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Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
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The In-Depth PHEV Driveline Torsional Vibration Induced Vehicle NVH Response Study by Integrated CAE/Testing Methodology

BAIC Motor Powertrain Co Ltd-Hongzhi Yu, Shouwei lu
BAIC Motor corporation.Ltd.-Qian zhao, Li zhang, Jianning jia, LIE WU, Huimin zhuang, honghui zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1507
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper,an amesim 1-d refined driveline model, including detailed engine, damper, dual clutch, transmission, differential, motor, halfshaft, wheel, body, suspension, powertrain mounting and powertrain rigid body, was built up, off a p2.5 topology phev,to predict torsional vibration induced vehicle NVH response addressing differing driving scenarios,like WOT rampup,parking engine start/stop,ev driving to tipnin(engine start) then to tipout(engine stop).firstly,the torsional vibration modes were predicted,addressing differing transmission gear steps of hev/ev driving mode,and the critical modes could be detected,as such, caveats/measures could be applied to setup the modal alignment chart/warn other engineering section from the very start of vehicle development; secondly,secondly,the holistic operational testing,which defined plenty measurement points including rpm fluctuation at differing location of engine/transmission,spark angle,crank position,injection angle,valve timing,MAP/MAF,etc, partly for later model calibration,partly for extract mandatory excitation input,like cylinder pressure trace/mount and suspension force,and partly for the reference of next optimization stage, was implemented on vehicle chassis dyno in a hemi-anechoic chamber.as it was merely centered on torsional vibration induced scenarios,the intake system/exhaust system /engine radiation noise contribution was excluded by specific measures,like BAM,etc, during…
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Root Cause Analysis and Structural Optimization of E-Drive Transmission

AVL LIST GmbH-Thomas Resch
AVL-AST d.o.o.-Borislav Klarin, Ivan Grozdanovic, Denis Pevec
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1578
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
We face a growing demand for so-called eAxles (electric axle drive) in vehicle development. An eAxle is a compact electric drive solution for full electric vehicles (and P4 hybrids) with integrated electric machine and transmission. The transmission can be rather simple using fixed gear with cylindrical gear steps but increasing demands on power and speed range as well as efficiency increase its complexity with planetary stages or switchable gear steps. Such an electro-mechanic system has different behavior than the classical ICE-driven powertrains, for example regarding NVH, where high frequency and tonal noise from gear whining and electro-magnetic excitation is an important comfort issue that needs to be understood and controlled. As knowledge base for such drives is currently low, development needs to be supported by methodologies, which are not only on high predictive level for NVH responses, but also allow a detailed understanding and insight into the causes and reasons of a certain behavior to identify noise effects and to accelerate learning for such systems. In addition, such methods should lead to the possibility to…
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Real-Time Capable Wind and Rolling Noise Synthesis for a More Realistic Vehicle Simulator Experience

Institute of Electronic Music & Acoustic-Julian Koch, Alois Sontacchi
MAGNA STEYR Fahrzeugtechnik AG & CO KG-Thorsten Bartosch, Werner Reinalter
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1546
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays a large proportion of the overall acoustic vehicle development takes place within virtual phases. Increasingly, projects require the auralization of virtual developed acoustics measures, e.g. from the disciplines of electro-acoustic, ride comfort, rolling noise or passive acoustic on dynamic or static driving simulators. In practice it turns out that in addition to engine noise also a realistic reproduction of rolling and wind noise is important. In this article, approaches to synthetic rolling and wind noise generators are discussed. We developed such real-time capable sound generators that are parametrizable according to arbitrary driving conditions. Furthermore, spacial reproduction of the driving sounds is achieved for binaural headphone, as well as for other arbitrary loudspeaker setups, like often found in driving simulators. Derived models and parametrization are based on measurements and recordings from several real vehicles. In order to facilitate the adjustment on specific vehicles and designing rolls thereof, the suggested parametrization is guided by a defined procedure. The influence of these noise components on an improved perception of the overall driving experience is objectified by means…
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Asian Consumers Challenging the NVH Performance of European Cars – Implications on the Product Development in the 2020ies

MAGNA STEYR Automotive Technologies-Paulo Padilha
NVH Experts-Christoph Fankhauser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1552
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Sales of SUV and luxury cars on the largest market of the world – China – are growing at a high rate. The highways in large cities like Beijing or Shanghai are increasingly populated with cars from all over the world like Japan, USA, Europe and Korea and even some refined domestic brands. More than 10 million rich people can afford those cars and are skilled drivers. This huge group of potential consumers is targeted by luxury brand OEMs and by startup companies. It has been understood, that these people have a strong attitude towards comfort. The twistbeam rear axle was replaced by multilink, double clutch transmissions were improved by comfort-mode drive programs, interior trims raised to Western standard performance levels, tyres specially developed for comfort in China, localized insulation materials and packages engineered to a one vehicle class higher level. The European avant-garde is capable of such high levels of complete vehicle NVH performance, whereas premium brands often compromise NVH with respect to high vehicle dynamics performance and passive safety requirements. At the same…
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NVH Optimization Methods Applied to e-Motors

Continental Automotive France SAS-Thierry Bourdon
Continental SCR-Alina LYSAK
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1531
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) is now playing an important role in electric vehicle development process. Experience shows that the NVH criteria must be considered at the very early stages of the concept design phase. Finite Elements (FE) models are widely used to simulate the vehicle design. To achieve a correct accuracy of a FE model, the results of an experimental modal analysis (EMA) are commonly applied to a FE model via correlation and updating processes. Thus, different kinds of optimization might be used throughout the concept design duration. This paper describes, first, the use of a parametric optimization to tune a FE model in high frequencies relying on the results of the EMA test. Then the frequency response analysis is conducted to detect the critical frequencies for the NVH performance. Based on the results of this analysis, a topographic optimization is performed. The aim of this optimization is to improve the NVH behavior by mitigating the resonance peaks in specified frequency range and to produce a shape which can be stamped with required constraints. Both parametric and…
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A Bridging Technology to Combine Test and Simulation With In-Situ TPA

Head acoustics GmbH-Matthias Wegerhoff, Roland Sottek, Haiko Brücher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1574
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
To shorten development processes and to secure decisive product properties as early as possible, new methods are required for product development. These must be able to generate the maximum information about the future product out of the data available at the respective development step. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is therefore becoming increasingly important. CAE makes it possible to predict product properties at an early development stage and to partly replace physical prototypes with numerical models (virtual prototypes). However, the transition from experiment-based methods to numerical approaches is a big step. Often, purely-numerical examinations are only possible to a limited extent because of the following reasons: complex modeling, missing data or input data with major uncertainties, lack of expertise, or development processes not suitable for numerical methods. Therefore, this paper addresses a "bridging technology" that combines the advantages of experiment-based and numerical methods and allows optimal evaluation of the properties of the product to be developed. For this purpose, an exciting subsystem with its structural dynamics is represented by Equivalent Forces (EF) determined based on measured accelerations…
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Tire NVH Optimization for Future Mobility

CEAT Ltd-Rahul R. Sanghani, Thomas Cherian, Subramaniam Loganathan, Kamal Suhalka, Juban Thomas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1520
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) is one of the most critical customer touchpoints which may lead to buying decisions. The importance of Noise inside the cabin is increasing day by day because of the new era of E-mobility and autonomous driving. Noise source could be the engine, powertrain, tyre, suspension components, brake system, etc. depending on driving conditions. Among these, tire noise is being identified as biggest contributor at constant mid-speed driving where engine and powertrain operate at minimum noise and wind noise is also at a moderate level. This driving condition becomes very significant for electric vehicles where engine noise is replaced by motor noise which is a tonal noise at very high frequency. This makes the improvement of tire noise levels quintessential for good cabin acoustic feel. This demands a proactive approach to develop low noise tire platforms for future mobility by leveraging research tools and best practices in the industry. With a greater emphasis on ride and comfort in passenger car vehicles, tyre manufacturers will be challenged to meet stringent harshness…
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Effect of Variable Geometry Fin in Automotive Condenser using Analytical and CFD Approach

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Ram Anandan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0028
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Due to stiff competition among the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM's), the Comfort, Fuel efficiency & Safety are the key factors that drive the vehicle business, from that context Air Conditioning for a car plays a pivotal role in the area of comfort of the passengers and fuel efficiency point of view. In addition, condenser plays a pivotal role in Power train cooling system & air conditioning system. Therefore, it is a big challenge for the automotive engineer to propose an innovative design that can improve the thermal performance of Condenser without not compromise the package size. Also, it's a challenge for the OEM's to select the optimal heat exchanger from the supplier basket during the design phase of product development cycle. The objective of this paper to focus on analytical calculation or frame work was developed using excel tool considering the variable geometry of fin which includes louver pitch, louver angle and louver length in a multi-pass condenser. Further this theoretical calculation was validated using experimental data and CFD simulation. This theoretical excel tool can…
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Simplified Approach to Model a HEV/PHEV/Battery Vehicle Cooling System in 1D and validating using DFSS methodology

Detroit Engineered Products (DEP), Inc.-Toukir Islam
FCA Engineering India Pvt,, Ltd.-Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, Amit Kumar, Vaibhav Patil, Dhananjay Autade, Kamalakannan J
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1386
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT Improving fuel economy and to satisfy more restrictive emission legislation the Vehicle electrification becomes more important one. Compared to the combustion engine a Hybrid electric vehicles / Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will use energy from the grid to recharge their high voltage battery and this is converted with much higher efficiency, and less CO2 emission so they will have a significant role in the present transition from conventional to electric vehicles. The addition of new components, such as power electronics, electric machine and high voltage battery, increases the maximum torque available and the energy stored on-board, but increases the weight as well. In addition, although they have really high efficiency, they produce a significant amount of heat that has to be removed. Another thermal management issue in PHEV and BEV is cabin heating, since the engine heat is not available. To guarantee system efficiency and reliability, a completely new thermal management layout has to be designed. The time and cost spent on a real time model of new cooling system will be more which…