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Robustness and reliability enhancement on retractor noise testing, from development considerations to round robin

  • ZF Group - Jens Scholz
  • Virtual Vehicle Competence Center - Maximilian Amort, Johann Payer
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1533
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Sensing and acting elements to guarantee the locking functions of seat belt retractors can emit noise when the retractor is subjected to externally applied excitations. For these elements to function correctly, stiffness, inertia and friction needs to be in tune, leading to a complex non-behavior of motion, which makes it delicate to test for vibration induced noise. Requirements for a noise test are simplicity, robustness, repeatability, and independence of laboratory and test equipment. This paper reports on the joint development process for an alternative test procedure, involving three test laboratories with different equipment. In vehicle observation on parcel shelf mounted retractors, commercially available test equipment, and recent results from multi-axial component tests [1], set the frame for this work. Robustness and reliability of test results is being analyzed by means sensitivity studies on several test parameters. This work results in a proposal for a general test procedure [2] that allows to characterize at best the noise emitted by the inner components of retractors, being independent from vehicle specific information, but providing a maximum of repeatability…

Novel three cylinder engine solutions offering low noise vibration and harshness for Range-extender and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

  • Auckland University of Technology - Peter R. Hooper
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1553
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
In recent years automotive manufacturers have introduced an increasing array of in-line three cylinder engine solutions with the objective of providing efficient low CO2 emission powertrain solutions for small vehicles and in some cases to address down-sizing targets. At the same time three cylinder engines have seen recent introduction in range-extender and hybrid electric vehicles such as the BMW i8. Unfortunately in-line three cylinder units present serious challenge to engineers in terms of noise, vibration and harshness and this often yields criticism from customer perceptions. The in-line three cylinder arrangement however does offer an attractive packaging solution for vehicles and an effective method of reducing overall vehicle cost. This paper presents analysis and modelling of a high durability three cylinder two-stroke cycle engine which could offer advantages in this competitive and challenging sector for small automotive power plants particularly from a noise, vibration and harshness perspective. The engine uses segregated scavenging to overcome the durability problems of conventional two-stroke cycle engine. Configurations are presented with and without balance shaft and compared with four stroke engine…

Robustness and variability prediction of seat vibration caused by all-wheel drive system imbalance in vehicle development.

  • Volvo Car Group - Magnus Olsson, Jesper Schwartz, Mikael Fransson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1484
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
An important tasks in the premium and luxury automotive segments during the vehicle development process is the refinement of noise, vibration and harshness. Along with other attributes such as styling, drivability and vehicle dynamics it strongly influences the overall perception of the vehicle. At the same time the automotive manufacturers need to release more products faster to the market using shorter vehicle development time with reduced cost. Altogether this has increased the use of virtual models and decreased the number of test vehicles in the programs. When assembling vehicles in production there will be by a natural variation, which will result in a spread in the attribute performances. When shifting towards virtual models and reduced numbers of test vehicles there is a higher risk that the variations in production will be missed, leading to more customer complaints. The question is if the production variability could be predicted before start of production by taking the component variability and assembly process into account early on in the vehicle development phase. This paper will demonstrate a way this…

Identification Titanium and Titanium Alloy Wrought Products

  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2809A
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers procedures for identifying wrought products of titanium and titanium alloys.


Guide for Reliability Analysis Using the Physics-of-Failure Process

  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2816_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

The Physics-of-Failure (PoF) is a science-based approach to reliability that uses modeling and simulation to design-in reliability. This approach models the root causes of failures such as fatigue, fracture, wear, and corrosion. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools have been developed to address various loads, stresses, failure mechanisms and sites. PoF uses knowledge of basic failure processes to prevent failures through robust design and manufacturing practices, and aims to:


Automotive Components Fatigue and Durability Testing with Flexible Vibration Testing Table

  • University of Manitoba - Ebadur Rahman, Nan Wu, Christine Wu
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-01-0004
Published 2018-04-07 by SAE International in United States

Accelerated durability testing of automotive components has become a major interest for the ground vehicle Industries. This approach can predict the life characteristics of the vehicle by testing fatigue failure at higher stress level within a shorter period of time. Current tradition of laboratory testing includes a rigid fixture to mount the component with the shaker table. This approach is not accurate for the durability testing of most vehicle components especially for those parts connected directly with the tire and suspension system. In this work, the effects of the elastic support on modal parameters of the tested structure, such as natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, as well as the estimated structural fatigue life in the durability testing were studied through experimental testing and numerical simulations. First, a specially designed sub-scaled experimental testing bed with both rigid and elastic supports was developed to study the effects of the additional elastic support and the mass on the change of structural modal parameters. The significant modal parameters variation due to the additional elastic support was clearly illustrated by the experimental results. Moreover, the modal parameters with elastic support were then used to build and tune the finite element model (FEM). Afterwards, the accelerated durability profiles of both sine sweep and random vibration were applied to the FEM to compare the deviation of the cumulative fatigue damage between the tested structures with elastic and rigid supports. This work reveals and explains the inaccuracy of the current Accelerated Durability Testing system with rigid support foundation, which introduces a significant amount of variation in fatigue damage compared with the elastic foundation case for both Sine-Sweep and Random loading conditions while the dynamic properties of the tested structure with rigid support are different to the real situation.


Calculating System Failure Rates Using Field Return Data. Application of SAE-J3083 for Functional Safety and Beyond

  • Aptiv - Andre Kleyner
  • Ford Motor Company - Keith Hodgson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States

In early design activities (typically before the hardware is built), a reliability prediction is often required for the electronic components and systems in order to assess their future reliability and in many cases to meet customer specifications. These specifications may include the allocated reliability for a particular electronic unit and in the cases of functional safety products to meet the ASIL (Automotive Safety and Integrity Level) requirement specified by the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The standard allows for the use of “statistics based on field returns or tests” as a valid alternative to the handbook-based reliability prediction. This paper presents a newly developed SAE-J3083 standard “Reliability Prediction for Automotive Electronics Based on Field Return Data”, which covers the types of the required data, ways to collect it, and the methodology of how to process this data to calculate the failure rates and meet the expected safety goals.


A Fatigue S-N Curve Transformation Technique and Its Applications in Fatigue Data Analysis

  • Tenneco Inc. - Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States

The approaches of obtaining both fatigue strength distribution and fatigue life distribution for a given set of fatigue S-N data are reviewed in this paper. A new fatigue S-N curve transformation technique, which is based on the fundamental statistics definition and some reasonable assumptions, is specifically developed in this paper to transform a fatigue life distribution to a fatigue strength distribution. The procedures of applying the technique to multiple-stress level, two-stress level, and one-stress level fatigue S-N data are presented.


Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel

  • Aramco Research Center - Tom Tzanetakis, Alexander K. Voice, Michael L. Traver
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States

Experimental data and modeling work have shown that gasoline-like fuels can potentially be used to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low pollutant emissions in compression ignition engines. Demonstrating that existing hardware systems are tolerant to these fuels is a key step in harnessing this potential. In this study, a 400 hour NATO test cycle was used to assess the overall robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. The cycle was designed to accelerate wear and identify any significant failure modes that could appear under normal operating conditions. Although prior work has investigated injection system durability with a wide variety of alternative fuels, this study uniquely focuses on a high volatility, low viscosity, gasoline-like fuel that has been dosed with lubricity additive. Fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and fuel flow rates were continuously logged on a dedicated test bench in order to monitor hardware performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were acquired every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, low level metallic wear, and dilution of the oil. Test bench data indicated that 400 hours of runtime were completed without serious degradation of the components. However, a performance check conducted at the conclusion of the test revealed that it was not possible for the fuel system to meter very low injection quantities near the zero delivery point and control rail pressure within specifications. Upon a hardware teardown inspection, it was identified that the inlet check valve of the high pressure pump had experienced significant cavitation damage which led to a degradation of sealing quality. Fuel analysis showed some changes in several elements that are likely associated with material wear and dilution by oil, although oil samples did not show a strong trend of increasing dilution by fuel over time. An injection quantity sweep comparison between gasoline and diesel clearly indicated that the lower viscosity fuel exhibited significantly higher fuel return rates and temperatures.


Calculating Probability Metric for Random Hardware Failures (PMHF) in the New Version of ISO 26262 Functional Safety - Methodology and Case Studies

  • Aptiv - Andre Kleyner
  • NXP Semiconductors - Robert Knoell
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States

The Automotive Functional Safety standard ISO 26262 introduced a PMHF (Probabilistic Metric for random Hardware Failures) in Part 5 and Part 10 by calculating the system failure rates and assessing the ASIL (Automotive Safety and Integrity Level) for functional safety. The new version of the standard expands the PMHF concept by further promoting a new metric “average probability of failure per hour over the operational lifetime of the item”, which has not been commonly used by the reliability engineering community. In order to clarify how PMHF is calculated within the content of ISO 26262, this paper will discuss how to calculate both the failure rate and the average probability of failure per hour in terms of definitions, sources of the data, applications, and advantages and disadvantages. It will also present examples of calculating PMHF including the average probability of failure per hour for a non-exponentially distributed failure population as well as an example of a system with redundancy.