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Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Brake Design

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Vipul Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2499
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have come full circle from being primary vehicle type in 19th century (much before IC powered vehicles) to 21st century where major stake holders in mobility have announced plans towards vehicle electrification. Apart from battery & powertrain system, braking system is area which will undergo major changes because of vehicle electrification. But Why? Major keywords are regenerative braking, increased vehicle weight, no or insufficient vacuum from engine and silent powertrains. This paper tries to outline potential impact on hydraulic brake system & its component design for M1 and N1 category of four wheelers with advent of vehicle electrification. Needless to say extent of change will vary depending upon extent of electrification and extent of recuperation during regenerative braking. Extent of electrification depends upon whether vehicle is range extender type hybrid vehicle, plug in hybrid vehicle, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicle etc. Extent of electrification defines in turn extent of recuperation possible, extent of increase in vehicle weight, availability of vacuum and NVH of powertrains. Extent of recuperation is constrained by motor generator…
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PMSM motor drive for Electric Vehicle applications

Vaishnavi V
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2475
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To control air pollution in urban areas and to reduce carbon print in the cities, nowadays EV’s are preferred over IC engine vehicles. Earlier Electric vehicles used DC motor and Induction motors. But Brushless Permanent Magnet motors are preferred over Induction motor for EV’s due to their High Torque density, high-power density and highly efficiency. Prevalent Electric vehicles today have Brushless DC motors. Compared to BLDC, PMSM motor have smoother control and negligible torque ripplesThus, PMSM motor is preferred over BLDC for Electric Vehicle, because of its sinusoidal back emf which results in smoother control, and results into smoother and more comfortable driving experience to users. Methodology Sensor based field-oriented control (FOC) is implemented in 48 V 5kW Interior PMSM motor. . To start the Synchronous motor initial position of the rotor magnetic field should be known. After rotor alignment, incremental encoder is used to detect the rotor position or rotor flux position. As incremental encoder gives relative position, rotor is aligned to a known position, and then algorithm moves to closed loop FOC. In…
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Performance & Efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power Train

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Devesh Pareek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2483
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b. Optimization of Design Specs and duty cycle based on real world driving cycles. c. Innovative Heat dissipation techniques to minimize energy loss to heat. d. Efficient Electrical to Chemical Energy conversion and vice versa through use of optimization techniques based on…
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Design and Development of Automotive Battery Management System

Dipali Dange, Radhika Ballal
Assistant professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle needs accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of Charge (SoC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for the safe working. The main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SoC, balance individual cells, thermal management, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Coulomb Counting as well as Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SoC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery. Also performing Inductive Active Balancing on cells to equalize the charge. The study aims on deploying the model-based system on embedded platform which would help industry to reduce the model development time and focus on development of controlling algorithms for high end users. Active Balancing Architecture proposed here reduces the complexity of algorithm and at the same time decreases the balancing time.
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ELECTRIC BICYCLE WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

IIT Mandi-Aman Soni, Anshul Mehrotra, Ankit Joshi, Arpan Gupta, Narsa Tummuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2490
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
One of the significant challenges in the present scenario is the depletion of fossil fuels. As the use of conventional fuel is increasing day by day, it will lead to the complete depletion of fossil fuel in the future. So, an alternate solution to this problem is the use of electric vehicles which is independent of the dependence on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles (EVs) use batteries to power them and are electric motor driven. One advantage of using these electric vehicles is that they are pollution free and smokeless. One of the critical limitations of these electric vehicles is the low driving range per charge. The main proposal of this paper is the implementation of a regenerative braking system (RBS) which helps in recovering the kinetic energy that gets wasted during braking. RBS will be very useful in hilly terrain areas where much potential energy can get recovered while moving down the hill. This potential energy while going downhill is mostly wasted in brakes to regulate the speed of the vehicle. The present paper demonstrates…
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Regenerative Braking Cooperative Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on System Efficiency Optimization

Chongqing University-Yang Yang, Jing Chen, Chang Luo, Qingsong Tang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5089
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the performance of electro-hydraulic composite braking system of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a new type of plug-in HEV with dual motor was taken as the research object. The model of motor loss was built to achieve maximum motor efficiency, and the hydraulic braking system model, which can dynamically control pressure, was built. Based on the optimization of a motor’s continuously variable transmission (CVT) joint efficiency, the real-time optimal allocation strategy based on threshold method and cooperative control strategy of the electro-hydraulic composite braking system were brought out to recover most of the regenerative energy under the premise of ensuring safety. The model was built to verify the performance by AMESim-Simulink. The results show that the control strategy can take the advantages of dual-motor braking recovery system, increase braking energy recovery rate, effectively improve the braking safety and ride comfort of the vehicle, and reduce braking force fluctuation.
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Conceptualization and Modeling of a Flywheel-Based Regenerative Braking System for a Commercial Electric Bus

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Delhi Technological University, India-Kunal Mathur, Lalit Kumar Choudhary, Aditya Manoj Natu, Krovvidi Srinivas, Vikas Rastogi
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0018
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The following article illustrates the detailed study of the development of a unique flywheel-based regenerative braking system (f-RBS) for achieving regenerative braking in a commercial electric bus. The f-RBS is designed for installation in the front wheels of the bus. The particular data values for modeling the bus are taken from multiple legitimate sources to illustrate the development strategy of the regenerative braking system. Mechanical components used in this system have either been carefully designed and analyzed for avoiding fatigue failure or their market selection strategies are are explained. The positioning of the entire system is decided using MSC Adams View®, hence determining a suitable component placement strategy such that the f-RBS components do not interfere with the bus components. The entire system is modeled on MATLAB Simulink® with sufficient accuracy to get various results that would infer the performance of the system as a whole. The overall efficiency of the developed system in terms of battery consumption is also computed in this study.
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Cooperative Distribution Strategy of Regenerative Braking and Pneumatic Braking of an Electric Commercial Vehicle

Nanjing University of Science and Technology-Qing Cheng, Dawei Pi, Boyuan Xie, Hongliang Wang, Xianhui Wang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
This paper mainly proposes one type control strategy of the regenerative braking system of an electric commercial vehicle under normal braking condition. With the main goal of recovering as much energy as possible, the braking force distribution strategy based on maximum regenerative braking optimization is studied under the restriction of ECE regulation and state of charge (SOC) of battery. Firstly, the related models of the regenerative braking system and the target vehicle are separately established in MATLAB/Simulink. Then, the distribution strategy of braking force is developed and optimized considering the influence of SOC and vehicle speed respectively. Finally, the braking effects of this control strategy in the typical deceleration process are numerical simulated and analyzed. Simulation results depict that this control strategy can recover more braking energy under the premise of ensuring braking safety and great braking performance compared with the common braking strategies with traditional strategy and without regenerative braking.
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Analysis of Active Collision Avoidance Performance Based on Cooperative Regenerative Auxiliary Braking System

China Academy of Railway Sciences Corporation Limited-Zhongshi Zhang
Tsinghua University-Xiaohui Hou, Junzhi Zhang, Chengkun He
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Active collision avoidance can assist drivers to avoid longitudinal collision through active brake. Regenerative braking can improve the driving range and braking response speed. At this stage, conventional hydraulic braking system limits the implements of above technologies because of its poor performance of response speed and coordinated control. While the brake-by-wire system is a better actuator that can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development due to its rapid response and flexible adjustment. However, the system control algorithm becomes more complicated with introduction of regenerative braking and active collision avoidance function, which is also the main problem solved in this paper. First, a new type of cooperative regenerative auxiliary braking system (CRABS) of intelligent electric vehicles, which integrates the functions of brake-by-wire, regenerative braking and active collision avoidance, is proposed, for purpose of analyzing the improvement of active collision avoidance performance after the introduction of regenerative braking. The design of the system focuses on the Electro Hydraulic Brake (EHB) unit, control strategy of active collision avoidance and brake force distribution. Then, modeling and simulation…
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Development of Regenerative Brake Control Strategy to Remove Brake Rust

Hyundai & Kia Corp-Sora Jang, Gwichul Kim
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
This study is the development concept of regenerative braking cooperative control to reduce creep groan noise considering fuel efficiency. Creep groan noise is a traditional brake system noise that has been improved with advances in technology such as brake materials, surface treatment and transfer path. However, recently creep groan noise is again an issue in electronic vehicle which applied a drive motor. Generally, creep groan noise frequently occurs when rust occurs on the friction surface of the brake disc and the brake pad is humidified, but it is easily removed by friction braking several times. However, in the case of electric vehicles which applied regenerative braking system, it is hard to remove. In case of electric vehicle, instead of friction braking, most of brake toques are made by motor regenerative braking. Therefore, even if the same conventional brake system and chassis system are applied, the noise level of the electric vehicle is higher than gasoline or diesel vehicle, and the field claim is also higher. To improve the noise, regenerative braking cooperative control logic was…
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