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A Power Split Hybrid Propulsion System for Vehicles with Gearbox

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0014
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
New internal combustion engines (ICE) are characterised by increasing maximum efficiency, thanks to the adoption of strategies like Atkinson cycle, downsizing, cylinder deactivation, waste heat recovery and so on. However, the best performance is confined to a limited portion of the engine map. Moreover, electric driving in urban areas is an increasingly pressing request, but battery electric vehicles use cannot be easily widespread due to limited vehicle autonomy and recharging issues. Therefore, in order to reduce ICE vehicle fuel consumption, by decoupling the ICE running from road load, as well as permit energy recovery and electric driving, hybrid propulsion systems are under development. This paper analyses a new patent solution for power split hybrid propulsion system with gearbox. The system comprises an auxiliary power unit, adapted to store and/or release energy, and a planetary gear set which is interposed between the ICE and the gearbox. The system is characterized by a further device coupled with the ICE to modulate the resistance torque, in order to use the auxiliary power unit also for regenerative braking. The…
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Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-Lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking system and anti-lock brake system (ABS) control during an ABS event for hybrid and electric vehicles with drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The control objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with regenerative braking disabled. The paper first presents a detailed control system analysis to reveal the inherent property of non-zero regenerative braking torque control during ABS event and explain the reason why regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during ABS event with existing regenerative braking control strategies. Then, the regenerative brake control problem during ABS events is formulated with a unified control system architecture where the regenerative braking torque is coordinated with the friction braking torque of ABS system. An integrated closed loop based wheel slip control including both regenerative braking control loop and friction braking control loop during ABS event, referred to as…
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Electronic Control of Brake and Accelerator Pedals for Precise Efficiency Testing of Electrified Vehicles

Southwest Research Institute-Michael C. Gross, Jonathan Hamermesh, Kyle Jonson, Joshua Alden
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1282
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Efficiency testing of hybrid-electric vehicles is challenging, because small run-to-run differences in pedal application can change when the engine fires or the when the friction brakes supplement regenerative braking, dramatically affecting fuel use or energy regeneration. Electronic accelerator control has existed for years, thanks to the popularity of throttle-by-wire (TBW). Electronic braking control is less mature, since most vehicles don’t use brake-by-wire (BBW). Computer braking control typically uses a mechanical actuator (which may suffer backlash or misalignment) or braking the dynamometer rather than the vehicle (which doesn’t yield regeneration). The growth of electrification and autonomy provides the means to implement electronic brake control. Electrified vehicles use BBW to control the split between friction and regenerative braking. Automated features, e.g. adaptive cruise control, require BBW to actuate the brakes without pedal input. We present a system for computer control of brake and accelerator inputs on a TBW- and BBW-equipped vehicle. The system injects signals into the vehicle’s wiring harness, bypassing the pedals and obviating mechanical actuation and brake-by-dyno. The system combines feedforward control based on recorded…
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Modeling, Validation and Control Strategy Development of a Hybrid Super Sport Car Based on Lithium Ion Capacitors

Automobili Lamborghini Spa-Riccardo Parenti, Maurizio Reggiani
University of Bologna-Alessandro Franceschi, Nicolo Cavina, Enrico Corti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0442
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, the contribution of the transportation sector on greenhouse gases is evident. The fast consumption of fossil fuels and its impact on the environment have given a strong impetus to the development of vehicles with better fuel economy. Hybrid electric vehicles fit into this context with different targets, starting from the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption, but also for performance and comfort enhancement.Lamborghini has recently invested in the development of a hybrid super sport car, due to performance and comfort reasons. Aventador series gearbox is an Independent Shift Rod gearbox with a single clutch and during gear shifts, as all the single clutch gearbox do, it generates a torque gap. To avoid the additional weight of a Dual Clutch Transmission, a 48V Electric Motor has been connected to the wheels, in a P3 configuration, to fill the torque gap, and to habilitate regenerative braking and electric boost functions.This paper discusses the usage of a control-oriented vehicle and powertrain model to analyze the performance of the first Lithium Ion Capacitor-based hybrid V12 by Automobili Lamborghini.…
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Pressure Tracking Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster System

Jilin University-Weihong Yang, Jian Wu, Rui He, Bing Zhu, Jian Zhao, Zhicheng Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0211
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster system (EMBB) is a kind of novel braking booster system, which integrates active braking, regenerative braking, and other functions. It usually composes of a servo motor and the transmission mechanism. EMBB can greatly meet the development needs of vehicle intelligentization and electrification. During active braking, EMBB is required to respond quickly to the braking request and track the target pressure accurately. However, due to the highly nonlinearity of the hydraulic system and EMBB, traditional control algorithms especially for PID algorithm do not work well for pressure control. And a large amount of calibration work is required when applying PID algorithms to pressure control in engineering. In this paper, a fuzzy adaptive PI pressure control algorithm based on feed-forward is proposed to a novel self-designed EMBB mechanism, which is utilized to overcome the nonlinear pressure control problem when EMBB is in active braking and improve the control effect of PID algorithm. First, the structure of the EMBB system used in the paper and its working principle is presented. Second, this paper designs…
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Modeling and Identification of an Electric Vehicle Braking System: Thermal and Tribology Phenomena Assessment

Siemens Industry Software NV-Thomas D’hondt, Bart Forrier, Mathieu Sarrazin
Università degli Studi di Firenze-Tommaso Favilli, Luca Pugi, Lorenzo Berzi, Riccardo Viviani, Marco Pierini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1094
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A rapidly shifting market and increasingly stringent environmental regulations require the automotive OEMs to produce more efficient and low-emission electric vehicles. Regenerative braking has proven to be a major contributor to both objectives, enabling the charging of the batteries during braking on one side, and a reduction of the load and wear of the brake pads on the other side. The optimal sizing of such systems requires the availability of good simulation models to improve their performance and reliability at all stages of the vehicle design. This enables the designer to study both the integration of the braking system with the full vehicle equipment and the interactions between electrical and mechanical braking strategies. The present paper presents a generic simulation framework for the thermal and wear behavior of a mechanical braking system, based on a lumped parameter approach. The thermal behavior of the system is coupled back to the friction coefficient between the pad and the disc to assess its effect on braking performance. Additionally, the effect of wear and temperature on the generation of…
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Simulation of the Combined Braking Control System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University-Serhii Shuklynov, Mykhailo Kholodov, Leonid Ryzhykh
VN Karazin Kharkiv National University-Victor Verbitskiy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0217
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Simulation model of the combined braking control system for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The model shows working processes of the braking system with actuating friction mechanisms and an electro-hydraulic drive and regenerative braking system with an electrodynamic mechanism. The electrodynamic mechanism of regenerative braking is formed by switching the traction motor to the generator operating mode. At the same time braking effect is transmitted through the transmission to the drive wheels. The combined control of two brake systems of an electric vehicle is carried out by the driver when acting on one common control element - the brake pedal. Pushing on the braking pedal, driver generates the given control signal- desirable level of electric vehicle deceleration. In accordance with the given control signal, the law of control can be selected in the simulation model - the control function (electric vehicle deceleration) is proportional to the pedal effort or the control function is proportional to the set value of deceleration. In this case, the control system is adaptive and corrects the control signal in accordance…
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Brake Power Availability Led Optimisation of P0 versus P2 48V Hybrid Powertrain Architectures

University of Nottingham-Simon Terry, Antonino La Rocca, Alasdair Cairns
University of Nottingham, King Faisal University-Khaled Alnamasi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0439
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Through improving the 48V hybrid vehicle archetype, governmental emission targets could be more easily met without incurring the high costs associated with increasing levels of electrification. The braking energy recovery function of hybrid vehicles is recognised as an effective solution to reduce emissions and fuel consumption in the short to medium term. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods to maximise the braking energy recovery capability of the 48V hybrid electric vehicle over pre-selected drive cycles using appropriately sized electrified components. The strategy adopted was based upon optimising the battery chemistry type via specific power capability, so that overall brake power is equal to the maximum battery charging power in a typical medium-sized passenger car under typical driving. This will maximise the regenerative braking energy whilst providing a larger torque assistance for a lower battery capacity. Dynamic simulation models were developed using GT-DRIVE software, emulating a mid-sized car with a 48V battery, and different turbocharged gasoline engines with motor-generator unit positions along a drivetrain. The 1.3 kWh battery pack was developed using a…
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Energy-optimal deceleration planning system for regenerative braking of electrified vehicles with connectivity and automation

Hyundai Motor Co.-Dohee Kim
Hyundai Motor Co. & KIA Motors Corp.-Jeong Soo Eo, Ryan Miller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0582
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an energy-optimal deceleration planning system (EDPS) to maximize regenerative energy for electrified vehicles on deceleration events resulted from map information and connected communication. The optimization range for EDPS is restricted within an upcoming deceleration event rather than the entire routes while considering vehicles driving in front of ego-vehicle. The EDPS is an ecological driver assistance system with level 2 or 3 automation since acceleration is operated by an adaptive cruising system or a human driver and deceleration is operated on a unit of deceleration events which are divided into static ones such as turning and warning as well as dynamic ones such as traffic light. The event-based optimal deceleration profile is obtained by a dynamic programming framework including a driving motor performance model and a gear box model, and with the detection of a front vehicle the profile is updated in real time by nonlinear model predictive control scheme which considers a connected configuration and a modified intelligent driver model. The performance of EDPS has been rigorously validated both based on real-world…
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Fault-tolerant control of regenerative braking system on In-Wheel Motors Driven Electric Vehicles

Xiaohui Hou
Tsinghua University-Yuan Ji, Junzhi Zhang, Weilong Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0994
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A novel fault tolerant brake strategy for In-wheel motor driven electric vehicles based on integral sliding mode control and optimal online allocation is proposed in this paper. The braking force distribution and redistribution, which is achieved in online control allocation segment, aim at maximizing energy efficiency of the vehicle and isolating faulty actuators simultaneously. The In-wheel motor can generate both driving torque and braking torque according to different vehicle dynamic demands. In braking procedure, In-wheel motors generate electric braking torque to achieve energy regeneration. The strategy is designed to make sure that the stability of vehicle can be guaranteed which means vehicle can follow desired trajectory even if one of the driven motor has functional failure. Considering longitudinal velocity and yaw velocity control, Electric vehicle with four independent In-wheel driven motor is a typical over-actuated control system whose control inputs outnumbers the state variables. Therefore, typical nonlinear controller design methods based on Lyapunov theory can not be applied directly. In this paper, the problem is settled down by transferring the input matrix whose dimension is…