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Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi veeraputhiran, ILAVARASI D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…

End-of-Life Vehicles in India – Regulatory Perspectives

International Centre For Automotive Tech-Vijayanta Ahuja
International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Shakti N Khanna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2580
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The unprecedented increment in vehicle sales in the last decade brought several challenges with it. Older vehicles, conforming to lenient emission norms continue to ply on road, continuously producing higher emissions. This not only burdens the environment with air pollution caused due to emissions, but also with land pollution caused due to landfills and the overall impact of utilising more resources excavated through nature to fulfil manufacturing requirements. Due to absence of regulations, older vehicles also compromise on active, passive and pedestrian safety measures. A need was felt to withdraw such vehicles from the roads but due to the lack of incentives for the last vehicle owner, unavailability of infrastructure or policy, though a guideline standard (AIS-129) was published, the idea, in its entirety never came to fruition. This paper discusses the areas affected during and beyond the recycling of the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV). While the scrap of the vehicle shall be crushed and re-utilised from scrap metal (ferrous and non-ferrous), this paper also discusses potential usage of the components (such as head lamps, RVMs…

R-1234yf (HFO-1234yf) Recovery/Recycling/Recharging Equipment for Flammable Refrigerants for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems

Interior Climate Control Service Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2843_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-15 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Standard applies to equipment to be used with R-1234yf refrigerant only. It establishes requirements for equipment used to recharge R-1234yf to an accuracy level that meets Section 9 of this document and purity levels defined in SAE J2099. Refrigerant service equipment is required to ensure adequate refrigerant recovery to reduce emissions and provide for accurate recharging of mobile air conditioning systems. Equipment shall be certified to meet all performance requirements outlined in this document and international/regional construction and safety requirements as outlined in this document.


Some Experimental Studies on the Use of Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in an Agricultural Diesel Engine

CASRAE, Delhi Technological University-Naveen Kumar
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology-Ashwni Goyal
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Globally, the demand for energy is increasing due to both increase in population and enhancement in the lifestyle of people. Most of the energy demand at present is met from fossil fuels, which are not only exhaustible but also a threat to the environment. Various routes of sustainable energy resources are being explored to address the above-mentioned issues and fuel made from used tyre may be one of the promising options.India is one of the fastest growing economies and every year 10 million new vehicles are registered. Due to poor road conditions, nearly fourfold tyres of this number are dumped as waste. This large stock of dumped tyres are non-biodegradable and creates other problems like a breeding site for mosquitos, or source of pollution in case of accidental fire. In order to cope with the large pile-up of used tyres, pyrolysis of these tyres could be a sustainable route. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical process carried in absence of oxygen and a sustainable option for conversion into Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO).In the present work, the performance…
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Energy Consumption Optimization for the Electric Vehicle Air Conditioning Using the Condensate Water

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Daolin Zhou, Zebiao Ma, Yiran Ding, Xiaofei Ma, Shuai Wang, Haoyu Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In summer, the relatively low temperature water condenses in the evaporator when the vehicle air-conditioning (AC) is running. At present, the vehicle AC condensate water without well utilization is directly wasted. The condenser’s thermal transfer performance has a great influence on the AC performance, and to increase the convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) is the key to its design. In this paper, a method of using atomized condensate water (CW) to enhance the condenser’s thermal transfer performance is proposed, which can make the most of the CW's cold energy. It achieves the reuse of CW and increases the condenser’s CHTC. First, the CW flow calculation model in the evaporator and the calculation model of the condenser enhanced thermal transfer using atomized CW are both set up. The influence of the evaporation degree of atomized CW particles in the air on the enhancement effect is comprehensively considered. In the simulation part, the reduction of the compressor power consumption using this method is calculated, and the effects of vehicle speed and air temperature on the condenser’s CHTC…
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Plastic-Degrading Enzyme

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34151
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Eight million metric tons of plastic waste, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, enter the oceans each year, creating huge manmade islands of garbage. Experts estimate that by 2050, there will be as much waste plastic in the ocean by mass as there are fish. A bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, can degrade plastic bottles but it doesn’t work fast enough to solve plastic recycling at the industrial scale.


A Study on Mitigating Head Gap Defects due to Radius of Externally Threaded Fasteners in Aerostructures Assembly

GITAM School of Technology-Mani Rathinam Rajamani
Published 2019-03-21 by SAE International in United States
Externally threaded fasteners such as HI-LOK™, HI-TIGUE™, and HI-LITE™ fasteners are used in Aerospace Industry for their light weight, high strength, and controlled preloaded designs. These pins are offered in a variety of head styles, materials, finishes, and coatings. The pins are easily installed from one side, by one person, and quietly without the conventional riveting noise. In the design specifications of these pins, there is a radius R provided under the head which is to be accounted during manufacturing. The head radius, R comes with a manufacturing tolerance of 0.015 to 0.025 inch for standard sizes of 5/32 inch and 0.020 to 0.030 inch for higher sizes for protruding heads and similarly vary from 0.020 to 0.030 inch for 5/32-inch flush head style. As a general assembly practice, it is essential to deburr the edge of the holes to accommodate the head radius of the pins. The improper seating of the head can possibly result in the head gap defect of the fastener after installation and results in rework due to quality nonconformances. Inspectors…
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Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach
TU Muenchen-Benedikt Stumper
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation. This study investigates the state of the art of recycling processes for drive components used within conventional and alternative concepts. Furthermore, a new methodical framework to evaluate the environmental impact of the end-of-life…
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Technical Information Report on Automotive Battery Recycling

Battery Standards Recycling Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2974_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This document will focus on the language used to describe batteries at the end of battery or vehicle life as batteries are transitioned to the recycler, dismantler, or other third party. This document also provides a compilation of current recycling technologies and flow sheets, and their application to different battery chemistries at the end of battery life. At the time of document authorship, the technical information cited is most applicable to Li-ion battery type rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS), but the language used is not to be limited by chemistry of the battery systems and is generally applicable to other RESS.
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Engine oil from Christmas trees and flashlight batteries

Automotive Engineering: July/August 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP08_15
Published 2019-01-01 by SAE International in United States

What is the connection between a Christmas tree, chewing gum, used fry oil and 14 flashlight batteries? Answer: Together with some other commonly used items, this incongruous recipe can be turned into a liter of automotive-quality engine oil-not formally analyzed for a specification but approximating to an SAE 0W20 by Nexcel, a BP innovation business.

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