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Research on Joining High Pressure Die Casting Parts by Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) using Ring-Groove Die Comparing to Heat Treatment Method

Bollhoff Inc.-Xuzhe Zhao
Chang’an University-Dean Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the increasing number of structural high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum parts need to be joined with high strength steel (HSS) parts in order to reduce the weight of vehicle for fuel-economy considerations. Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) has become one of the strongest mechanical joining solutions used in automotive industry for the past several decades. Joining HPDC parts with HSS parts can potentially cause joint quality issues, such as joint button cracks, low corrosion resistance and low joint strength. The appropriate heat treatment will be suggested to improve SPR joint quality in terms of crack reduction. But the heat treatment can also result in the blister issue and extra time and cost consumption for HPDC parts. The relationship between the microstructure of HPDC material before and after heat treatment with the joint quality is going to be investigated and discussed for interpretation of cracks initiation and propagation during riveting. The SPR joint quality will be evaluated based on interlock distance, the minimum remaining thickness (Tmin), shear strength etc. Instead of using heat treatment method, the…
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Loads Cascading for Full Vehicle Component Design

CAEfatigue, Ltd.-Neil Bishop
Desktop Engineering Ltd.-Andy Woodward
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0762
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Frequency domain methods of analysis are now being used for the evaluation of fatigue for large vehicle systems and these methods offer advantages over equivalent time domain approaches in a number of ways, including analysis efficiency and the usefulness of derived results. One big potential advantage is to be able to do localized sub-component analysis using “cascaded” loads. Such sub-components can be analyzed with refined parameters such as more sophisticated damping. Local parts can also be re-analyzed at a different phase in the design program. This paper will demonstrate the approach and show examples of the method.
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PREDICTION OF SUSPENSION SYSTEM BEHAVIOR UNDER MISUSE LOADING USING EXPLICIT APPROACH

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Sameer Sudhakar Thakare, Sunil Kathoke, Kameshwara rao Appana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1394
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: In the automotive industry, the development of suspension systems for misuse loads is essential. The vehicle may experience the abusive loads in fore-aft, lateral and vertical directions. From a design perspective, it is crucial that the suspension should be robust enough to withstand the abusive loading in different directions. Testing as well as virtual simulation of the suspension for feasible misuse scenarios can provide a desired design solution in the most optimized time. Better Virtual simulation practices provided with good modeling strategy and detail material model data can help to anticipate the accurate response of the system, which can benefit to reduce the number of physical tests. This paper describes an explicit dynamic approach to predict the behavior of suspension system under impact load condition. Material failure model is proposed to simulate the failure of parts and change in load path under high loading condition.
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Anisotropic material behavior and design optimization of 3D printed structures

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditional manufacturing processes such as injection or compression molding are often enclosed and pressurized systems that produce homogenous products. In contrast, 3D printing is exposed to the environment at ambient (or reduced) temperature and atmospheric pressure. Further, the printing process itself is mostly “layered manufacturing”, i.e., it forms a three-dimensional part by laying down successive layers of materials. Those characteristics inevitably lead to inconsistent microstructure of 3D printed products and thus cause anisotropic mechanical properties. In this paper, the anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts were investigated by using both laboratory coupon specimens (bending specimens) and complex engineering structures (A-pillar). Results show that the orientation of the infills of 3D printed parts can significantly influence their mechanical properties. Parts with 0-degree filament orientation are seen to have the most favorable responses, including Young’s modulus, maximum strength, failure strain, and toughness. The findings also suggest that the 3D printed products could be theoretically “designed” or “tailored” by adjusting the infill angles to achieve optimal performance. The 3D printed A-pillar structure has been designed by utilizing the…
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Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Molding Application

John Deere India Pvt., Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi, Amit S Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational molding part is by heating the cast aluminum mold or sheet metal mold by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heat and cold of mold by passing hot oil/water in the mold to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil / Water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational molding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational molded part with breakthrough in mold construction, which is Composite Mold Technology (CMT) with glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. Project focuses is on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomold by 30%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time of the part development was observed very high and life mold is yet to be tested. Deeper study of the life…
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Investigations on Headlamp and Car Body Tolerances in Real Life

Audi AG-Michael Hamm, Christian Hinterwalder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0635
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Good Lighting is cruicial for safe driving at night. Unfortunately many parameters are contributing to the final result of the individual tolerances of car body, dynamics and headlamp: The resulting aim. The paper will collect and analyse tolerance contributors from body parameters like load, tire pressure, suspension as well as aging parameters of chassis and plastic parts.
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A Method Using FEA for the Evaluation of Tooling and Process Requirements to Meet Dimensional Objectives

FCA US LLC-Amandeep Singh Jhajj, Steven Ford, Gregory Dwyer, William Stewart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0497
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dimensional Engineering concentrates effort in the early design phases to meet the dimensional build objectives in automotive production. Design optimization tools include tolerance stack up, datum optimization, datum coordination, dimensional control plans, and measurement plans. These tools are typically based on the assumption that parts are rigid and tooling dimensions are perfect. These assumptions are not necessarily true in automotive assemblies of compliant sheet metal parts on high volume assembly lines. To address this issue, FEA has been increasingly used to predict the behavior of imperfect and deformable parts in non-nominal tooling. This paper demonstrates an application of this approach. The complete analysis is divided into three phases. The first phase is a nominal design gravity analysis to validate the nominal design and tooling. In the second phase, the worst case scenarios are considered based on the previous programs to see their effects on assembly. Lastly, dimensional deviations and tooling loads are estimated to determine if they meet the constraints of both the part design and the tooling design. The novelty of this approach lies…
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Overcoming operational blindness in Software Architecture

Invensity GmbH-Nils Berger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1336
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A lesson learned on why software architects fall short of expectations and how to fix it by setting the scope. Detailing the design that is already clear in the head comes natural to an architects. Afterall most architects are basically just aged developers. Consequently, this haste and even excitement about the technical challenge prevent them from being effective. Being an architect is - to great bits - about software instinct which grows out of development practice. This paper is about the two small parts which make a developer become an architect: Discipline and Scope. The proposed technical paper covers the challenges as well as the lessons learned in the development of an embedded automotive software architecture. Based on the experience from different embedded application the following structure will be followed: Part 1: Where to start with a new design This is the main questions asked by new software architects. A good design starts with a clear value proposition. What is the goal and scope of the architectural design? Different answers are discussed and a good…
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A Study of Driver's Driving Concentration Based on Computer Vision Technology

Chongqing University-Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Xiangjun Peng, Huijie Xu, Yue Fu, Ling Jiang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0572
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Driving safety is an eternal theme of the transportation industry.In recent years, with the rapid growth of car ownership, traffic accidents have become more frequent, and the harm it brings to human society has become increasingly serious. In this context, car safety assisted driving technology has received widespread attention. As an effective means to reduce traffic accidents and reduce accident losses, it has become the research frontier in the field of traffic engineering and represents the trend of future vehicle development. However, there are still many technical problems that need to be solved. With the continuous development of computer vision technology, face detection technology has become more and more mature, and applications have become more and more extensive. This article will use the face detection technology to detect the driver's face, and then analyze the changes in driver's driving focus. Firstly, the problem of detecting the eyes and mouth status of the driver is discussed. The purpose is to capture the driver's long-term closed eyes and yawning and other actions closely related to the dozing…
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Characterization and Quantification of In-Service Windshield Fracture Mechanisms, and Evaluation of Laminate Sharp Impact Resistance as a Function of Construction

Corning Inc.-Thomas M. Cleary, Thomas Tremper, Timothy Huten, Daniel Strong, Elias Merhy, Odile Fraboulet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0607
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An examination of field-fractured windshields was conducted for the purpose of determining their principle fracture mechanisms experienced in-use. Parts for the study were gathered both in the United States (state of NY) and in Europe (France) to explore whether the primary causes of failure were similar or different for the different regions. In total, over two hundred individual field-fractures were obtained and examined for the study. Detailed fracture analysis of the parts was performed, and several different fracture mechanisms were identified and quantified. It was found that the two most dominant failure modes were common for both geographic regions. The most frequent cause (~70%) of windshield fracture was due to sharp particle impact of the exterior ply, while Hertzian cone cracking of the outer ply was the second leading cause (~20%). These and other observed failure modes are detailed below. Given that sharp impact fracture was the dominant failure mode observed, a new high-speed, sharp impact test method was developed and deployed to evaluate numerous laminate constructions for their resistance to this type of event.…