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Alternative Engine Oil Formulating Solutions to Reduce Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Chevron Energy Technology Company-Amir Maria, Theresa Gunawan
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-Ian Elliott, Richard Cherpeck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2153
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Many modern engine platforms use turbochargers to meet higher fuel economy performance, which is often combined with downsizing the engine displacement. Operating downsized, turbocharged, direct injection engines at low speeds and high loads has led to an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), wherein the fuel-air mixture ignites before the spark occurs. LSPI can lead to extremely high pressures in the combustion chamber, which can damage hardware such as pistons, piston rings, and spark plugs.Lubricants, fuels, and engine operating conditions have been shown to impact LSPI. Any of these can be modified to improve LSPI performance. One solution which has been used widely in the industry is reformulating the lubricant additive package. In particular, calcium-based detergents have been shown to promote LSPI, while magnesium detergents appear neutral to LSPI. Reducing the usage of calcium detergents can impact other performance areas such as deposit control and fuel economy, and limits formulating flexibility. Finding an additive solution to LSPI which does not require a reduction in calcium allows for more component options in formulating…
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Potassium-Oxygen Battery Stores Clean Energy

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35692
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have developed a more efficient, more reliable potassium-oxygen battery with a cathode that stores the energy produced by a chemical reaction in a metal-oxygen or metal-air battery. The battery could make renewable energy sources like solar and wind more viable options for the power grid through cheaper, more efficient energy storage.

Microneedles Extract Fluid for Wearable Sensors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34916
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Interstitial fluid is clear, colorless, and similar to blood plasma. Continual sampling of important biomarkers in interstitial fluid could help monitor and diagnose many diseases and disorders. These markers include electrolytes — salts such as potassium and sodium that get out of balance during dehydration; glucose, a sugar that diabetics need to monitor constantly; and lactate, a potential marker of physical exhaustion or life-threatening sepsis.

Wearable Microneedles

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28538
Published 2018-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new painless and minimally invasive microneedle technology can extract large volumes of pure interstitial fluid for further study. Developed at Sandia Labs and the University of New Mexico, the microneedles are a few hairs-breadths wide and can sip the clear fluid between cells in the middle layer of skin. This is below the topmost layer of dead skin cells and above the layer of skin where veins and nerves reside. The clear, colorless fluid is called interstitial fluid and is similar to blood plasma.

New Device Helps Diagnose and Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28133
Published 2018-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

École Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanne, Switzerland

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Studies on Friction Mechanism of NAO Brake-Pads Containing Potassium Titanate Powder as a Theme Ingredient

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Indian Institute of Technology-Vishal Mahale, Jayashree Bijwe, Sujeet Sinha
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0006
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Potassium titanate (KT) fibers/whiskers are used as a functional filler for partial replacement of asbestos in NAO friction materials (FMs). Based on little information reported in open literature; its exact role is not well defined since some papers claim it as the booster for resistance to fade (FR), or wear (WR) and sometimes as damper for friction fluctuations. Interestingly, KT fibers and whiskers (but not powder) are proved as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, hardly any efforts are reported on exploration of influence of KT powder and its optimum amount in NAO FMs (realistic composites) in the literature. Hence a series of five realistic multi-ingredient compositions in the form of brake-pads with similar parent composition but varying in the content of KT powder from 0 to 15 wt% (in the steps of 3) were developed. These composites were characterized for physical, mechanical, chemical and tribological performance. Composites were tribo-evaluated on reduced scale prototype (RSP) as well as on full scale brake inertia dynamometer by following ECE R90 and Japanese…
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Lead Alloy Pig

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMSL18331B
  • Current
Published 2017-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers pigs of one type of lead alloy used in the making of forming dies.
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Corrosion-Resistant Steel Parts: Sampling, Inspection and Testing for Surface Passivation

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMSSTD753B
  • Current
Published 2017-04-04 by SAE International in United States
This standard describes general and detailed methods of sampling and testing for surface passivity of corrosion-resistant steel parts. These tests may also be useful to determine if there is a need for passivation.
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Nitriding, Molten Salt Bath

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2755G
  • Current
Published 2015-08-06 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers the engineering requirements for producing a thin carbide-bearing nitride case on parts by means of a low-temperature, aerated, molten salt bath process, and the properties of the case.
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Characterization of an Organic Salt Based Engine Coolant

Chevron Belgium nv-Jurgen De Kimpe, Serge Lievens
Chevron International Pte. Ltd.-Shengchun Yan
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the properties of an engine coolant that uses a potassium propionate solution as base fluid. Although alternatives for ethylene glycol are known, e.g. propylene glycol and glycerin, the use of a salt based coolant for high temperature applications has seldom been considered as a viable option due to the intrinsic corrosiveness of such salt solutions. The salt based coolant offers freezing as well as boiling protection and has thermal properties that allow for usage in standard combustion engines. Volumetric heat capacity and viscosity are very similar to glycol based analogues, while its thermal conductive is substantially higher. Thermal experiments indicate that the potassium propionate coolant is highly effective in suppressing localized boiling phenomena. Due to its chemical nature the coolant has superior oxidation stability. The coolant has the further advantage of being readily biodegradable and has a low toxicity. The coolant contains additionally a tailored additive package that provides corrosion protection for the metallic parts of an engine cooling system. Although current industrial standards cannot be claimed because of compositional requirements imposed…
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