro Oliveira, Henrique Rodrigues, Eduardo Ferro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0006
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is well known the difference between development levels and engineering investment applied to passenger car brake pads when compared to Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and items sold in the Independent Aftermarket (IAM). Based on these differences, the objective of this paper is to propose a simple evaluation for the IAM that can provide at least some level of the understanding of frictional material behavior. Based on a tripod of variables, or three Dimensions Development, described in this work as Performance, Comfort (NVH) and Durability; and using internationally and established testing procedures to measure these dimensions in order to meet the IAM demands for the cost-benefit engineering investment. An important part of the proposed tool is to position friction material against competition for market known issues, and, more importantly, to ensure end product safety and reliability.
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A Discussion on Detailing Processes for Improving the Dependability of Aerospace and Automotive Systems

National Institute for Space Research – INPE-Paula Renata dos Reis Aranha, Ana Paula de Sá Santos Rabello, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0299
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Complex and/ or highly integrated systems such as satellites, airplanes, air traffic controllers, cars, etc., require Dependability (Reliability, Maintainability, Availability, Safety, Security, etc.) assessments throughout their life cycle, especially in their development, where the time and cost to make changes are smaller. Such systems must achieve high levels of Dependability through a variety of approaches and processes. Among these, the processes of analysis and decision making from the conception phase to the final phase of the detailed project stand out, because in these phases the most important decisions are taken. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a discussion on detailing processes for improving the Dependability of aerospace and automotive systems. For this, it will present: 1) detailing process of a Dependability engineering; and 2) detailing process of a Dependability assurance, in order to establish processes that define/ highlight/ clarify activities pertaining to each area/ discipline (Engineering and Assurance). These details were obtained from information collected from specialists in the area, experiences of the related areas of INPE and of companies contracted by…
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Influence of cutting fluid on reliability of threaded fastener joints

Atlas Copco Industrial Technique AB, Sickla Industrial 19, 1-Erik Persson
System and Component Design, Department of Machine Design, K-Mayank Kumar, Sergei Glavatskih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2300
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study reports on the effect of cutting fluids on friction behavior of the threaded fasteners. Underhead and thread friction are measured during tightening process of the hex-head threaded fasteners coated with different zinc-based coatings: electroplated zinc, zinc flake, and electroplated zinc nickel, commonly used in the automotive industry. The tests and data analysis are conducted considering ISO 16047 as a baseline. Test conditions are set close to the actual production conditions found in the motor vehicle industry. Water-based and ester-based cutting fluids are selected to unveil their impact on the reliability of the threaded fastener joints. It is shown that a change in the underhead interface conditions from dry to lubricated drastically reduces friction for the electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings.
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Research on a DPF Regeneration Burner System for Use when Engine is not in Operation

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Tatsuki Igarashi, Yusuke Adachi, Ichiro Tsumagari, Shinya Sato
SANGO Co., Ltd.-Atsushi Yaeo, Akihiro Nakayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2237
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
An on board burner that enables DPF regeneration even when an engine is at standstill has been researched. By employing pre evaporative combustion with a wick burner, miniaturization of the burner system was successfully accomplished as well as stable ignition and combustion. Total heat necessary for DPF regeneration was reduced in comparison to the active DPF regeneration by means of engine control and an oxidation catalyst. Uneven temperature distribution in DPF and excessive temperature rise, which had been recognized as issues in the regeneration of a DPF while engine is at standstill, were solved by increase of combustion air amount and multi-step control of regeneration temperature and reliable regeneration was accomplished.
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Semiconductor Safety Concepts for the Power Distribution of Automated Driving

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Infineon Technologies AG, Germany-Stefan Schumi
University of Technology Graz, Austria-Daniel Watzenig
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0017
Published 2019-12-18 by SAE International in United States
Automated driving is a highly complex idea. It involves mechanics, electronics and chemistry, artificial intelligence, human intelligence and high computational efforts. Apart from those aspects, the automated intelligence is run using electricity. An unintended interrupt can easily lead to a hazard. Therefore, a highly reliable power distribution has to be developed. This work focuses on the reliability calculation of such a power distribution concept. It points out what is required and will be in future such that the algorithms for the path planning and control are running in a safe environment according to the ISO 26262 standard.
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Molecular Engineering for Mechanically Resilient and Stretchable Electronic Polymers and Composites

Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP12_10
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Establishing the design criteria for elasticity and ductility in conjugated polymers and composites by analysis of the structural determinants of the mechanical properties.

The ability to predict the mechanical properties of organic semiconductors is of critical importance for roll-to-roll production and thermomechanical reliability of organic electronic devices. This research describes the use of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to predict the density, tensile modulus, Poisson ratio, and glass transition temperature for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and its blend with C60. In particular, it is shown that the resolution of the coarse-grained model has a strong effect on the predicted properties.

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Wearable Trackers Predict Death Risk

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35629
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A recent study shows that wearable accelerometers — mechanical sensors worn like a watch, belt, or bracelet to track movement — are a more reliable measure of physical activity and better than patient surveys and other methods used by physicians at assessing five-year risk of death in older adults.

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Heat Shield Insulation for Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System

Sharda Motor Industries, Ltd.-Sivanandi Rajadurai, Ananth S
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2539
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automobile safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of the system over time. Thermal management and proper insulation are extremely important and highly demanding for the functioning of BSVI and RDE vehicles. Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. Heat shield design parameters such as insulation material type, insulation material composition, insulation thickness, insulation density, air gap thickness and outer layer material are studied for their influences on skin temperature using mathematical calculation, CFD simulation and measurement. Simulation results are comparable to that of the test results within 10% deviation. The performance index is calculated using the temperature gradient between the pipe surface and the external skin temperature. The performance index increases with material insulation thickness and insulation material density. Increase in insulation thickness from 6 mm to 19 mm reduces the skin temperature from 44% to 77%. The specialty insulation material provides a high…
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Determine Thermal Fatigue Requirements for PEPS Antenna Copper Wire over Vehicle Lifetime with Defined Reliability Requirements

GMTCI-Abhinav Jauhri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2582
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Reliability states the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification can be depended on to be accurate. And, tests according to GM specifications represents a minimum of 15 years of vehicle life time with defined Reliability and Confidence level.In this work, actual number of thermal cycles for Thermal Fatigue tests (Thermal Shock and Power Temperature Cycle) are calculated for Copper Wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5.Overstressing the PEPS Antenna under thermal fatigue requirement (defined number of thermal cycles based on Reliability and Confidence requirements) will lead to broken Copper wire which will result in component’s functional failure and thus impossible to continue reliability testing.The objective of this paper is to determine thermal fatigue requirements for Antenna’s Copper wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5. Testing with exact number of thermal cycles will reduce the validation failures owing to broken Copper wire and thus save incurred revalidation cost.The current study is limited to only adjusting the thermal fatigue requirements (Number of Thermal Cycles) for only specific E/E components having Copper wire…
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