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Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Shiping Huang, Yishi Wang, Jianjie Kuang, Jiakang Quan, Xiaofei Ma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1256
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but it’s energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve above problems, a heat dissipation method based on a heat pipe is proposed, and the heat pipe cold end is cooled by vehicle facing the wind. The purpose is to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the motor thermal management system under the condition of ensuring the normal temperature of the motor. Firstly, the motor heating model is established to analyze the position of the high temperature region when the motor is working, and the influence of the motor speed and torque on the temperature rise of the motor. Then the heat transfer model between the motor winding and the heat pipe cold end is established, and the influence of the working condition change of the heat pipe hot and cold end…

Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on VPG

CATARC-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang, Xin Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0170
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The durable load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by vehicle road load acquisition and load decomposition in the industry, and Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) is gradually replacing this technical route. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel six-component force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the durable load spectrum in the early stage of development.

An Application of Vehicle Accurate Fault Isolation and Prognostic Maintenance

Xiaoli Li
HeFei University of Technology-Yujie Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1081
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As Internet of things for vehicle is getting more and more attention and developing strength, how to release the data power on vehicle safety and usability is a valuable topic to research.Accurate fault isolation and prognostic maintenance is one of the most promising application direction, since it can reduce maintenance time, achieve more asset availability, and promote reliability and safety. In this paper, a comprehensive approach which combined with model-based and knowledge-based method is proposed to addressing the challenges. This paper also presents an application using the comprehensive approach applied in vehicle electric power steering(EPS) system. It can help maintenance person to quickly find out the root cause of the failures in a vehicle. Component and system behaving modes are collected for vehicle manufacture user to access vehicle health status.

Reliable Processes of Simulating Liner Roughness and Its Lubrication Properties

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Renze Wang, Chongjie Gu, Tian Tian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0178
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Topology of liner finish is critical to the performance of internal combustion engines. Proper liner finish simulation processes lead to efficient engine design and research. Fourier methods have been well studied to numerically generate liner topology. However, three major issues wait to be addressed to make the generation processes feasible and reliable. First, in order to simulate real plateau honed liners, approaches should be developed to calculate accurate liner geometric parameters. These parameters are served as the input of the generation algorithm. Material ratio curve, the common geometry calculation method, should be modified so that accurate root mean square of plateau height distribution could be obtained. Second, the set of geometric parameters used in generating liner finish (ISO 13565-2) is different from the set of parameters used in manufacturing industry (ISO 13565-3). Quantitative relations between these two sets should be studied. Third, numerically generated liners should be run in deterministic lubrication, dry contact, and engine cycle models. Their outcome behavior should be compared with experimental data. In this article, efforts were made to fill all…
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Non-Destructive Evaluation for Small Size Defects in Composite Structures using a Hybrid Approach

Eaton-Zhou Zhou
Lawrence Technological University-Xin Xie, Himanshu Kolambe, Abhijit Bothe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1268
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recently, composite materials/structures are getting increasingly used in the automotive and aerospace industry. Defects issue is commonly associated with the use of composite materials/structures. Reliable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite structures is still challenging due to the existence of small size defects. In this research, a hybrid approach is used to accurately determine small size internal defects. In this hybrid approach, X-Ray Computed Tomography is used as a reference to accurately determine all defect locations, then a digital shearography method is used to conduct fast NDE for in-line testing. The critical shearographic NDE parameters such as shearing angle, shearing distance and loading amount are determined and optimized based on the X-ray CT scan result. The smallest detectable defect size by digital shearography is determined as 0.44mm. From the comparison of X-ray CT scan results and digital shearography NDE results, the detection rate using digital shearography for defects with a size of larger than 1mm is 97.30% (36 detected out of 37) and for defects with a size of 0.4mm – 1mm is 84.48% (49 detected…

Parameters Analyses and Identification of Rubber Bush Based on Theoretical Dynamic Model with Effects of Temperature and Preload

Tongji University-Rong He, Hong Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1272
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A Series connection KVBC (Kelvin-Voigt and Boscawen) theoretical model of rubber bush in automobile suspension is established. Numerical calculation model is also built up through Matlab/simulation and 9 parameters are raised and identified. Experiments on bench of rubber bush are carried out for dynamic and static characteristics and supply enough and reliable data for parameters identification. Based on that, preload and temperature are taken into consideration in ordinary KVBC model as two important additional factors. As a result, it leads to regenerate a novel one with new parameters identification, which is validated under other different conditions. This new modeling way of rubber bush has three advantages. First of all, it shows much preciseness for solving non-linear problems in multi-body calculation for researches and vehicle engineers. In addition, this new way leads to a very important step of choosing appropriate bush model type before analyzing, which depends on preload value. The last one is the model can be used to deal with real occasions with temperature change around rubber bushes during simulation, which has been studying…

Numerical Methods for Combined Analysis of Seat And Ride-Comfort

Virtual Human GmbH-Alexander Siefert
Wölfel Engineering GmbH + Co. KG-Jörg Hofmann, A. Veeraraghavan, Y. Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0404
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Seating comfort and ride comfort for a passenger during a test drive on an automobile seat is a vital factor influencing the decision to buy. Although test studies of manufactured vehicles are performed on specified road-profiles, the amount of subjectivity involved in the evaluation of the dynamic ride-comfort reduces the reliability of such studies to serve as a basis for design. Numerical simulations represent a cost-effective, yet a highly reliable method to evaluate the seating and the ride comfort, in addition to having the advantage of repeatability. In this paper, a numerical approach to analyze the vibrations on the human body arising from real excitations of the whole vehicle is presented. This represents an interface between the seating comfort, where the occupant and the seat are considered separately in isolation from the rest of the vehicle, and the ride comfort, where the occupant is subjected to real vibrations arising from the rest of the vehicle. Here, a standard Finite Element (FE) model of the human body, CASIMIR m50 on an automobile seat typically used for…

A Methodology of Design for Fatigue using an Accelerated Life Testing Approach with Saddlepoint Approximation

Oakland University-Zissimos Mourelatos
Oakland University, Beta CAE Systems-Vasiliki Tsianika, Dimitrios Papadimitriou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0159
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
We present a new Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) methodology along with a design for fatigue approach, using Gaussian or non-Gaussian excitations. In both cases, the input uncertainty is propagated analytically to the output of the system. For the non-Gaussian case, a new random vibration method using Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) is being deployed. The accuracy of fatigue life prediction at nominal loading conditions is affected by model uncertainty (system model and fatigue model error) and material uncertainty (such as the coefficients of the S-N curve). This uncertainty is reduced by performing tests at higher loading level. This reduces the test duration. The uncertain parameters are expressed through distributions with known mean and standard deviation. Based on the data obtained from experiments, we formulate an optimization problem to calculate the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) values of the uncertain model parameters. In our proposed ALT method, we lift all the assumptions on the type of life distribution or the stress-life relationship and we use Saddlepoint Approximation (SPA) method to calculate the respective PDFs. Then, we calculate the…

Reliability Physics Approach for High-Density Ball Grid Arrays in Autonomous Vehicle Applications

DfR Solutions-Maxim Serebreni, Gil Sharon, Nathan Blattau, Craig Hillman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1251
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Integration of advanced sensing systems in autonomous vehicles is possible due to high performance processors that utilize high-density ball grid array (HD-BGA) packaging. The configuration of advanced sensors within autonomous vehicles requires placement of processing modules within non-conventional vehicles compartments that can drastically influence the reliability of HD-BGAs. Durability of HD-BGAs to different loads depend on their location within the vehicle as well as the form factor of the package itself. Reliability Physics Approach (RPA) combines simulation tools and empirical models to predict the reliability of advanced electronic packages under complex environmental and operational loads by identifying the susceptibility of electronic components to the dominant failure mechanism. In this paper, the reliability of an electronic module will be investigated under various vibrations loads at different vehicle compartments and the influence of mounting configuration of electronic module to housing under thermal loads. In addition, the BGA form factor will be investigated to demonstrate the implementation of RPA early in the design process to develop mitigation techniques such as underfill selection to improve reliability of HD-BGAs in…

Loosening Lifetime and Residual Clamping Force Prediction Method on Bolted Joints and Evaluation Criterion of Clamping Force Level for Prevention of Loosening Failure

Tokyo Metropolitan University-Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe, Satoshi Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1111
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To secure the reliability of bolted joints, high axial tension (clamping force) is required to prevent fatigue breakage or loosening failure, and so on. In this paper, at first, we observe the behavior of the initial clamping force decrease tendency (loosening phenomenon) obtained by tightening the bolt used in the actual machine (large forklift) during operation. Based on our previous research, there is a strong linear relationship on log-log paper of loosening phenomenon between decrease tendency of clamping force and mileage (or passage of time). By utilizing its properties, we show estimation method of residual clamping force such as "How much the clamping force is remaining after the tens of thousands of hours (kilometers)?" Also, a method for estimating loosening lifetime with respect to residual clamping force level is shown. Finally, we examine evaluation criteria such as "Is the residual clamping force sufficient for prevention of loosening failure?" The limit surface pressure is examined as the upper limit clamping force. As the lower limit clamping force, the allowable value of the external transverse force is…