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Shape Optimization of Engine Block for Reducing Noise Radiation

ESI North America-Wenlong Yang, Ricardo de Alba Alvarez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0404
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reducing the noise radiated from engines has become important. Optimizing the shape of the engine block is one promising approach to achieve this goal. The objective of this paper is to perform the shape optimization of an engine block to reduce its radiated noise in a certain frequency range. Specifically investigated is a six-cylinder engine made of aluminum and steel. The investigation is performed by numerical models, which compose the finite elements for simulating the structure and boundary elements for simulating the exterior airspace. For optimization, a series of ribs are added on the surface of the engine block. The optimization variables are set up to represent the shapes of the ribs. The limits of the shape changes are defined by the optimization constraints. The radiated power and the sound pressure at certain locations are chosen as the optimization objectives. The Genetical Algorithm is taken to perform the optimization. It is found that the optimization calculation successfully converges and gives the best design. The radiated noise is reduced by certain amount. A Pareto plot with…
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Development of Cooling Fan Model and Heat Exchange Model of Condenser to Predict the Cooling and the Heat Resistance Performance of Vehicle

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yuichi Fukuchi, Kunihiko Yoshitake, Kazutaka Yokota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0157
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The cooling performance and the heat resistance performance of commercial vehicle are balanced with aerodynamic performance, output power of power train, styling, the location of sensors, cost and many other parameters. Therefore, it is desired to predict the cooling performance and the heat resistance performance with high accuracy at the early stage of development. Three forms of heat transfer consist of conduction, convection and radiation. Among of these components, it is sometimes difficult to solve the thermal conduction accurately, because to prepare accurate shape and properties needs lots of time and efforts at the early stage of development. Therefore, the cooling performance of heat exchangers and the air temperature distribution in the engine compartment are predicted to access the cooling and the heat resistance performance of vehicle at the preliminary design stage. The air temperature distribution is dominated by the distribution of heat radiation on heat exchangers, the flow distribution which is produced by fans and thermal convection at the surface of parts in the engine compartment. For the case of middle or high vehicle…
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In-situ studies on the effect of solar control glazings on in-cabin thermal environment for hot and humid climatic zones

Saint Gobain India Pvt., Ltd.-Jyothi Latha Tamalapakula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal comfort in a passenger cabin is the basic necessity of an occupant especially in hot and humid climatic conditions. It is known that the reflective glazing solutions provide better thermal comfort inside the cabin due to significant reflection of IR part of solar radiation. However, in hot and humid climatic zones like India, significant reduction in heat load can also be achieved through cost effective solar control absorbing glazings. Thus, the present work aims to study the effect of solar control absorbing glazings on cabin inside temperatures and its impact on thermal comfort of the occupants in tropical climates. A combination of glazing sets with a range of solar energy transmission and absorption values are considered for the study. Indoor soak and cool tests are performed on a sedan model with multiple sets of solar control absorbing glass combinations. A constant ambient temperature of 38˚C and solar radiation of 1000W/m2 are maintained throughout the tests. Wind speed was simulated for a vehicle running speed of 45kmph. Net heat gain inside the cabin as a…
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Experimental and kinetic investigation of pressure and temperature effects on burning characteristics of n-heptane/air/hydrogen up to near lean burn limits

Beijing Institute of Technology-M. Zuhaib Akram, Fushui Liu, Han Wu, H. M. Shahzaib Hussain
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0343
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Incomplete-combustion and misfire are the hurdles in diesel engines to run on ultra-lean mixture, whereas high thermal efficiency has been achieved at lean mixture. The burning characteristics of n-heptane with 0% and 30% hydrogen was studied at λ=0.8-2.0, 393K-453K and 100kPa-300kPa up to near lean explosion limits. The flame appeared spherically at 37-mJ ignition energy (IE) and excess air coefficient between 0.8 and 1.5, but further lean mixture, ≥1.6, ignited at 3000-mJ. The higher IE was the cause of unstable and distorted flame, and wrinkles at λ=1.6-1.8. The buoyancy appeared at λ ≥1.8, 393K and 100kPa. The highest burning velocity of 19.83 cm/s was observed by Chemkin at λ=1.8 under buoyancy effect. The thermal instability under impact of initial pressure and temperature was higher at lean mixture than stoichiometric mixture. The ultra-lean mixtures from λ=1.8 to λ=1.6 at 393K, λ=1.9 to λ=1.7 at 423K and λ=2.0 to λ=1.8 at 453K were under the impact of buoyancy when initial pressure was increased from 100kPa to 300kPa (higher initial pressure, more λ under buoyancy effect). The change…
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Elucidation of the Sulfide Corrosion Mechanism in Piston Pin Bushings

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Ryuta Motani, Kazuki Maeyama, Kenta Yoshii, Shinji Oshida, Hiroki Masuda, Tomohiro Ikeda, Tatsuya Okayama, Shinichi Takahashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1079
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, downsizing is realizing lighter and more compact engines, but at the same time, the use of turbochargers and other supercharging devices in order to supplement power and torque is increasing their power density, resulting in higher thermal and mechanical loads. In such environment, corrosion of the copper alloy bushes (piston pin bushes) that are press-fitted into the small ends of the conrods is becoming an issue. It is known that automotive bearing materials such as bushes suffer sulfidation corrosion as a result of reacting with an extreme-pressure additive (Zn-DTP) in the lubricating oil, but the reaction paths remain unclear. The research discussed in this paper therefore tried to elucidate the reaction paths in the reaction between Zn-DTP and copper in actual vehicle environments. Unit corrosion tests were conducted in order to identify the effect of the state of degradation of the oil and its temperature and copper content on corrosion. The results of these tests suggested that the direct reaction between copper and Zn-DTP was not the main factor in the corrosion under study,…
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Equivalent damping added by Sound package

FCA US LLC-Dilal Rhazi, Kunal Mathur, Abhishek Nulkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1397
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In Automotive and Aerospace industries, sound package has an important role to help identify and control vehicle noise in order to improve passenger comfort and reduce environmental noise pollution. The well-known used approaches to model the sound package are Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) combined with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The effect of sound package on the sound radiation can be summarized in three points. (i) Interact with the non-resonant response of the panel to modify the mass law. (ii) Act as a barrier and modify the radiation efficiency of the panel. (iii) Acts as a multilayer damping treatment on the panel. To the best of our knowledge, the equivalent damping due to the multilayer has not been done by earlier researchers and it's a novel approach. In this paper, an experimental study will be conducted to assess the add-on damping by sound package for different configurations. The decay rate method will be used to measure the damping indicator on a flat samples attached to acoustic treatments. Different parameters will be investigated such as: Nature of…
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On-Glass Antenna for Connected Vehicle Communications

Vitro SAB de CV-David Dai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1370
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a glass patch antenna for 5Hz Wi-Fi, Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications is presented. The proposed antenna is embedded into a laminated vehicle window glass (outer and inner layers) and using the inner layer glass and polyvinylbutyral (PVB) layer as antenna substrate. The ground plan of the patch antenna is a layer of silver screen printed onto inner surface of the inner glass. The patch antenna is feed by a coupled aperture on the ground plan, therefore, no hole is required on the glass. The antenna is conformal to the glass and can be hidden under the black paint around the perimeter of the window glass. The measured peak gain of the antenna is around 5 dBi and the antenna can be embedded into windshield, back window and side windows for a combined omnidirectional far field radiation pattern in terrestrial direction. Since the antenna is part of the window glass, not additional antenna packaging required. In addition the patch antenna can be embedded around the perimeter…
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Human Health Risk Assessment of Space Radiation

University of Pittsburgh-Ashmita Rajkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0020
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Mars has been the topic of colonization and discovery for the last few decades but there have been hindrances in implementing the mission. This focus on Mars colonization has only deepened after the discovery of water on its surface. The discovery of water on Mars has led researchers to believe that its sustainability of life is higher than any other uncolonized planet. Although, life can survive on Mars, it is highly unethical to send communities to Mars without acknowledging the risks, especially those concerning the well being of humans. The risks of living on Mars are slowly unraveling through extensive research, but it is evident that certain health care measures must be taken in order to prevent potentially fatal conditions. One of the biggest problems is health concerns that astronauts face after returning from Mars. Health problems in space have been increasingly difficult to deal with because of the lasting circumstances that astronauts suffer upon returning back to Earth. As a result of these issues, NASA has delayed its Mars mission to circa 2028. Another…
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RAD-HARD Microelectronics for Space Applications

Aerospace & Defense Technology: February 2020

  • Magazine Article
  • 20AERP02_01
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

For orbiting satellites, design requirements are extensive as a result of the extreme environment in space, including wide-ranging and rapidly changing temperatures, satellite body charging effects and high-energy particle bombardment and radiation. These dynamics drive the need for high-reliability engineering concepts for all system components. In the case of microelectronics, this takes a unique form and drives innovation for techniques to overcome these damaging effects.

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COOLING DATA FOR TURBINE ENGINES IN HELICOPTERS

S-12 Powered Lift Propulsion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP996A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States
A tested method of data presentation and use is described herein. The method shown is a useful guide, to be used with care and to be improved with use.
This content contains downloadable datasets
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