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CVT cooling of a BAJA All-Terrain Vehicle

Maharaja Agrasen Inst Of Technology-Neelesh Dayal, Mukul Singh, Rakesh Saini
Maharaja Agrasen Inst. Of Technology-Vasu Bhardwaj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0020
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
This research paper concentrates on BAJA ATV CVT premises thermal cooling. BAJA event has a 4-hour endurance run, which demands full potential from the drivetrain. In our drive train assembly, we have used CVT coupled with fixed reduction gearbox, while having long run the temperature of CVT unit increases so much that it hinders the efficiency. The main heat generation sources in the CVT chamber is the engine, friction between belt and sheaves, and high ambient outside. It is learned that the CVT working temperature should be reduced. Hence cooling was much required for optimum performance of our vehicle, implemented cooling system involves insulation of CVT from engine while having a passive heat exchanger using super absorbent polymer inside our vehicle to inject cool air on CVT and using insulating material on CVT cover to reduce the overall temperature, whereas passive heat exchanger cools down the injected air. All this leads to a significant temperature drop in the whole assembly.
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Steering Behavior of an Articulated Amphibious All-Terrain Tracked Vehicle

ARIS SpA-Emanuele Rota, Andrea Novara
Politecnico di Torino-Antonio Tota, Mauro Velardocchia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0996
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a study related to an Articulated Amphibious All-Terrain Tracked Vehicle (ATV) characterized by a modular architecture. The ATV is composed by two modules: the first one hosts mainly the vehicle engine and powertrain components, meanwhile the second one can be used for goods transportation, personnel carrier, crane and so on. The engine torque is transmitted to the front axle sprocket wheel of each module and finally distributed on the ground through a track mechanism. The two modules are connected through a multiaxial joint designed to guarantee four relative degrees of freedom. To steer the ATV, an Electro Hydraulic Power System (EHPS) is adopted, thus letting the vehicle steerable on any kind of terrain without a differential tracks speed. The paper aims to analyze the steady-state lateral behavior of the ATV on a flat road, through a non-linear mathematical vehicle model built in Matlab/Simulink environment. The model describes the vehicle main planar motion and the interaction between the two modules through the application of a hydraulic steering torque. The model simulates steady-state handling…
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Development of Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell e-Snowmobiles

BRP-Rotax GmbH & Co KG-Walter Hinterberger, Nigel Foxhall
HyCentA Research GmbH-Patrick Pertl, Martin Aggarwal, Alexander Trattner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0555
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In the highly innovative and holistic flagship project HySnow (Decarbonisation of Winter Tourism by Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell Snowmobiles), funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund, the decarbonization of winter tourism is being demonstrated. Within this project, two prototype e-snowmobiles have been developed including the adaption of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) system for the low temperature and high-performance targets and the integration of the drivetrain into the vehicle.In this paper the drivetrain development process of the prototype e-snowmobiles will be presented with the aim to derive specifications for the drivetrain components as PEM-FC system, hydrogen storage system, electric drive, battery and power electronics. Based on typical use cases for snowmobiles overall vehicle specifications and requirements are defined. Associated driving cycles are investigated and used as input for the development process. Subsequently, analyses regarding possible drivetrain topologies based on technical and economical vehicle requirements are carried out. In parallel, vehicle implementation concepts based on standardized development processes are performed. The development and the design process are verified by verification and optimization loops.The…
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Maximum Exterior Sound Level for Snowmobiles

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J192_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard establishes the instrumentation, test site, and test procedure for determining the maximum exterior sound level for snowmobiles. Sound propagation is directly related to the ground cover and provides the largest variation to the measured result. A correction factor is introduced to improve year-round test repeatability of the results on grass surfaces by correcting their spectrum to be similar to snow-covered spectra. Measured sound pressure levels are also highly dependent on the degree of track slip present when performing the vehicle acceleration. Operators should attempt to limit track slip as much as possible while maintaining the requirements described in 5.1.1.
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Recommendations for Children’s Snowmobile

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1038_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedures, performance requirements, and criteria necessary to evaluate minimum safety and reliability requirements of a children's snowmobile as identified in 1.2.
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Spring and Damper Tuning of an ATV to Reduce Transmissibility

ARAI Academy-Rajat Girish Kanade, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2401
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The application in vehicle ride and handling has been mostly subjective or intuitive. There are several methods to improve vehicle stability and handling. One of the methods is suspension tuning. The objective of this work is to perform dynamical analysis of suspension by spring and damper tuning to reduce transmissibility for an all-terrain vehicle. A baseline spring rate data is used for tuning to provide better ride. The Fox air shock absorbers with progressive damping are used for testing. First the dynamics simulation is carried out by using ADAMS CAR tool. A detailed characteristic of the air shocks is obtained at various loading conditions by experimentation using test rig. Based on it, the simulation has been carried out for desired tuning parameters of spring and damper to improve stability. The speculated optimum setting is validated on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) using ultrasonic sensors, by varying vehicle speed and bump heights to evaluate the transmissibility of the suspension. The acquired data shows behaviour of the suspension and the influence of the main parameters in the transmissibility.…
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Taxonomy and Classification of Powered Micromobility Vehicles

Powered Micromobility Vehicles Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3194_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This technical report provides a taxonomy and classification of powered micromobility vehicles. These vehicles may be privately owned or be available via shared- or rental-fleet operations. This technical report does not provide specifications or otherwise impose minimum safety design requirements for powered micromobility vehicles.
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Tire Performance Terminology

Highway Tire Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2047_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
This terminology aims to encompass all terms and definitions pertaining to the road performance of pneumatic tires designed for over-the-highway use, such as passenger car, light truck, truck and bus, and motorcycle tires. Not included are terms specific to the performance of agricultural, aircraft, industrial, and other off-highway tires. However, many terms contained in this document also apply to non-highway tires.
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Design Analysis and Simulations of Components of an All-Terrain Vehicle

BITS Pilani-Pranjal Shukla, Konark Joshi, Utkarsh Rastogi, Ajith Reddy Moola
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
A single seater All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is conceptualized in this paper which covers the extent of designing and simulations ranging from static structural, fatigue analysis, explicit dynamics etc. Solidworks and Ansys Workbench have been used as the tools for the simulation. Our aim was to design and fabricate a vehicle which is light weight (<200Kgs), easily maneuverable in harsh driving conditions and also scores high in affordability and maintenance.This report also contains the design consideration of the chassis, steering, suspension, braking, powertrain. Simulation results of components like hubs, knuckles, A-Arms, chassis are done with special focus on modelling based on real time forces and behaviors. MATLAB Simulink models are used and explained for the suspension model.The vehicle was fabricated in-house using various fabrication methods of TIG Welding, Vertical CNC machines etc. The strength tests for the specimens of welding were checked for the safety of the chassis. The vehicle was tested on tracks for braking, steering and acceleration and further modifications were made in the design to incorporate the iterations.
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Maintenance of Design Voltage - Snowmobile Electrical Systems

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J277_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements for maintenance of design voltage in snowmobile electrical systems. It pertains to both battery-equipped and battery-less systems.
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