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NDT Application from Conventional to Digital Radiography for the Aircraft Maintenance Industry

SORT Engineering GmbH-Adel A. Ghobbar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1907
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Technological innovation can provide improved productivity, increased cost savings, and it can keep or make an organisation competitive. Digital radiography for non-destructive testing (NDT) is such a promising innovation. In organisations with large scale utilisation of non-destructive testing, a transition from film to digital radiography is easily justified. Nevertheless, this is not the case for every organisation. Next to the operational workflow, system flexibility, quality, and regulatory issues also play a role in the trade-off. Especially in the aircraft maintenance industry, where the non-destructive operation is related to a lot of different factors. Motivated by the developments of digital radiography, the NDT department of KLM Engineering & Maintenance (E&M) requested advice in reconsidering their conventional film radiography capabilities. The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of digital radiography at KLM E&M. First, a thorough understanding of the technical and practical principles behind conventional radiographic testing was built up. Regulatory and process requirements were identified and several digital radiographic systems for industrial purposes were analysed. Based on the requirements, only computed radiography (CR)…

Line Side Equipment

Broetje-Automation Gmbh-Bertrand LAPORTE
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1879
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The aircraft production rate is now increasing and requires to keep the production tools as close as possible from the assembly work area. As production sites cannot be extended as much as the rate increases, this has created the need for developing innovative & efficient line side equipment, which fulfils storage capacity, ergonomical accessibility, easy handling & quick load unload performance for all aircraft part assemblies. This paper will focus on the development and the integration into the production on our innovative solutions on Line Side Equipment . The Line Side Equipment is custom designed and built for manual or semi-automated assembly lines. It offers a wide range of solutions such as dedicated storage areas, trolleys, easy acces, tool kits & smart cabinets.

Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations.

Alok Kumar Mohapatra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1863
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gases emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present study aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied. Selected exergetic measures under consideration are Exergy Efficiency, Fuel Exergy Depletion Ratio, Relative Exergy Consumption Ratio, Exergetic Improvement potential and Productivity Lack ratio. The total fuel exergy depletion ratio of the turboprop engine is estimated to be around 44%. . Also, among the identified…

Improving competitiveness of Additive Manufacturing Aerospace serial parts

LISI AEROSPACE Additive Manufacturing-Maxime gas, Alexis RENE-CORAIL, Sebastien EYRIGNOUX, Guillaume IKER, Stephane SUDRE
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1900
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The interest of selective laser melting technology for aerospace parts is very high due to their high complexity and their freedom of design which allow functions integration. However, the competitiveness of Laser Beam Melting (LBM) machines for aerospace industry is limited by two major road blocks. On the one hand, basic parametric set sold with LBM machines are more oriented to historical qualification than productivity rates. For instance, the ongoing qualification on EOS M290 by AIRBUS COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT only enables us to produce a hundred pieces per machine per year. On the other hand, wasted times between two consecutive manufacturing batches are significant and are impacting the yearly output of the machines. The present project focuses on two activities, focusing on the largest available machines, XLINE2000R and M400, in order to maximize the amount of pieces per build. The first one was the improvement of parametric set productivity, to reduce production time, while keeping material and mechanical properties. We focused on main aerospace materials: titanium alloys, aluminum alloys (Scalmalloy®) and nickel-chromium-based superalloys. The second one…

Capturing the Impact of Fuel Octane Number on Modern Gasoline Vehicles with Octane Indices

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory, USA-Forrest Jehlik, Henning Lohse-Busch, Simeon Iliev
Illinois Institute of Technology, USA-Carrie Hall
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0005
Published 2019-05-09 by SAE International in United States
The need for high efficiency automotive engines has led to more complex air handling and fuel injection systems, higher compression ratios, more advanced combustion and aftertreatment systems, and the use of fuels with higher octane ratings. Higher octane number fuels have a lower propensity to knock. This work studies the influence of changing fuel octane rating on two modern production gasoline vehicles, one with a naturally aspirated, port injected engine and the other with a turbocharged, direct injected engine, using fuels with four different octane number grades (with 85, 87, 91, and 93 anti-knock indices) and operated over a variety of driving cycles and temperature conditions. Unlike previous studies, this effort develops and demonstrates a methodology that isolates fuel effects on fuel consumption and provides a clear view of the octane impact on existing vehicles. While fuel octane rating can also impact factors such as the allowable compression ratio and gear shifting strategies, this study examines fuel consumption changes that are solely attributable to octane rating on production vehicles. The developed approach uses results from…
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A Guide to Collaborative Robot Safety

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34385
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The ability of collaborative robots to share tasks with humans and flexibly adapt to new requirements can provide high returns on investment in a wide variety of industrial applications. Manufacturers employ these robots to reap the benefits of integrated safety features that allow them to work with or close by humans and boost productivity for a wide variety of repetitive tasks.


Integrating a Proactive Quality Control Concept into Machining Operation of a Crankshaft Manufacturing Process

FCA US LLC-Loda Bazzi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Competition in the manufacturing industry is ever increasingly intense. Manufacturing organizations that want to grow and prosper must embrace a discipline of constant improvement. Their engineering departments are tasked with improving existing manufacturing processes in terms of quality and throughput, which is vital to competing on a global scale. Manufacturers strive to utilize technologies to extract efficiencies from their existing processes. Reducing scrap and rework is the paramount goal in increasing a processes’ efficiency. The foundation of this study is to analyze a production line to determine the quality status throughout the manufacturing process. The intention is to react to process instability before the production becomes non-compliant (scrap/rework) which will significantly improve productivity.By incorporating the proposed technology into the production process, the desired achievement will be to spot process variables at the earliest stages so that counter measures can be taken to stabilize the process before production drifts into non-compliance. Furthermore, the technology will communicate with machining operations to initiate counter measures such as program offsets, tool changes and wheel dressings. The main goal of…
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Evaluation of Ecosystem for Design Assessment and Verification by BAJA Dynamometer Capstone Team at the University of Nebraska

Imagars LLC; Portland State University-Baldur Steingrimsson
Portland State University-Bao Phan, Sung Yi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes the outcome of an evaluation by capstone design teams from the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, of the Ecosystem for Design Assessment and Verification. The Ecosystem is a design decision support tool whose main goal is to identify design oversights, defined in terms of deviations from the design process or unfulfilled design requirements, early in the design process, guide designers through the design process, and teach proper design techniques. It is capable of automatically assessing students’ design work against ABET compliant learning outcomes. The Ecosystem offers many additional features found useful by capstone design teams, such as automatic generation of formatted project reports as well as interfaces to tools for team communications (Google Drive, Dropbox or OneDrive) or development (e.g., SolidWorks, CATIA, NX Unigraphics or AutoCAD).The Ecosystem was recently evaluated by a capstone team working on an automated straw flattening machine and again during a following semester by a team designing a dynamometer used for measuring the engine power of a BAJA race car.The paper draws…
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Now You See It, Not You Don’t

Cold Jet LLC-Steve Wilson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
No matter how large or small of an operation, there is a great demand for automotive component manufacturers, increase the productivity of their equipment, improve the quality of their parts, all the while lowering costs. This can be a balancing act between using the most effective technology while working within a shrinking budget.This presentation discusses the advantages of dry ice cleaning solutions in a variety of automotive applications: 1) as a replacement for solvent and/or mechanical cleaning for the removal of contaminants from tooling, at operating temperature and while it is still in the production machine, 2) deflashing plastic molded parts, 3) removing excess film from IMD parts, and 4) the surface preparation of molded plastic parts prior to painting or coating, replacing traditional aqueous washing methods and subsequent drying.Supporting research from several independent studies (Kettering University, Materials & Process Associates, etc.) will be presented along with industry case studies, pictures and video clips to demonstrate the various proven solutions in the automotive industry.The reader will achieve an understanding of how to improve the environmental…
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Mobile Laser Trackers for Aircraft Manufacturing: Increasing Accuracy and Productivity of Robotic Applications for Large Parts

FFT Produktionssysteme GmbH & Co KG-Fabian Ehmke
Fraunhofer IFAM-Christoph Brillinger, Till Staude, Kevin Deutmarg, Maximilian Klemstein, Christian Boehlmann
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
The demand for higher production rates of large parts in aircraft industry requests more flexible manufacturing solutions. High-accurate mobile robots show a promising alternative in comparison with high-invest special machines. With mobile robot-based solutions processes can be executed simultaneously which increases the productivity significantly. However, the freedom of mobility results in insufficient positioning accuracy of these machines. Hence fast and accurate referencing processes are required to achieve cost-effectiveness and meet production tolerances. In this publication a Mobile Laser Tracker (MLT) system and a holistic approach for future manufacturing systems with mobile robots will be introduced and discussed.
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