Technical Paper collections have been re-named for better clarity and alignment.x

Your Selections

Regulations
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Strategy for Optimizing an F1 Car’s Performance based on FIA Regulations

Oxford Brookes University-Karan Bopaiah, Stephen Samuel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0545
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of the V6 engines in Formula 1, in 2014, the sport aimed to close the gap between the automotive engine and high-performance motorsport engines in the area of fuel economy. A set of very challenging engineering regulations were introduced by the FIA to restrict the power from the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), while allowing for more power to be harvested through energy recovery systems. Although progress has been made in developing a highly efficient powertrain, the limit to which this system can be pushed to is still unknown due to a significant gap between the technological choices available and the optimal control strategy used. This study investigated an engine-powertrain model of an F1 car with real world driver data for estimating the vehicle’s full throttle performance. The work used engine and drive-cycle simulation-modeling tools to build a representative car model which complied with the 2019 FIA regulations, in conjunction with real world data to identify the most critical parameter such as the gear shift strategy and the maximum energy recovered, stored and…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

RDE Plus - A Road to Rig Development Methodology for Whole Vehicle RDE Compliance: Overview

HORIBA MIRA Ltd-Philip Roberts, Alex Mason, Steve Whelan, Kunio Tabata, Yosuke Kondo, Tatsuki Kumagai, Richard Mumby, Luke Bates
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0376
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To aid Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) in meeting Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulation criteria across the extended boundary conditions of temperature, altitude and driving style, an integrated Road to Rig (R2R) whole vehicle development, calibration and verification approach known as RDE Plus (RDE+) has been developed by HORIBA MIRA. Encompassing testing on the road, chassis dynamometer, Engine-in-the-Loop (EiL) and virtual testing methodologies, OEMs will be able to deploy real world driving scenarios further upstream during vehicle and engine development programmes; hence reduce development timescales and costs that will otherwise inevitably increase due to RDE regulations. Reported in the current paper is a brief introduction to the baseline RDE road tests followed by replication of several real RDE cycles that cover the RDE extended boundary conditions with the vehicle driven by a robot driver on the chassis dynamometer. Altitude and temperature requirements were fulfilled using a HORIBA Multi-function Efficient Dynamic Altitude Simulation (MEDAS) system with driving style parameterised according to the RDE regulation parameter va_pos[95] as a percentage of its limit. For all routes, there was…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Development challenges of hydraulic brakes for commercial vehicles

Volkswagen Truck & Bus-Narã Vieira Vetter, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Eduardo Henrique Souza Fontes, Felipe Nogueira, Guilherme Henrique Fonseca, Luis Fernando Nuss de Souza, Rodrigo de Oliveira dos Reis, Vangelo Cardoso Manenti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0013
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The automotive research and development environment is increasingly challenging and complex, full of new technologies, regulations and customized customer needs. In addition, the cargo transportation market is very dynamic and competitive, becoming complex the strategies for companies in this segment. According to Anfavea (2018), this trend, especially in large urban centers, has driven the intention to use light commercial vehicles to capillize deliveries in destinations with a high demographic concentration and traffic limited to medium and heavy vehicles. In this scenario, the demand for diversified products is increasing in order to overcome the main tradeoff: “minimizing the size of the trucks and maximize the load capacity”. It brings the number of complex projects. The brake system is greatly impacted in these developments mainly because light commercial vehicles are situated in a weight range that we can call "identity crisis" if on the one hand they need an upgrade compared to a conventional car and use the hydraulic brake on the other one need a downgrade of a medium or heavy truck that brings robustness and…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Different approaches on how to improve braking performance in M3 vehicles to meet secondary brake requirements from ECE R13 regulation through low cost solutions

Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program PUCPR-Roberto Zanetti Freire
Volvo Bus Corporation-Luciano Ferreira da Cruz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0011
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The braking system of any road vehicle is subject to extensive legislative standards and requirements in many regions around the world. In buses, which belong to M3 category, one of the most critical demands is occupancy rate of passengers that leads to affect Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). More and more, customers are pushing the manufactures to increase the GVW of buses to allow more passengers inside and consequently increase profitability of the operation. By increasing GVW braking system has to present better performance to fulfill requirements. ECE R13 regulation establishes 2.5m/s2 as minimum Mean Fully Developed Deceleration (MFDD) and 64,4meters as maximum Stopping Distance (SD) acceptable to secondary brake performance. In a 4x2 vehicle with GVW of 19.5 tons fitted with disc brakes these requirements are actually fulfilled, but by adding 600 kg it became out of requirements. Based on the parameters which might affect braking performance, three different approaches were studied, tested and disposed in a decision matrix to choose most feasible in terms of performance, costs, manufacturing and time to implementation: a new…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
new

Mathematical Model of Heat-Controlled Accumulator (HCA) for Microgravity Conditions

National Aerospace University Kharkov Aviation Institute, Ukraine-Gennadiy Olexandrovich Gorbenko, Polina Sergeevna Koval, Konstantin Sergeevich Yepifanov, Pavlo Grigorovich Gakal, Rustem Yusufovich Turna
  • Journal Article
  • 01-13-01-0001
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
It is reasonable to use a two-phase heat transfer loop (TPL) in a thermal control system (TCS) of spacecraft with large heat dissipation. One of the key elements of TPL is a heat-controlled accumulator (HCA). The HCA represents a volume which is filled with vapor and liquid of a single working fluid without bellows. The pressure in a HCA is controlled by the heater. The heat and mass transfer processes in the HCA can proceed with a significant nonequilibrium. This has implications on the regulation of TPL. This article presents a mathematical model of nonequilibrium heat and mass transfer processes in an HCA for microgravity conditions. The model uses the equations of mass and energy conservation separately for the vapor and liquid phases. Interfacial heat and mass transfer is also taken into account. It proposes to use the convective component k for the level of nonequilibrium evaluation. The experiments were carried out in microgravity conditions for the estimation of the k value. The heating of the HCA was investigated in the flight experiments. The working…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

EllectroCrafts Aerospace-Fabio Alonso da Silva
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019012
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. Validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to implementation of correct system requirements and the development life cycle - starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development life cycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products. This report suggests a regulatory text and a safety and V&V approach from an aerospace engineering perspective assessing the replacement of the human driver from the decision-making role by a computational system. It also suggests an approach where aerospace guidelines can…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Measurement of Sub-23 nm particles emitted by gasoline direct injection engine with new advanced instrumentation

Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory (APTL), CPERI/C-Penelope Baltzopoulou, Leonidas Chasapidis, Daniil Deloglou, Anastasios D. Melas, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Switzerland-Tobias Rüggeberg, Martin Fierz, Heinz Burtscher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2195
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The research on health effects of soot particles has demonstrated their toxic impact on humans, especially for the smallest ones that can pass through the lungs into the bloodstream and be transferred to other parts of the body. Since the Euro 5b regulation, the total particle number (PN) at the exhaust is limited, but the associated protocol developed by the Particle Measurement Program (PMP) group defined a counting efficiency at the 23 nm cut-off particle diameter to avoid measurement artefacts [1][2]. Recent studies have demonstrated that the last generation Euro 6 engines can emit as many particles in the range 10-23 nm as beyond 23 nm [3].The SUREAL-23 project (Understanding, Measuring and Regulating Sub-23 nm Particle Emissions from Direct Injection Engines Including Real Driving Conditions), funded by Horizon 2020 EU-program, aims to develop sampling, conditioning and measuring instruments and associated methodologies to extend the existing protocol down to at least 10 nm. This measurement setup was evaluated on various light duty direct injection platforms. This communication focuses on a gasoline-DI vehicle with a Euro 6b…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Lighting Applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

A-20B Exterior Lighting Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6336
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides technical recommendations for the lighting applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The technical content of this ARP discusses the unique trade-offs that are necessary to maintain commonality to the U.S. Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) for aerospace lighting. The recommendations set forth in this document are to aid in the design of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) lighting for the size of aircraft and operation for which the aircraft is intended. In addition, certain concepts of operation for which UASs are suited will require unique lighting solutions.

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Narrower focus, BIGGER PAYOFF

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_03
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Design teams are targeting focused markets for their commercial electric-vehicle programs to combat challenges like range and infrastructure.

Government regulations are prompting a changeover to electric powertrains, with early growth coming in commercial vehicle applications where range and recharging are more easily managed. Greater expansion will require revisions in maintenance and broader availability of charging stations as well as improved driving ranges.

Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Q&A

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_13
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Together with its many partners, ZF supplies camera and radar technology and advanced components for both the passenger car and commercial truck markets, the latter being especially suited for the move to more complex driver-assistance systems, according to Dan Williams, director of ADAS & Autonomy at ZF. “The business case in commercial vehicle for reduction in driver hours of service, fuel cost reduction and safety have strong economic incentives to adopt ADAS/automated driving technology. Additionally, the regulations placed on the industry will require our customers to utilize certain solutions,” he said.

Annotation ability available