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Brake System Thermal Performance for Brazil Market Battery Electric Vehicles

General Motors, LLC-David Antanaitis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0019
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The discussion in the braking industry that has been ongoing for over a decade now on how to specify brake systems for regenerative-brake intensive vehicle applications has intensified considerably in the past few years as the automotive industry ponders a future where electric vehicles become predominant. Major automotive manufactures have announced plans to create dedicated electric-only vehicle architectures, from which to offer a full range of electric vehicle configurations. The time to really figure out the translation of Voice of the Electric Vehicle Customer to technical requirements and brake system content is approaching very rapidly. One of the major design decisions in the brake system is the sizing of foundation brake components for thermal performance. There is no question that regenerative brakes can significantly reduce the demand on the friction brakes in normal usage, sometimes by a full order of magnitude or more. Brakes no longer need to be sized for everyday use, rather, the sizing is driven by “limit cases” such as failure of the regen system, a full state of charge in the…
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ALL-WHEEL DRIVE ELECTRIC VEHICLE MODELING AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecn-H. de Carvalho Pinheiro, E. Galanzino, A. Messana, L. Sisca, A. Ferraris, A. G. Airale, M. Carello
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0197
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Electrification of the powertrain is one of the most promising trends in the automotive industry. Among the novel architectures, this paper aims to study the latent advantages provided by in-wheel motors, particularly an All-Wheel-Drive powertrain composed by four electric machines directly connected to each wheel-hub of a high performance vehicle. Beyond the well-known packaging advantage allowed by the in-wheel motor, the presence of four independent torque sources allows more flexible and complex control strategies of torque allocation. The study explores three different control modules working simultaneously: torque vectoring, regenerative braking and energy efficiency optimization protocol. The main objectives of the project are: improving handling, measured through the lap time of the virtual driver in a simulated track, and enhance energy efficiency, assessed by the battery state of charge variation during standard events. The torque vectoring strategy is based on a feedback PID controller working in parallel to a feedforward logic that predict the desired behavior based on the driver demands (such as steering angle) and vehicle states (chassis accelerations and velocities). The regenerative braking manages…
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Performance & Efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power Train

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Devesh Pareek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2483
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b. Optimization of Design Specs and duty cycle based on real world driving cycles. c. Innovative Heat dissipation techniques to minimize energy loss to heat. d. Efficient Electrical to Chemical Energy conversion and vice versa through use of optimization techniques based on…
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Design and Development of Automotive Battery Management System

Assistant Professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
Associate Professor, COE, Pune-D.N. Sonawane
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle needs accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of Charge (SoC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for the safe working. The main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SoC, balance individual cells, thermal management, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Coulomb Counting as well as Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SoC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery. Also performing Inductive Active Balancing on cells to equalize the charge. The study aims on deploying the model-based system on embedded platform which would help industry to reduce the model development time and focus on development of controlling algorithms for high end users. Active Balancing Architecture proposed here reduces the complexity of algorithm and at the same time decreases the balancing time.
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Regenerative Braking Cooperative Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on System Efficiency Optimization

Chongqing University-Yang Yang, Jing Chen, Chang Luo, Qingsong Tang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5089
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the performance of electro-hydraulic composite braking system of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a new type of plug-in HEV with dual motor was taken as the research object. The model of motor loss was built to achieve maximum motor efficiency, and the hydraulic braking system model, which can dynamically control pressure, was built. Based on the optimization of a motor’s continuously variable transmission (CVT) joint efficiency, the real-time optimal allocation strategy based on threshold method and cooperative control strategy of the electro-hydraulic composite braking system were brought out to recover most of the regenerative energy under the premise of ensuring safety. The model was built to verify the performance by AMESim-Simulink. The results show that the control strategy can take the advantages of dual-motor braking recovery system, increase braking energy recovery rate, effectively improve the braking safety and ride comfort of the vehicle, and reduce braking force fluctuation.
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Conceptualization and Modeling of a Flywheel-Based Regenerative Braking System for a Commercial Electric Bus

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Delhi Technological University, India-Kunal Mathur, Lalit Kumar Choudhary, Aditya Manoj Natu, Krovvidi Srinivas, Vikas Rastogi
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0018
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The following article illustrates the detailed study of the development of a unique flywheel-based regenerative braking system (f-RBS) for achieving regenerative braking in a commercial electric bus. The f-RBS is designed for installation in the front wheels of the bus. The particular data values for modeling the bus are taken from multiple legitimate sources to illustrate the development strategy of the regenerative braking system. Mechanical components used in this system have either been carefully designed and analyzed for avoiding fatigue failure or their market selection strategies are are explained. The positioning of the entire system is decided using MSC Adams View®, hence determining a suitable component placement strategy such that the f-RBS components do not interfere with the bus components. The entire system is modeled on MATLAB Simulink® with sufficient accuracy to get various results that would infer the performance of the system as a whole. The overall efficiency of the developed system in terms of battery consumption is also computed in this study.
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Cooperative Distribution Strategy of Regenerative Braking and Pneumatic Braking of an Electric Commercial Vehicle

Nanjing University of Science and Technology-Qing Cheng, Dawei Pi, Boyuan Xie, Hongliang Wang, Xianhui Wang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
This paper mainly proposes one type control strategy of the regenerative braking system of an electric commercial vehicle under normal braking condition. With the main goal of recovering as much energy as possible, the braking force distribution strategy based on maximum regenerative braking optimization is studied under the restriction of ECE regulation and state of charge (SOC) of battery. Firstly, the related models of the regenerative braking system and the target vehicle are separately established in MATLAB/Simulink. Then, the distribution strategy of braking force is developed and optimized considering the influence of SOC and vehicle speed respectively. Finally, the braking effects of this control strategy in the typical deceleration process are numerical simulated and analyzed. Simulation results depict that this control strategy can recover more braking energy under the premise of ensuring braking safety and great braking performance compared with the common braking strategies with traditional strategy and without regenerative braking.
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Analysis of Active Collision Avoidance Performance Based on Cooperative Regenerative Auxiliary Braking System

China Academy of Railway Sciences Corporation Limited-Zhongshi Zhang
Tsinghua University-Xiaohui Hou, Junzhi Zhang, Chengkun He
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Active collision avoidance can assist drivers to avoid longitudinal collision through active brake. Regenerative braking can improve the driving range and braking response speed. At this stage, conventional hydraulic braking system limits the implements of above technologies because of its poor performance of response speed and coordinated control. While the brake-by-wire system is a better actuator that can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development due to its rapid response and flexible adjustment. However, the system control algorithm becomes more complicated with introduction of regenerative braking and active collision avoidance function, which is also the main problem solved in this paper. First, a new type of cooperative regenerative auxiliary braking system (CRABS) of intelligent electric vehicles, which integrates the functions of brake-by-wire, regenerative braking and active collision avoidance, is proposed, for purpose of analyzing the improvement of active collision avoidance performance after the introduction of regenerative braking. The design of the system focuses on the Electro Hydraulic Brake (EHB) unit, control strategy of active collision avoidance and brake force distribution. Then, modeling and simulation…
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Development of Regenerative Brake Control Strategy to Remove Brake Rust

Hyundai & Kia Corp-Sora Jang, Gwichul Kim
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
This study is the development concept of regenerative braking cooperative control to reduce creep groan noise considering fuel efficiency. Creep groan noise is a traditional brake system noise that has been improved with advances in technology such as brake materials, surface treatment and transfer path. However, recently creep groan noise is again an issue in electronic vehicle which applied a drive motor. Generally, creep groan noise frequently occurs when rust occurs on the friction surface of the brake disc and the brake pad is humidified, but it is easily removed by friction braking several times. However, in the case of electric vehicles which applied regenerative braking system, it is hard to remove. In case of electric vehicle, instead of friction braking, most of brake toques are made by motor regenerative braking. Therefore, even if the same conventional brake system and chassis system are applied, the noise level of the electric vehicle is higher than gasoline or diesel vehicle, and the field claim is also higher. To improve the noise, regenerative braking cooperative control logic was…
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Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Jia'ao Feng, Zhongpeng Tian, Jian Cui, Fangyu Zhou
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage.However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving. Therefore, taking a pure electric light truck as an example, the system proposed in this paper first analyzes the driver's driving intention, proposes the system startup and exit strategy, and then combines the geographic information system (GIS) mountain road information, downslope speed limit and vehicle parameters, considering…
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