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Study of Friction Optimization Potential for Lubrication Circuits of Light-duty Diesel Engines

General Motors-Salvatore Mafrici, Francesco Barba, Mauro Mattis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0056
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with stringent homologation targets and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystems has been one of the most important topics of modern diesel engine development. In particular, the present paper analyzes the lubrication circuit potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of oil circuit design, oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low formulations) and thermal management. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used. In particular, the effects of oil pressure regulation, oil pump size and speed, oil temperature and viscosity have been thoroughly evaluated. Experiments were conducted both at component test rig for oil pump and at engine test bench on…
 

Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

Ford Motor Company-Abdelkrim Zouani, Vidya Marri
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. Moreover, an oil pressure relief groove can be added, at the onset of the high pressure port, to achieve this goal.This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. This method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries. Results of this optimization method are discussed and a design guideline for the oil pressure relief groove is disclosed.
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Development of Impact Force 1D Model for Powertrain Component

Denso-Yuma Yoshimaru, Makoto Kondo, Yukie Omuro, Masashi Inaba
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Electromagnetic valves excellent in sealing properties and resistant to sliding are often used in powertrain equipment installed in gasoline- or diesel-engine vehicles. An electromagnetic valve has the function of moving internal valve members by means of electromagnetic force generated by the application of a voltage and thereby changing the flow path. When an electromagnetic valve operates, however, the valve members impact with one another, emitting impact noise caused by it. With the requirement for low noise in electromagnetic valves having become stricter recently from the viewpoint of comfort in the passenger compartment, predicting the noise is needed at the design stage.With this background, this paper describes the development of a 1D model of impact force that will enable the noise and the product performance to be examined simultaneously for a GDI (gasoline direct injection) high pressure pump. In contrast to the conventional model in which a movable member is taken as a mass point with a spring and a damper placed at the impact section, this paper proposes a technique in which a spring-mass model…
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Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

Purdue University-Andrew Robison, Andrea Vacca
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The kinematic flow ripple for gerotor pumps is often used as a metric for comparison among different gearsets. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the real flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. To counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual prototyping. In this work, a multi-objective optimization by genetic algorithm using an experimentally validated, lumped parameter, fluid-dynamic model is used to design the port geometry. This optimization is repeated for five pumps with different kinematic flow ripples, and the simulated performance of the pumps with optimized port geometries is compared to the kinematic flow in each case. The performance of the pumps with the optimized ports in each case was…
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R410A Based Automotive Heat Pump System That Hits Cabin Heating Goal Successfully in -30 °C Extreme Ambient

BAIC Motor Corporation, Ltd. New Energy-Kelvin Zhai
BYD Auto Industry Company Limited-Xuefeng Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet low ambient challenges on Battery based Electric Vehicles (BEV), it is necessary to employ heat pump systems on the HVAC systems. However, due to the boiling points limitation of the regular refrigerant R134A/R1234YF, even with Vapor Injection cycle (VI) added, due to -26°C Boiling Temperature (BT) limitation, it is still encountering serious challenges to meet -30 °C or lower ambient needs, although VI Heat Pump (VI H/P) may reach COP>=1.7 at ambient -18 °C. An alternative low BT refrigerant, R410A, plus VI participation, the combination provides potentials to operate in extreme low ambient like -30 °C. In order to find out the actual heating performance of R410A+VI, a demonstration fleet of three vehicles had been built up for road tests to compare each other, which consists of a traditional vehicle (ICE gas heating), a BEV with PTC water heating system (R134A) and a BEV with VI heat pump system (R410A). The testing area covers the coldest city in China such as Harbin, (-20°C), Yakeshi (-39 °C), The road tests have exhibited positive results…
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Development of Electric Oil Pump Controller in Hybrid Vehicle Based on PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) and the AUTOSAR Platform

ETAS Korea-Hojeong Yoo
Hyundai & Kia Motor Corp.-Gyeongcheol Kim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Traditional hybrid vehicles operated two types of oil pump, mechanical for combustion engine and electrical for electric motor, to supply oil pressure for automatic transmission in each power source. New hybrid vehicles has only one electrical pump to reduce system volume and to improve fuel efficiency. Purposes of this study are to make standardization of firmware development process for oil pump unit (OPU) and electric oil pump (EOP) and to apply permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) instead of brushless DC (BLDC) motor. In old-fashioned non-operating system (OS) firmware, it was convenient to calculate control timing for motor control, however the firmware was deeply dependent to specific microcontroller Unit (MCU). In other words, much of efforts and time are needed if new MCU were applied. In this study, new standard development process for MCU firmware can be built up based on automotive open system architecture (AUTOSAR) platform by developing specific motor complex device driver (CDD). In existing system, the OPU supplied with high-voltage from battery drives the BLDC motor driven with six-step block commutation method through…
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Heat Transfer Characteristics of Gas Cooler in a CO2 Automobile Heat Pump System

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Dandong Wang, Jun-ye Shi, Binbin Yu, Jiangping Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
An automobile heat pump system with conventional refrigerant (HFC-134a or HFO-1234yf) suffers significantly diminishment of heating capacity and system efficiency as the ambient temperature decreases. Natural refrigerant CO2 (GWP = 1) is considered as a promising alternative to HFC-134a in automobile air conditioning (MAC) applications with environmentally friendly advantage. In addition, CO2 automobile heat pump system is a promising heat pump technology for EVs with great heating advantages in a cold climate. This study aims to investigate the supercritical heat transfer characteristics of a compact micro-channel gas cooler applied in an automobile CO2 heat pump system. A simulation model of automobile gas cooler was developed by using segment-by-segment method, and validated by experimental results from Series Gas cooler (SGC) and One Gas cooler (OGC) CO2 heat pump systems. The error of heating capacity between calculated results and experimental results was less than 7%. Using this model, the air and refrigerant temperature distribution as well as the heat transfer coefficient along the refrigerant flow path under the condition of -20 °C air inlet temperature and 9…
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Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Vincent Costanzo
Argonne National Laboratory-Katarzyna Matusik, Brandon Sforzo, Alan Kastengren, Christopher Powell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel. Injector rate shapes were measured as a function of time, and high resolution x-ray imaging of the nozzle tips was performed as part of the final teardown analysis.…
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New Method to Achieve High Hydraulic Pressure and Improved Gear Pump Performance in Active Height Control (AHC) System

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takeru Numasawa, Tsuyoshi Yamasaki
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle weight reduction is becoming more and more important as increasingly stringent fuel economy regulations are introduced around the world. This development improved the hydraulic gear pump performance of the next-generation Active Height Control (AHC) suspension and achieved significant weight reduction of 5 kg by eliminating the auxiliary pump accumulator. To realize the necessary high-pressure with a high flow rate, the sealing performance of the pump at the tips of the gear teeth is very important. This was achieved by developing “breaking-in” technology that shaves away the aluminum housing using the gear teeth and creates zero clearance between the teeth tips and the housing. To reduce the frictional loss torque of the pump, which was identified as an issue of this technology, it was necessary to completely shave away the initial clearance in the breaking-in process. The mechanism for the state where the aluminum housing had not been completely shaved away was explained by focusing on the tooth tip stress during the breaking-in process. As a result, the design requirements were clarified. This technology was…
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Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

Toyota Motor Corporation-Kei Okamoto, Hidefumi Aikawa, Minoru Ohmikawa, Kunihiko Hayashi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) using a heat pump system in cold weather. One advantage of an HV is the high efficiency of the vehicle system provided by the coupling and optimal control of an electric motor and an engine. However, in a conventional HV, fuel economy degradation is observed in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin using the engine results in a reduced efficiency of the vehicle system. In this study, a heat pump, combined with an engine, was used for thermal management to decrease fuel economy degradation. The heat pump is equipped with an electrically driven compressor that pumps ambient heat into a water-cooled condenser. The heat generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce emissions and the cabin needs heat to provide thermal comfort. To control the heat flow from the engine and the heat pump, switching between coolant circuits was used. An optimal…
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