The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Regulations
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Natural Gas: Meeting CO2 Emission Targets Here and Now

Westport Fuel Systems-David Mumford
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0024
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Global energy consumption trends are running counter to the need to rapidly and drastically reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The increasing demand for energy and associated growth in emissions means that we must deploy market-ready, commercially-available solutions now. Europe’s recently enacted heavy-duty CO2 regulations require truck OEMs to achieve a fleet average CO2 reduction of 15% (by 2025) and 30% (2030) from the 2019 industry baseline, with significant fines for missing these targets. OEMs are under considerable pressure to abandon the internal combustion engine (ICE) and move toward fuel cells and battery electric solutions. This drive away from ICEs has gathered considerable momentum, but also misses the short term reality – the infrastructure and overwhelming mass of existing product is built on the ICE, and it will take time and considerable investment to replace. In the automotive sector, the path to electric vehicles is already starting to evolve, however cost-competitive, commercially available production solutions are still in their infancy for the commercial heavy-duty trucking sector. This paper will focus on alternative fuel options for heavy-duty…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Hybrid Approach for the Assessment of Paths in Pass by Manoeuver

Centro RIcerche Fiat S.C.p.A.-Domenico Amodeo
Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A.-Marco Danti, Massimo Biasiolo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1550
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Current vehicle regulations demand for a challenging decrease in the overall exterior noise as a benefit for the health of citizens and road users. New limits have been implemented in UN R51.03 (based on ISO 362-1:2015) to reduce the emitted noise both at constant speed and in full load so as to cover most of the real urban driving conditions. In order to achieve those targets the carmakers have to refine the trim of their vehicle and an experimental approach can take place too late. This paper shows a method for the pass by noise simulation exploiting the numerical transfer functions and a library of experimentally characterized sources with the aim to reduce the noise and find out a better tradeoff between costs and effectiveness of the modifications. Moreover a simple software tool for the treatment of the data and to ease the workflow has been created and used for the rank assessment of the different paths.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6b and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co., Ltd.-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co., Ltd.-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of CC1 TWC and CC2 coated gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) were aged by 4-mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 200K kilometers of in-use aging in China and Europe, respectively. Separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Catalyst volume and PGM mass were varied in the CC1. OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading in the GPF. For the Chinese application, after the four-mode aging, it was found that the CC1 TWC catalyst volume should be greater than 1.0 L. High levels of OSC were needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. For the European application, after fuel cut aging, Euro 6d emissions were met with any combination of TWC and GPF catalysts. If the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6b, the CC1 TWC catalyst should also be great than 1.0 L in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. Over all, results imply that CC1 TWC design is most critical for gaseous emissions. More…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Strategy for Optimizing an F1 Car’s Performance based on FIA Regulations

Oxford Brookes University-Karan Bopaiah, Stephen Samuel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0545
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of the V6 engines in Formula 1, in 2014, the sport aimed to close the gap between the automotive engine and high-performance motorsport engines in the area of fuel economy. A set of very challenging engineering regulations were introduced by the FIA to restrict the power from the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), while allowing for more power to be harvested through energy recovery systems. Although progress has been made in developing a highly efficient powertrain, the limit to which this system can be pushed to is still unknown due to a significant gap between the technological choices available and the optimal control strategy used. This study investigated an engine-powertrain model of an F1 car with real world driver data for estimating the vehicle’s full throttle performance. The work used engine and drive-cycle simulation-modeling tools to build a representative car model which complied with the 2019 FIA regulations, in conjunction with real world data to identify the most critical parameter such as the gear shift strategy and the maximum energy recovered, stored and…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Motor Vehicle Emission Control Quality Monitoring for On-Road Driving: Dynamic Signature Recognition of NOx & NH3 Emissions

US Environmental Protection Agency-Xiaoguo Tang, John Kargul, Dan McBryde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0372
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motor vehicle emission testing during on-road driving is important to assess a vehicle’s exhaust emission control design, its compliance with Federal regulations and its impact on air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been developing new approaches to screen the characteristics of vehicle dynamic emission control behaviors (its operating signature) while driving both on-road and on-dynamometer. The so-called “signature device” used for this testing is equipped with an O2/NOx sensor, thermocouple and GPS to record dynamic exhaust NOx concentration, air fuel ratio-controlled tailpipe lambda (λ), tailpipe temperature and vehicle speed (acceleration).In the early EPA research, signature screening was used to characterize a vehicle’s PCM control behaviors (cause/effect bijectivity), which help distinguish operation in normal control state-space and abnormal state-space. Currently, signature devices are being used to recognize when ammonia (NH3) has been emitted and to estimate the presence of NOx and NH3 within on-road and on-dyno driving. The presence of NH3 is observed by the signature device’s NOx sensor at times when tailpipe lambda readings are biased rich, after the engine three-way-catalyst (TWC)…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulation of Aftertreatment Thermal Management Strategies for Low-Load Operation

Tenneco, Inc.-Thomas Harris
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0359
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The low-NOx regulation for heavy duty trucks proposed by California’s Air Resources Board (CARB) will present a significant challenge to truck, engine and aftertreatment system manufacturers. This regulation will include a new test cycle representative of low-load operation. With low-load cycles, NOx conversion by the SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system is limited primarily by the exhaust temperature; thus, thermal management will dominate development. Simulation can be used to examine different thermal management strategies, and to define high-level requirements for new components. In this study, modeling was used to investigate SCR performance on two different low-load cycles, including the one selected by CARB for the low-NOx regulation. First, the “thermal deficit” of the cycle was quantified using a constant heat input. Next, direct heating of the exhaust with a fuel mini-burner or an electric heater, using realistic controls, was simulated to determine their capability to overcome the thermal deficit. For comparison, the performance of a dual-injection SCR system on these cycles was also modeled.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Development Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020004
Published 2020-03-17 by SAE International in United States
With over 100 years of operation, the current automobile industry has settled into an equilibrium with the development of methodologies, regulations, and processes for improving safety. In addition, a nearly $2-trillion market operates in the automotive ecosystem with connections into fields ranging from insurance to advertising. Enabling this ecosystem is a well-honed, tiered supply chain and an established development environment.Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is a leap forward for the existing automotive industry; now the automobile is expected to manage perception and decision-making tasks. The safety technologies associated with these tasks were presented in an earlier SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Technology Areas in Autonomous Vehicle Test and Validation.” In a later SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem,” senior executives from the automotive ecosystem explored the impact of AV technology as they faced the prospect of this disruptive technology entering their marketplace. Interestingly, stable use-models and market penetration were all gated primarily by the demonstration of AV safety. Building on these previous verification and validation (V&V)-related reports, “Unsettled…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Test Slabs, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR-L) Low Acrylonitrile, 65 - 75

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3217/2D
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a standard acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR-L) rubber stock with low acrylonitrile content in the form of molded test slabs.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
new

Layered Composite Insulation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36163
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA's Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) technology is an easy-to-use system that can benefit multiple industries that depend on regulation of low temperatures in equipment and products. The technology combines a unique layered cryogenic insulation system with specific manufacturing, packaging, wrapping, and rolling methods.

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles

University of Michigan-Ian Williams
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020005
Published 2020-02-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE EDGE Research Report explores the many legal issues raised by the advent of automated vehicles. While promised to bring major changes to our lives, there are significant legal challenges that have to be overcome before they can see widespread use. A century’s worth of law and regulation were written with only human drivers in mind, meaning they have to be amended before machines can take the wheel. Everything from key federal safety regulations down to local parking laws will have to shift in the face of AVs. This report undertakes an examination of the AV laws of Nevada, California, Michigan, and Arizona, along with two failed federal AV bills, to better understand how lawmakers have approached the technology. States have traditionally regulated a great deal of what happens on the road, but does that still make sense in a world with AVs? Would the nascent AV industry be able to survive in a world with fifty potential sets of rules? Given the current lack of a federal AV law, state-level legislation can have…
Annotation ability available