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Advances in UAV Applications and Propulsion Technologies Drive the Development of UAV Propulsion Standards

  • Paper
  • WP-0009
Published 2018-06-29 by SAE International in United States

The number of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for private and commercial applications is growing exponentially, beyond the domain of hobby enthusiasts. However, standards development has not been keeping up with the applications and technologies now available. The advent of inexpensive battery-powered quadcopters as stable aerial photography and remote-viewing platforms has expanded the utility of these systems into commercial and private applications for inspection and surveillance. With drone-delivered packages on the horizon, the potential for expansion will be even higher. These developments need to be incorporated into standards being produced for UAVs and propulsion systems.

Managing increasing Exhaust System Variants for Passenger Vehicles

  • Eberspaecher Exhaust Technology GmbH - Jan Krueger, Peter Wink, Manfred Nicolai, Bernd Westerhoff
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1557
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
In all major markets, the legislation on emissions (CO2, NOx, and PM) and on pass-by noise limits have been drastically lowered over the last years and will be even lower in the near future. This will have an enormous impact on the design of future passenger cars, their powertrains, and finally their exhaust systems with an inherent cost penalty. Moreover, the individual market requirements in Europe, Asia and the Americas differ in some respect often calling for individual variants. Along with the increasing number of vehicle models and platform derivatives e.g. sedan, hatchback, coupe, convertible, sports utility vehicle, cross-over etc. leading to a huge variety of exhaust systems even within a single OEM platform let alone a whole OEM product portfolio. This causes significant effort in development, tooling, manufacturing, part handling, and logistics. The technology for Active Noise Cancellation has been investigated in the automotive industry for many years. The basic principles are well understood and active engine mounts as well as in-cabin active noise cancellation have been in series production for a few years.…

Development of mass producible ANC system for broad-band road noise

  • Hyundai Motor Company - ChiSung Oh, Kang-Duck Ih, Jinmo Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1561
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The mass producible broad-band ANC system for road noise is developed with fully digital control system. For mass producible configuration, installation packages are intensively considered by minimizing size of the controller, simplifying wiring system and implementing virtual microphone techniques. Virtual microphone technique enables error microphone to be installed in remote position of driver’s ear, and therefore, increases installation degree of freedom significantly. To enhance noise control performance with the minimum latency, filter design of FxLMS algorithm is optimized while additional audio compensation techniques are applied to maintain audio performance of amplifier. The present ANC system achieved overall 4 to 6 dB(A) noise reduction in frequency range up to 500Hz on various road surface profiles. The present ANC technique has enabled overall mass reduction of a vehicle around 9kg by replacing passive NVH solutions, such as vibration deadeners, and acoustic resonator in alloy wheel. The present ANC system is planned to be equipped to HMC new release of hydrogen driven vehicle, which will be introduced in the technology promotion event in Pyeongchang Olympic 2018.

A Steady-state based Investigation of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor Noise

  • Volvo Car Group, KTH - Asuka Gabriele Pietroniro
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology - Mihai Mihaescu, Mats Abom
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1528
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The present work aims at a physics-based understanding of the aerodynamically generated noise in centrifugal compressors, and its propagation in turbocharging systems such as those typically employed in the automotive industry. Given the unsteady nature of acoustics, the project this work is part of will have to develop towards correlation of acoustic sources and far field noise by means of LES investigations, with the final aim of addressing noise suppression technologies. However, simpler steady state investigations prove to be a valuable means of tackling the technical challenge, as well as a solid base for more in-depth future unsteady analyses. In this initial phase of the work, a steady state RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) analysis is carried out on a specific compressor geometry, and acoustic data are extracted by means of the aeroacoustics models available in a commercial software (such as Curle and Proudman). Thus, the initial part of the work focuses on the discussion and comparison of the aeroacoustic models, and their suitability for quick assessment during design phase, and comparison between operating conditions of…

Integrated approach to electro-mechanical system NVH analysis

  • Romax Technology Ltd. - Robert Holehouse, Annabel Shahaj, Melanie Michon, Barry James
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1499
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present an integrated approach to system NVH analysis, which gives an insight into the system response in an EV driveline due to electrical and mechanical excitations; namely gear transmission error, rotor mechanical imbalance, electrical machine torque ripple, and stator radial force shapes. The paper will present a simulation of a ‘representative’ drivetrain consisting of interior permanent-magnet electrical machine, two-stage parallel gearbox, bearings and housing; where the housing and stator geometry is represented as a finite element representation, and where non-linear mechanical parts such as gears and bearings are represented with analytical and empirical models. The paper will demonstrate through simulation the importance of considering the complete system when evaluating NVH performance. This will be demonstrated by examining how the response of the drivetrain is affected by electro-mechanical interactions. The simulation will demonstrate the importance of considering influences such as system boundary conditions, the representation of bolted connections, and manufacturing tolerances, and will also demonstrate how bearing selection and preload can affect the system response to both gear and electric machine excitations. Furthermore,…

Vibration Analysis for a 12-DOF Full Car Model with Hydraulic Engine Mounts of Frequency Dependent Stiffness and Damping

  • Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology - Hyeongyu Sakong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1540
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Instead of rubber mount, hydraulic mounts have been used underneath power train of vehicles to achieve better ride comfort for a long time. A lumped mass-spring-dashpot model is often used to model a hydraulic mount in vibration analysis of vehicles in the previous studies. While, it was found that modeling the hydraulic mounts as the lumped mass-spring-dashpot model can be justified just when bottom of the hydraulic mount is fixed, which is not the case in a real vehicle where the body with a power train on it is vibrating itself. In this study, another model, to be called a transfer function model, for the hydraulic mount derived based on hydraulic dynamics will be adapted and compared with the lumped mass-spring-dashpot model via vibration analysis of a 12-degree of freedom (DOF) full car model. Furthermore, it will be shown that the highly frequency dependent stiffness and damping characteristics of the hydraulic engine mounts generate extra vibration modes unexpectedly at rather high frequencies in the frequency range for the ride comfort, which have never been treated…

Output-only Modal Analysis for System Identification Before Break Squeal

  • Continental, Division Chassis & Safety - Benjamin Siegl, Jens Bauer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1503
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Typically, squealing brakes are identified at squealing conditions for FE model validation by an operational deflection shape analysis (ODS). The deflection shapes and the squealing frequency depend strongly on the contact situations in the caliper, i. e. the contact points of the piston or the contacts of the brake pads. If the model requires more modal information about the brake system than the ODS delivers an additional experimental modal analysis (EMA) can be conducted at standstill. In total, both analyses – ODS and EMA – cover only two distinctive operation points of the brake and do not provide further information. Plus, both are special cases since the usual brake condition should be a quiet braking process. To validate the boundary conditions including the aforementioned contact situations in the caliper it is useful to have more operation points for model alignment. Because it is difficult to measure the excitation during such a quiet braking action only an operational modal analysis (OMA) can be used to identify the brake system at any arbitrary brake condition. In this…

Simulation strategy for structure borne noise sources: use of super elements and blocked forces tensors between suppliers and OEMs to validate components at early design stage

  • Vibratec - Jean-Luc Wojtowicki, Brice NELAIN
  • Renault - Céline ROUSSET, Guillaume Baudet
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1509
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper is a case study from the TESSA project (French funded research program “Transfert des Efforts des Sources Solidiennes Actives”). The aim of the work was to assess a collaborative design process between car manufacturer and a major supplier as an alternative to classic specification method for structure borne sources. Super elements from different FE commercial softwares have been used to assess the reliability of the method, the compatibility of the softwares and, most important, the relevance of applying a blocked force tensor to the component super element. The case study is an internal combustion engine cooling module (fan + shroud + exchangers) from Valeo including all assembly details (clips, decoupling elements) modelled under Abaqus and its integration in a Renault Espace under Nastran. The force tensor is the rotating forces generated by the fan unbalance and propagating through the sub-component of the cooling pack to the car-body. The paper presents the challenges and hurdles encountered to achieve this complete roll-out of the super-element methodology and will conclude on the precision, easiness and relevance…

Experimental Design for Characterization of Force Transmissibility through Roller Bearings in Electric Machines and Transmissions

  • Loughborough University - Jack Walker, Harry Questa, Stephen R. Bewsher, Mahdi Mohammadpour
  • AVL LIST GmbH - Christoph Schweiger, Martin Sopouch, Gunter Offner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1473
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing stringent emissions legislation on internal combustion engines, alongside requirements for enhanced fuel efficiency as key driving factors for many OEMs, there are many research activities supported by the automotive industry that focus on the development of hybrid and pure Electric Vehicles. This change in direction from engine downsizing to the use of electric motors presents many new challenges concerning NVH performance, durability and component life. This paper provides an experimental investigation into the measurement of NVH characteristics in these new powertrains, thus characterising the structure borne noise transmissibility through the shaft and the bearing to the housing. A feasibility study and design of a new system level test rig have been conducted to allow for sinusoidal radial loading of the shaft, which is synchronised with the shaft’s rotary frequency under high-speed transient conditions in order to evaluate the phenomena in the system. In the present work, simulations of the rig were conducted using the commercial multi-body dynamics software, AVL EXCITE Power Unit, providing insight to the systems response to different types of…

Psychoacoustic Analysis of High Frequency Elasto-Acoustic Emissions from Hollow Driveshaft Tubes

  • Loughborough University - Rishi Patel, Ramin Rahmani, Homer Rahnejat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1475
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Lightly damped non-linear systems such as vehicular drivelines undergo a plethora of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) problems. The clonk phenomenon is one such concern, which occurs as the result of impulsive torque input in the form of sudden clutch actuation or throttle tip-in and back-out. Under such conditions impact of meshing gear pairs propagate structural waves down the driveline system. With lightly damped thin-walled tubes, having high modal density, elasto-acoustic coupling occurs. High frequency noise emission is of metallic nature and quite disconcerting to vehicle occupants as well as passers-by. It is perceived as structural failure and/or poor built quality. Therefore, the occurrence of the phenomenon is a concern to vehicle manufacturers and progressive constitutes a warranty concern. The paper investigates the clonk phenomenon through use of a long-wheel base rear drive light truck test rig. The investigation extends the work reported hitherto in literature by including a psychoacoustic analysis with regard to the severity of a variety of clonk events in different manoeuvres, an approach not hitherto reported in literature. The study corroborates…