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HFC-134a (R-134a) Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems

Interior Climate Control Service Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2788_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-03 by SAE International in United States

The purpose of this SAE Standard is to establish the specific minimum equipment performance requirements for recovery and recycling of HFC-134a that has been directly removed from, and is intended for reuse in, mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. It also is intended to establish requirements for equipment used to recharge HFC-134a to an accuracy level that meets Section 9 of this document and SAE J2099. The requirements apply to the following types of service equipment and their specific applications.

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Experimental Investigations on CO2 Recovery from Engine Exhaust Using Adsorption Technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is an energy-consuming process compared to the catalytic converters. The best way to reduce CO2 is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industrial applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. In comparison to other CO2 separation methods, adsorption technique consumes less work and energy. Moreover, the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust manifold. The selected engine was a single-cylinder Briggs and Stratton petrol engine. The experiments were conducted in two…
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Passenger Vehicle to Analyze the Environmental Impacts Using Cradle to Grave Approach

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, lifecycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle assessment as…
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End-of-Life Vehicles in India-Regulatory Perspectives

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Shakti N Khanna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2580
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses the areas affected during and beyond the recycling of the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV). While the scrap of the vehicle shall be crushed and re-utilised from scrap metal (ferrous and non-ferrous), this paper also discusses potential usage of the components for remanufacturing by the respective OEMs. It further discusses how non-metallic parts such as plastics may be recycled. A complete framework committed to such a comprehensive approach shall not only reduce the impact on the environment but will also provide a more affordable and responsible alternative to the industry. While doing that, the economic and environmental impact on the industry and the un-organised sector has to be considered whilst also ensuring that a model with shared responsibility is established to dispose/ recycle any such ELV responsibly. The paper in its true spirit aims at effectively implementing the 3 Rs - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle - Reduction of waste and virgin natural elements, Reuse of working and efficient spares for remanufacturing purposes and Recycling of the scrap material. Older vehicles, conforming to lenient emission…
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Design for Adaptive Rear Floor Carpet for Changing Shapes and Complex Architecture

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Ramakrishna Nimmagadda, Harshad Bornare, Nareen Kinthala
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
With increasing road traffic and pollution, it becomes responsibility for all OEM to increase fuel efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Most effective way to do so is to reduce weight of the vehicle and more use of ecofriendly recyclable material. With this objective we have come up with Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution for Injection moulded RQT (Rear quarter trim). It is an interior plastic component mounted in the III row of the vehicle. This is required to ensure inside enhanced aesthetic look of the vehicle and comfort for 3rd row passengers. Conventionally RQT of vehicle with 3rd row seating is made using plastic material (PP TD 20). With the use of plastic moulded RQT there is a significant weight addition of around 6 kg per vehicle along with reduced cabin space, huge investment and development time impact.In PROJECT X model which is a 4.4 meter vehicle with 3rd row seating capacity, we have challenged the conventional way of design and have come up with “Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution” of…
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Defining an Open System Architecture Standard for Defense Systems

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_04
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

For many years now, there have been efforts within the US defense community to adopt “Open System Architecture” principles (or OSA) for defense computing platforms. Stretching back to the mid-2000's there have been numerous efforts by all service branches to define sets of OSA principles or requirements on the embedded computing systems they procure and deploy. While these efforts have resulted in widespread adoption of POSIX functions for common tasks and a gradual shift in the use of common form factors and technologies such as VPX and Ethernet, there are still wide disparities between products from different suppliers, which creates difficulties for integrators. Product variations also make technology insertions or system configuration changes expensive, time consuming, and often locked to a particular vendor.

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5 Ws of PDK Recyclable Plastic

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34734
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Anyone who uses products made of plastic. The new recyclable plastic could be a good alternative to many nonrecyclable plastics in use today.

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Some Experimental Studies on the Use of Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in an Agricultural Diesel Engine

CASRAE, Delhi Technological University-Naveen Kumar
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology-Ashwni Goyal
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Globally, the demand for energy is increasing due to both increase in population and enhancement in the lifestyle of people. Most of the energy demand at present is met from fossil fuels, which are not only exhaustible but also a threat to the environment. Various routes of sustainable energy resources are being explored to address the above-mentioned issues and fuel made from used tyre may be one of the promising options.India is one of the fastest growing economies and every year 10 million new vehicles are registered. Due to poor road conditions, nearly fourfold tyres of this number are dumped as waste. This large stock of dumped tyres are non-biodegradable and creates other problems like a breeding site for mosquitos, or source of pollution in case of accidental fire. In order to cope with the large pile-up of used tyres, pyrolysis of these tyres could be a sustainable route. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical process carried in absence of oxygen and a sustainable option for conversion into Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO).In the present work, the performance…
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Energy Consumption Optimization for the Electric Vehicle Air Conditioning Using the Condensate Water

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Daolin Zhou, Zebiao Ma, Yiran Ding, Xiaofei Ma, Shuai Wang, Haoyu Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In summer, the relatively low temperature water condenses in the evaporator when the vehicle air-conditioning (AC) is running. At present, the vehicle AC condensate water without well utilization is directly wasted. The condenser’s thermal transfer performance has a great influence on the AC performance, and to increase the convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) is the key to its design. In this paper, a method of using atomized condensate water (CW) to enhance the condenser’s thermal transfer performance is proposed, which can make the most of the CW's cold energy. It achieves the reuse of CW and increases the condenser’s CHTC. First, the CW flow calculation model in the evaporator and the calculation model of the condenser enhanced thermal transfer using atomized CW are both set up. The influence of the evaporation degree of atomized CW particles in the air on the enhancement effect is comprehensively considered. In the simulation part, the reduction of the compressor power consumption using this method is calculated, and the effects of vehicle speed and air temperature on the condenser’s CHTC…
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Plastic-Degrading Enzyme

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34151
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Eight million metric tons of plastic waste, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, enter the oceans each year, creating huge manmade islands of garbage. Experts estimate that by 2050, there will be as much waste plastic in the ocean by mass as there are fish. A bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, can degrade plastic bottles but it doesn’t work fast enough to solve plastic recycling at the industrial scale.