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Aircraft Plenum Air Outlet Optimization Method

Embraer-Fernando Stancato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0021
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
It is possible to observe a growing interest by mobility industry toward a increased passenger comfort perception. This tendency is being characterized in the aviation sector by interior project that would guarantee the passenger comfort in entertainment, ergonomics, lightning, air quality, acoustics and thermal environment. Regarding this last three aspects, the air distribution through the plenum has a great impact on them. In this work it is presented a method to select the best outlet orifice configuration. The method was applied on seven different plenums. Acoustic evaluation was done using a rig experiment. Based on noise levels of each configuration, the dominant frequency range is identified. Objectives metrics, such as overall levels, speech interference level (SIL3) and loudness were applied. Subsequently, subjective analysis was conducted using the paired comparison method. Finally, an acoustic performance classification was established. Draft effect and air temperature distribution inside the cabin was done using CFD simulation. Besides that, a one-dimensional duct model was done for each configuration to evaluate plenum velocity and pressure distribution. Through these models, it was possible…
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Application of Porous Material as Heat Storage Medium to a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

Chiba University, Chiba, Japan-Dongsheng Dong, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Fuchao Shen, Naohiro Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0541
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Porous materials, which have large surface areas, have been used for heat storage. However, porous Si-SiC material, as heat storage medium to be applied to a turbocharged gasoline engine has not been investigated extensively. In this study, porous Si-SiC material was used in the upstream of the turbine as heat storage medium and a model was thereby developed for further study. Substrate surface area and substrate volume of Si-SiC were calculated for structure model calibration. Following these calculations and test results, the pressure loss and thermal model were validated. Results show that the weaken exhaust gas pulsation amplitude by porous Si-SiC leads to better turbine performance and BSFC in steady engine condition for a turbocharged gasoline engine. In addition, its transient operation response needs to be improved under transient engine conditions. Hence the possibility of improving the transient response is investigated with characteristics of porous Si-SiC material. It was observed that less time was required for the engine to reach the target torque in transient conditions.
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A Study on the Decay Process in the Time-Frequency-Dependent Combustion-Noise-Generation Model for Diesel Engines

Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Y-Hitoshi Oguchi, Masato Mikami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0512
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
We experimentally investigated the process of decay of engine noise from a single-cylinder diesel engine considering the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model. In this model, the vibration energy of each frequency component is assumed to accumulate in the engine structure excited by the combustion impact during the combustion period in a cycle and decay over time, and the combustion noise is assumed to radiate from the engine surface. We used wavelet transform analysis as a time-frequency analysis of the sound pressure to obtain the decay rate, c, of the engine noise power. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate, c, on the sound-source location, we placed eight microphones in different positions near the engine. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise, we conducted experiments under three different operating conditions. The shape of the temporal variation of the engine-noise power depended on the sound-source location while the value of the engine noise power depended on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise. Based on the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model,…
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FITTINGS, TUBE, FLUID SYSTEMS, SEPARABLE, HIGH PRESSURE, DYNAMIC BEAM SEAL, DESIGN STANDARD FOR MALE END

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85720/1A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States

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Aircraft Engine Technology Review - The Pathways for an Efficient, Cleaner and Quieter Aviation Industry

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0175
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The aviation industry has been submitted to a set of environmental and commercial drivers that have led it to pursue engine technologies focused on the efficiency improvement, greenhouse (CO2) and pollutant (NOx and PM) emissions reductions, as well as noise abatement.The effort to comply with the ambitious long term environmental and efficiency targets set by the regulatory authorities has driven the aeronautic industry in a technological research effort. In the medium term, the aviation industry's strategy for commercial aviation is to focus on the advanced, but rather conventional propulsion systems (mainly turbofan engines). In this scenario, technological efforts have focused basically on enhancing thermal efficiency, through advanced core engines, as well as improving propulsive efficiency, through the use of low pressure systems (basically reduced pressure ratio and increased engine bypass ratio). To reach these objectives, a set of technological platforms has been proposed, with some already on an operational/commercial level, while others still in a prototype category. In this context, engine manufacturers have given a special focus on some technological approaches, like Ultra High Bypass…
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Optical Laser Diagnostics and Chemical Kinetics Investigation of Laminar Flame Speed for Hydrous Ethanol

Laboratory of Combustion, Propulsion and Energy, Aeronautica-Fernanda Pinheiro Martins, Pedro Teixeira Lacava, Claudia Regina de Andrade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0060
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Recently, the advance of computational fluid dynamics simulation applied on design of internal combustion engines (ICE) has highlighted the need of reliable chemical kinetics models for most common fuels applied on ICE operation, such as ethanol, gasoline and blends. Therefore, the mainly motivation for this study is determine and evaluate the influence of the water content on ethanol flames for laminar flame speed and chemical kinetics. For this goal, laminar flame speed measurements by OH-Emission and OH-PLIF were conducted on anhydrous and hydrous ethanol premixed flames at atmospheric pressure. Distinct fuel samples were evaluated at several equivalence ratios. Chemical kinetic simulation considering Marinov´s mechanism was performed in order to match velocities obtained from experimental data versus values obtained through numerical simulation, and to verify the characteristics of hydroxyl production at conditions studied. A sensitivity analysis for defined species was performed for the test conditions and the images obtained by laser techniques were correlated to simulated cases.
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Burst Pressure Study in Damaged Hydraulic Rigid Brake Pipes on Passenger Cars

PSA Groupe-Márcio Ciolfi, Celso Pacheco, Rodrigo Mathias
TI Automotive do Brasil-Adriano Souza da Silva, André Casagrande, Edilson Dias
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0001
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic brake pipes are responsible for fluid flows and as consequence the proper functionality of the most important safety system in passenger vehicles. Even so, this component has no much development since it was applied in the 1930s. In fact, the brake pipes can be particularly vulnerable components, being mainly in an exposed condition under the vehicle and near of components with relative movement. Externally it needs to survive a wide range of environmental conditions whereas internally it must withstand pressurized brake fluid. Brake pipes failures is an obvious safety hazard. Using simulations with car body, burst and corrosion bench test and multiple linear regression, this paper attempts to present, basing the pipes lifetime in the burst bench test, how the pipes are really vulnerable or not to damages caused by interference with other components, corrosion or even in frequent abrasion. As well as pipes behavior during interference, how such as corrosion in spot exposed regions degrades the pipes, how such as quantity, type and bending location influence the lifetime, which are the most relevant…
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Different approaches on how to improve braking performance in M3 vehicles to meet secondary brake requirements from ECE R13 regulation through low cost solutions

Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program PUCPR-Roberto Zanetti Freire
Volvo Bus Corporation-Luciano Ferreira da Cruz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0011
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The braking system of any road vehicle is subject to extensive legislative standards and requirements in many regions around the world. In buses, which belong to M3 category, one of the most critical demands is occupancy rate of passengers that leads to affect Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). More and more, customers are pushing the manufactures to increase the GVW of buses to allow more passengers inside and consequently increase profitability of the operation. By increasing GVW braking system has to present better performance to fulfill requirements. ECE R13 regulation establishes 2.5m/s2 as minimum Mean Fully Developed Deceleration (MFDD) and 64,4meters as maximum Stopping Distance (SD) acceptable to secondary brake performance. In a 4x2 vehicle with GVW of 19.5 tons fitted with disc brakes these requirements are actually fulfilled, but by adding 600 kg it became out of requirements. Based on the parameters which might affect braking performance, three different approaches were studied, tested and disposed in a decision matrix to choose most feasible in terms of performance, costs, manufacturing and time to implementation: a new…
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Experimental analysis of engine cooling capacity at different altitudes: a case study for biarticulated gas engine bus at high altitude

Scania Latin America-Gabriel Prado de Oliveira, Bruno Afonso Garcia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0272
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The demand for mass public transportation is growing on the major urban areas worldwide along with stricter demands on exhaust gas emission levels driven by society’s concern on the environment, leading to the development of sustainable transport solutions. Some of the solutions to reduce emission levels, such as electrified powertrains, may not be affordable for emergent markets due to the necessity of investments on infrastructure as well as high costs of some technologies. Bogotá city in Colombia is renewing its bus rapid transit (BRT) fleet and aims to reduce emission levels in its operation. Therefore, the development of a biarticulated bus driven by a compressed natural gas (CNG) Otto engine can be a sustainable solution for such application reducing both emission levels and fuel costs (compared to a Diesel model). However, the development of a cooling system for such bus becomes a challenge due to several factors that have a negative impact on cooling performance such as: high gross train weight (GTW); high altitude application; CNG Otto engine (compared to a Diesel model) and limited…
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Mathematical Model of Heat-Controlled Accumulator (HCA) for Microgravity Conditions

National Aerospace University Kharkov Aviation Institute, Ukraine-Gennadiy Olexandrovich Gorbenko, Polina Sergeevna Koval, Konstantin Sergeevich Yepifanov, Pavlo Grigorovich Gakal, Rustem Yusufovich Turna
  • Journal Article
  • 01-13-01-0001
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
It is reasonable to use a two-phase heat transfer loop (TPL) in a thermal control system (TCS) of spacecraft with large heat dissipation. One of the key elements of TPL is a heat-controlled accumulator (HCA). The HCA represents a volume which is filled with vapor and liquid of a single working fluid without bellows. The pressure in a HCA is controlled by the heater. The heat and mass transfer processes in the HCA can proceed with a significant nonequilibrium. This has implications on the regulation of TPL. This article presents a mathematical model of nonequilibrium heat and mass transfer processes in an HCA for microgravity conditions. The model uses the equations of mass and energy conservation separately for the vapor and liquid phases. Interfacial heat and mass transfer is also taken into account. It proposes to use the convective component k for the level of nonequilibrium evaluation. The experiments were carried out in microgravity conditions for the estimation of the k value. The heating of the HCA was investigated in the flight experiments. The working…