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A Diagnostic Technology of Powertrain Parts that Cause Abnormal Noises using Artificial Intelligence

Hanyang University-Kyoungjin Noh, Joon-Hyuk Chang
Hyundai Motor Company-Insoo Jung, Dongchul Lee, Dongkyu Yoo, Kibeen Lim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1565
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In general, when a problem occurs in a component, various phenomena appear, and abnormal noise is one of them. The service technicians diagnose the noise through the analysis using hearing and equipment. Depending on their experiences, the analysis time and diagnosis accuracy vary widely. The newly developed AI-based diagnostic technology diagnoses parts that cause abnormal noises within seconds when a noise is input to the equipment. To create a learning model for diagnosis, we collected as many abnormal noises as possible from various parts, and selected good and bad data. This process is very important in the development of diagnostic techniques. Artificial intelligence was learned by deep learning with selected good data. This paper is about the technology that can diagnose the abnormal noises generated from the engine, transmission, drivetrain and PE (Power Electric) parts of the eco-friendly vehicle through the diagnosis model composed of various methods of deep learning.
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Multi-domain NVH Model for the Complete Electro-mechanical Power Unit

Robert Bosch GmbH-Yashwant kolluru, Rolando Doelling PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1584
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Multi-domain NVH Model for the Complete Electro-mechanical Power Unit Yashwant Kolluru, Rolando Doelling eBike Department Robert Bosch GmbH Kusterdingen, Germany yashwant.kolluru@de.bosch.com rolando.doelling@de.bosch.com Lars Hedrich Institute of Informatics Goethe University Frankfurt Frankfurt, Germany hedrich@em.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de Acoustics and vibrations are amongst the foremost indicators in perceiving the quality of power units. Analyzing these factors is vital to improve the performances of electro-mechanical systems. This paper deals with development of a generic simulation method enabling the multi-domain vibro-acoustic modelling for the drive trains. Excitation's for these systems majorly arise from the electric motor and mechanical gears. The paper initially depicts a flexible gear model for gear whining, which are generated for reasons like gear tooth bending. The forces generated from gear mesh (lumped parameter model) to gear components (multi-body model and nonlinear static model) and the excitations resulting from motor model are coupled for the frequency domain analysis of complete drive train. Additionally, paper discusses the influences of these forces on bearings (dynamic implicit model) and effect of bearing deformations on the harmonics of drive unit. Furthermore, velocities on…
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Experimental Rattle Source Characterization Using Matrix Inversion on a Reception Plate

Virtual Vehicle-Eugene Nijman, Bernhard Zeller
Virtual Vehicle Research Center-Josef Girstmair
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1541
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Minimising rattle noises is becoming increasingly important for hybrid and electrical vehicles as masking from the IC engine is missing and in view of the functional requirements of the office-like interiors of next generation automated vehicles. Rattle shall therefore be considered in the design phase of component systems. One hurdle is the modelling of the excitation mechanisms and its experimental validation. In this work we focus on excitation by loose parts having functional clearances such as gear systems or ball sensors in safety belt retractors. These parts are excited by relatively large low frequency displacements such as road-induced movements of the car body or low order rigid body engine vibrations generating multiple impacts with broad band frequency content. Direct measurement of the impact forces is in many cases not possible. An experimental procedure to measure the multi-DOF rattle impact forces in component systems is presented based on a reception plate transfer matrix inversion. The investigated component is mounted on the reception plate and rattle is induced by direct low frequency rigid body excitation of the…
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Dynamic Characterization of FDM 3D-Printed Parts

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Manuel Bopp, Matthias Behrendt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1561
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
With substantial progress in additive manufacturing (AM) technology in the recent years, AM parts are on the verge of becoming an economical option for small series manufacturing and on-demand spare parts. Especially Filament-Deposition-Modeling (FDM) has found widespread use in industrial as well as in private applications due to its many advantages like multi material manufacturing, its wide range of available materials, low overall cost and easy handling. Depending on the specific application, the dynamic behavior of a structure can be critical, for example when designing resonating absorber elements, to avoid unwanted resonance-coupling with other parts, or regarding the general vibrational and acoustic behavior. To predict the dynamic behavior of a structure, two of the most important parameters are the storage modulus and loss modulus of the material. In polymers these parameters are typically frequency-dependent and in the case of FDM manufactured parts they are also strongly anisotropic, due to the layer- and path-wise fabrication process. In this study different samples of FDM 3D-printed ABS parts are investigated. First the effect of various slicing and printing…
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UDM Tip Temperature Control using Thermosyphon Principle

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Samson Solomon, Rajesh Thiyagarajan, Parvej Khan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0040
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In today’s automobile industry where BS6 is posing a high challenge and with limited timeline. The main target is to provide the cooling system to have less impact on the in terms of cost, weight and meeting challenging engineering requirement. Thus, the frugal engineering comes into the picture. An important technology that has come into highlight in recent years is the application of thermosyphon principle for UDM injector cooling thereby reducing the rotation parts and power consumption such as an electric pump. Thermosyphon is a method of passive heat exchange and is based on natural convection, which circulates a fluid without the necessity of a mechanical or electric pump. The natural convection of the liquid commences when heat transfer to the liquid gives rise to a temperature difference from one side of the loop to the other. The Flow through the UDM is maintained by changing Temperature (hence density) of the fluid at one end using the force airflow. The main objective of the UDM cooling is to keep the UDM tip temperature below 120…
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Research on Joining High Pressure Die Casting Parts by Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) using Ring-Groove Die Comparing to Heat Treatment Method

Bollhoff Inc.-Xuzhe Zhao
Chang’an University-Dean Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the increasing number of structural high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum parts need to be joined with high strength steel (HSS) parts in order to reduce the weight of vehicle for fuel-economy considerations. Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) has become one of the strongest mechanical joining solutions used in automotive industry for the past several decades. Joining HPDC parts with HSS parts can potentially cause joint quality issues, such as joint button cracks, low corrosion resistance and low joint strength. The appropriate heat treatment will be suggested to improve SPR joint quality in terms of crack reduction. But the heat treatment can also result in the blister issue and extra time and cost consumption for HPDC parts. The relationship between the microstructure of HPDC material before and after heat treatment with the joint quality is going to be investigated and discussed for interpretation of cracks initiation and propagation during riveting. The SPR joint quality will be evaluated based on interlock distance, the minimum remaining thickness (Tmin), shear strength etc. Instead of using heat treatment method, the…
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Loads Cascading for Full Vehicle Component Design

CAEfatigue, Ltd.-Neil Bishop
Desktop Engineering Ltd.-Andy Woodward
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0762
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Frequency domain methods of analysis are now being used for the evaluation of fatigue for large vehicle systems and these methods offer advantages over equivalent time domain approaches in a number of ways, including analysis efficiency and the usefulness of derived results. One big potential advantage is to be able to do localized sub-component analysis using “cascaded” loads. Such sub-components can be analyzed with refined parameters such as more sophisticated damping. Local parts can also be re-analyzed at a different phase in the design program. This paper will demonstrate the approach and show examples of the method.
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PREDICTION OF SUSPENSION SYSTEM BEHAVIOR UNDER MISUSE LOADING USING EXPLICIT APPROACH

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Sameer Sudhakar Thakare, Sunil Kathoke, Kameshwara rao Appana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1394
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: In the automotive industry, the development of suspension systems for misuse loads is essential. The vehicle may experience the abusive loads in fore-aft, lateral and vertical directions. From a design perspective, it is crucial that the suspension should be robust enough to withstand the abusive loading in different directions. Testing as well as virtual simulation of the suspension for feasible misuse scenarios can provide a desired design solution in the most optimized time. Better Virtual simulation practices provided with good modeling strategy and detail material model data can help to anticipate the accurate response of the system, which can benefit to reduce the number of physical tests. This paper describes an explicit dynamic approach to predict the behavior of suspension system under impact load condition. Material failure model is proposed to simulate the failure of parts and change in load path under high loading condition.
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Anisotropic material behavior and design optimization of 3D printed structures

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditional manufacturing processes such as injection or compression molding are often enclosed and pressurized systems that produce homogenous products. In contrast, 3D printing is exposed to the environment at ambient (or reduced) temperature and atmospheric pressure. Further, the printing process itself is mostly “layered manufacturing”, i.e., it forms a three-dimensional part by laying down successive layers of materials. Those characteristics inevitably lead to inconsistent microstructure of 3D printed products and thus cause anisotropic mechanical properties. In this paper, the anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts were investigated by using both laboratory coupon specimens (bending specimens) and complex engineering structures (A-pillar). Results show that the orientation of the infills of 3D printed parts can significantly influence their mechanical properties. Parts with 0-degree filament orientation are seen to have the most favorable responses, including Young’s modulus, maximum strength, failure strain, and toughness. The findings also suggest that the 3D printed products could be theoretically “designed” or “tailored” by adjusting the infill angles to achieve optimal performance. The 3D printed A-pillar structure has been designed by utilizing the…
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Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Molding Application

John Deere India Pvt., Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi, Amit S Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational molding part is by heating the cast aluminum mold or sheet metal mold by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heat and cold of mold by passing hot oil/water in the mold to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil / Water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational molding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational molded part with breakthrough in mold construction, which is Composite Mold Technology (CMT) with glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. Project focuses is on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomold by 30%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time of the part development was observed very high and life mold is yet to be tested. Deeper study of the life…