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A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

FCA US LLC-Weiguo Zhang, Toon Tan, John Malicki, Glenn Whitehead
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1276
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH performance is a very important consideration for vehicle buyers in the marketplace. There are many noise sources from the fuel system to generate noise in a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise inside the vehicle cabin. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system is presented. First, the initial interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise was exhibited. The problem frequency ranges with pulse and ticking noise content were identified. Several test iterations on root causing analysis and countermeasures…
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A Control System for Maintaining Passenger Cabin Air Quality

Chulalongkorn University-Thanin Wangsawangkul, Thiti Maneepipat, Nattapong Sukumdhanakul, Porpin Pungetmongkol, Prabhath De Silva
DENSO International Thailand-Pradit Mahasaksiri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1243
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a control methodology to maintain vehicle cabin air quality within desirable levels, giving particular attention to gaseous contaminants carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The CO2 is generated by the occupant exhalation while the CO is assumed to be ingested with the incoming fresh air. The system is able to detect and improve cabin air quality by controlling the recirculation flap of the ventilation system to control the amount of fresh air intake. The methodology is demonstrated in the laboratory using controlled experiments with a production level automotive HVAC (Heating Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) module. The results indicated that the designed control system can work automatically and control the CO and CO2 gas concentrations within acceptable levels.
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A study on the effect of different glasses and its properties on vehicle cabin during soaking at hot ambient conditions using 1D simulation

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Karthik Subramanian, Prakashbabuji Danapalan, Saravanan Sambandan
FCA US LLC-Murali Govindarajalu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0956
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increase in traffic conditions and global increase in the ambient temperature during the summer season, heat load in the vehicle cabin is also increasing, creating a huge thermal discomfort for the passengers. There are two scenarios in which these adverse conditions can be a problem, one is when driving the vehicle in traffic condition and another one is when the vehicle is parked in the open sun both during the summer season. While for the first scenario, at least the air conditioner can be switched on, for the soaking scenario the cabin temperature can reach alarming levels which may have serious discomfort and health effects on the human entering vehicle. Although there are options of remote switching on of air conditioners, they are restricted to vehicles having an automatic transmission only. Considering the different parts of cabin, the glasses occupy majority of the portion which is exposed to the sunlight and that transmit the heat directly into the cabin, which in turn is absorbed by different materials resulting in alarming temperature levels in cabin when…
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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
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Investigate partial cabin air re-circulation strategy to improve HVAC system's heating performance using 1D simulation

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Saurabh Belsare, Prakashbabuji Danapalan, Saravanan Sambandan
FCA US LLC-Murali Govindarajalu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0159
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In cold weather conditions, cabin heating performance is critical for retaining the thermal comfort. Heat is absorbed from the engine by circulating coolant through the engine water jacket and same will be rejected by the heater core. A variable speed blower is used to transfer heat from the heater core to the passenger compartment through floor ducts. The time taken to achieve comfortable cabin temperature determines the performance and capacity of heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In current automotive field, the engine options are provided to customers to meet their needs on the same vehicle platforms. Hence few engine variants cannot warm the cabin up to customer satisfaction. To improve the existing warm up performance of system, Positive thermal coefficient heater (PTC), electric coolant PTC heater, auxiliary pump etc. can be used which increases the overall cost of the vehicle. During warm-up, HVAC system operates in 100% fresh mode. In this study, Partial cabin re-circulation is investigated to understand the effect on the cabin warm-up. In order to demonstrate this phenomenon, a one…
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Impact of different types of glazing on Air- Conditioning system performance of vehicle

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Akshay Bhateja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1249
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to intense peak summer temperatures and sunny summers in tropical countries like India, achieving the required cabin temperature in vehicle without compromising on fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly challenging. The major source of heat load on vehicle is solar load. Therefore, a study has been conducted to evaluate the heat load on vehicle cabin due to solar radiations and its impact on vehicle Air-Conditioning system performance with various combinations of door glasses and windscreen. The glasses used for this study are classified as Green, Dark Green, Dark Gray, Standard PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) Windscreen and PVB Windscreen having Infrared Cut particles. For each glass, part level evaluation was done to find out the percentage transmittance of light of different wavelengths and percentage transmittance of heat flux through each glass. To verify the effectiveness of each glass, vehicle level Air-Conditioning system performance test was done in All Weather Chassis Dyno Facility for each retrofitted vehicle. Retrofitted vehicle configurations were decided as per regional visible light transmittance regulations. To eliminate the effect of manufacturing variance while evaluating…
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Multi-zone HAVC Development and Validation with Integrated Heated/Vented Seat Control

FCA US LLC-Murad Maghaireh, Michael Hoppe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1247
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle multi zone automatic Heating , Venting and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is the advanced form of the traditional air conditioning, the advantage of multi zone automatic HVAC is that it allows the passengers of a vehicle to set a desired temperature for their own zone within the vehicle compartment. This desired temperature is then maintained by the HVAC system, which determines how best to control the available environment data that leads to a higher comfort for the passengers. To achieve ultimate thermal comfort of the occupants in a vehicle, multi zone HVAC takes things a step further by adding heated, vented seats and, steering wheel to the HVAC controller hardware as well as strategies. The heating and cooling of the occupants by this more advance one integrated system is performed by complex control algorithms in form of embedded software programs and private LIN network. This paper describes the approach and tools used to develop, simulate and validate the one integrated climate control system. Included are 1- introduction of an integrated HVAC , steering wheel and…
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Model-Based Calibration of an Automotive Climate Control System

BMW AG-Gerrit Lassahn, Kang Qiu
TU Munich-Patrick Jahn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1253
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In modern cars the control of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is oftentimes realized by means of a cascade of gain scheduling controllers. The calibration of this control cascade is a complicated and strenuous, hence expensive process. To establish a model based calibration process, a fast executing and accurate model of the HVAC system is required. This paper describes a novel approach for the modelling of an automotive HVAC system. The model consists of a black box model trained with experimental data from a self-developed measurement setup. It is capable to predict the temperature and mass flow of the air entering the vehicle cabin at the different outlets. The measurement setup is based on a combination of temperature and velocity sensors. A measurement fault analysis is conducted to validate the accuracy of the measurement system. As the data collection is done under fluctuating ambient conditions, an extensive analysis of the impact of different ambient conditions on the HVAC unit is performed and incorporated into correction models that account for the different ambient conditions. Different…
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Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions

FCA Canada Inc.-Shankar Natarajan, Pooya Mirzabeygi
FCA US LLC-Michael Westra, Kumar Srinivasan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0947
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time, this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the power consumed by the vehicle in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent high way driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy. AC system which includes the refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin is modeled using 1D methodology and its performance simulated at system level. AC system performance is analyzed under steady state as well as transient conditions. Power consumption…
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Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Approach in Vehicle Thermal Systems Applications

FCA Canada Inc.-Pooya Mirzabeygi, Shankar Natarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0148
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In automotive industry, there is an abundance of test data collected at different stages of vehicle’s development. Heavy reliance on testing can lead to significant increase in vehicle program’s design costs and further delay in the development timing as vehicle instrumentation and testing is costly and time-consuming. This paper focuses on an alternative approach using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The ANNs are computing systems inspired by the brain’s biological networks that can learn by considering examples. The “trained” network can then be used to predict the system’s performance in a reliable and efficient manner. This is particularly useful in automotive industry as there exists a considerable amount of test data in the system, sub-system or component level that can be used to train the ANN. The trained ANN can then be used as an alternative for performance prediction and reduce the reliance on additional physical testing. The study focuses on thermal and climate control systems and the application of ANNs to predict the thermal performance. It is shown that ANNs are very robust in…