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Self-affinity of an Aircraft Pilot's Gaze Direction as a Marker of Visual Tunneling

Bordeaux University - IMB UMR CNRS 5251-Pierrick Legrand
Bordeaux University - INP Bordeaux - IMS-Jean-Marc André, Éric Grivel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1852
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
For the last few years, a great deal of interest has been paid to crew monitoring systems in order to address potential safety problems during a flight. They aim at detecting any degraded physiological and/or cognitive state of an aircraft pilot or crew, such as visual tunneling, also called inattentional blindness. Indeed, they might have a negative impact on the performance to pursue the mission with adequate flight safety levels. One of the usual approaches consists in using sensors to collect physiological signals which are then analyzed. Two main families exist to process the signals. The first one combines feature extraction and machine learning whereas the second is based on deep-learning approaches which require a large amount of labeled data. In this work, we focused on the first family. In this case, various features can be deduced from the data by different approaches: spectrum analysis, a priori modeling and nonlinear dynamical system analysis techniques including the estimation of the self-affinity of the signals. In this paper, our purpose was to uncover whether the self-affinity of…

Fast Accurate Non-Destructive Measurement of Absorber Impedance and Absorption

3M Company-Jon Alexander
Bruel & Kjaer Sound and Vibration A/S-Jason Kunio, Flemming Larsen
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Cabin acoustic comfort is a major contributor to the potential sales success of new aircraft, cars, trucks, and trains. Recent design challenges have included the increased use of composites, and the switch to electrically powered vehicles, each of which change the interior noise spectral content and level. The role of acoustic absorption in cabins is key to the optimisation of cabin acoustic comfort for modern vehicles, with acoustic impedance data needed in order to assess and optimise the impact of each component of a given lay-up.Measurements of absorbing interior trim are traditionally performed using either sample holder tests in a static impedance tube (impedance and absorption), or through tests in reverberation rooms (absorption only). Both of these procedures present challenges. In-tube absorption and impedance measurements are destructive, requiring highly accurate sample cutting and sealing. Reverberation room absorption measurements are subject to the effects of varying room diffusion, along with the impact of edge diffraction, sample geometry, and location. Finally, while non-destructive methods using hand-held probes also measure absorption, they are not able to measure impedance…
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Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback

Dassault Systemes-Jonathan Jilesen
Exa Corporation-Tom Linden
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective.The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle. Furthermore, these results do not provide significant insight into the mechanisms driving the wiper drawback.In order to better understand wiper drawback a numerical simulation is presented of…
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Subsection Coordinated Control during Mode Transition for a Compound Power-Split System

Tongji University-Mengna Li, Zhiguo Zhao, Lanxing Jiang, Xuhui Tang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The power-split transmission is considered as one of the major technologies for hybrid electric vehicles. It utilizes two electric motors/generators (MGs) and a power-split device (planetary gear sets) to make the speed of internal combustion engine (ICE) independent from the vehicle speed, and in that way enables the ICE to operate in a high-efficiency region under all driving cycles. In this study, a compound power-split hybrid system integrated with a two-planetary gear train is proposed. To suppress the vehicle jerk intensity and improve the driving comfort during the transition from EV (Electric Vehicle) mode to HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) mode, a torque coordinated control strategy is derived. Based on the analysis of mode transition in different sections, mathematical models of each section are deduced, respectively. Then a model-based torque coordinated control method is used to solve out the target output torques of ICE, MGs and brakes in each mode transition phase. To reduce the impact of engine ripple torque during the engine start process, a fuzzy control and two degrees of freedom active damping control…
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SAE AV Activities

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP03_03
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States

New in 2019, Autonomous Vehicle Engineering will feature a listing of SAE International's autonomous vehicle-related offerings across the organization to help keep readers up to date on ongoing activities, training/professional development, meetings, publications and standards development. The offerings included here are just some of the events and products available. Visit for more details and activities (links included below) or call SAE International at 1-877-606-7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or 1-724-776-4970 (Outside U.S. and Canada).

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The Swedish Word for AV Tech

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP03_08
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States

Veoneer, a new Tier 1 supplier with well-established roots, is moving rapidly into AI, says veteran research boss Ola Boström.

The first automotive camera with built-in Deep Learning-considered to be a significant step forward in autonomous-vehicle sensor technology-is due to launch this year. It was developed and will be manufactured by a Tier 1 whose name is still seeking broader recognition in the industry.

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Design and Durability of Vanadium-SCR Catalytic Aftertreatment System to Meet Tier 4 Emission Regulations in a Locomotive Application

Cummins Emission Solutions-Alaa Kababji, Atul Abhyankar, Huiling Li
Cummins Power Systems-S.M. Boopathi
Published 2019-02-21 by SAE International in United States
An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system (ATS) for Tier 4 compliant locomotive applications was successfully designed and developed for use on Cummins QSK95 engines. The engine and ATS were introduced in late 2016. This system provided nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction capability in excess of 95%. Vanadia-based selective catalytic reduction (V-SCR) extruded catalyst technology was chosen over other readily available component technologies such as diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or a combination of DOC and SCR systems to address the stringent Tier 4 standards. In addition to NOx reduction, substantial oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons (HCs) from unburnt fuel and lubricating oil soluble organic fraction (SOF) was also achieved. This dual functionality (oxidation and reduction capability) was one of the key factors in adopting this technology as the prime path and rendering it suitable for the harsh locomotive application environment. The properties and performance of the chosen Johnson Matthey Inc. (JMI) extruded V-SCR catalyst are described in this article. In-house developed analysis led design (ALD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools were utilized to design the ATS package and…
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An Investigation of a Locomotive Structural Crashworthiness Using Finite Element Simulation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India-Sunil Kumar Sharma
Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University) Mullana, India-Rakesh Chandmal Sharma
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-04-0019
Published 2018-11-02 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the crashworthiness of a locomotive is assessed through finite element analysis (FEA). The present investigation is focused on the analysis of a locomotive with driving cab to improve the modeling approach and exploring the intrinsic structural weaknesses to improve its crashworthiness. The analyses are conducted according to the EN 15227 standard, which provide crashworthiness requirements for locomotive structure. The finite element model is validated in terms of acceleration and energy balance by the experimental results. The validated model is further used to assess the crashworthiness behavior at a higher impact speed, that is, 100, 160, and 225 km/hr. It has been noticed that local buckling occurs at different points, which reduces the desired progressive damage behavior in the locomotive. The results indicate that at higher speed, large plastic deformation occurs in the frontal part of the locomotive. The maximum deformation is 8.22 m which occurs at the speed of 225 km/hr.
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Preliminary Study on Closed-Loop Acceleration Control of Motorcycles

University of Applied Sciences-Alexander Winkler, Gernot Grabmair
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
In this study a preliminary investigation regarding closed-loop acceleration control for motorcycles is presented. Comprehensive considerations for the implementation of such a controller are discussed. Challenges, which are addressed, are a stable and sufficiently accurate measurement with the help of low-cost sensors and the consideration of the varying available maximum acceleration for set point calculation. In case of torque control, the maximum available torque is scaled by the throttle and thus automatically meets the limitation. Using acceleration as control variable, the varying set point limitation must be considered. According to current hypothesis, a precise closed loop control of the motorcycle longitudinal dynamics can be realized on the basis of the reference variable acceleration, yielding new possibilities in drive train control. The current control of the longitudinal dynamics is done by specifying a target output torque. However, the actual torque of the ICE is not available as a measured variable and is subject to a degree of uncertainty. In the case of a torque-based longitudinal dynamics control, the actual value can only be determined with great…
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Determination of the Stability of Steady-State Conditions for a Model of Road Train

National Transport University-Dmytro Moisia, Viktor Poliakov, Svitlana Mykhaylivna Sharai
Pensioner-Nikolay Mischenko
Published 2018-10-19 by SAE International in United States
This article is devoted to the application of the parameter continuation method for solving the problem of maneuverability of a three-trailer road train. The software computing base is developed in it. The model makes it possible to research the variety of the stationary states of the road train model system control parameters such as the change in longitudinal velocity of freight traffic (the discrete parameter) and the wheel turning angle of the road train (the continuous parameter). The mathematical model of motion of road train is worked out for the most complete description of possible stationary states of a three-trailer road train with without bearing intermediate member with rigid steering control steering control. The model makes it possible to research the variety of the stationary states of the road train model system control parameters. The differential equation system of motion of a road train describes the change in the phase variables: lateral velocity u of center of mass of the tractor unit (quasi-velocity), derivative U of u in the moving coordinates, angular acceleration relative to…
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